Compression gas target

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: present group of inventions pertain to physics and acceleration techniques and can be used in accelerator - tandems for cancer neutron capture therapy or for detecting explosive and narcotic substances. The compression gas target for peeling a beam of negative ions has a peeling tube, a gas source and a turbo-molecular pump. The housing of the turbo-molecular pump is completely located in a vacuum, next to the peeling tube. The accelerator-tandem with vacuum insulation comprises the said compression gas target.

EFFECT: peeling a beam of negative ions with current more than 5mA and increased compactness of the device, which allows for using it in an accelerator-tandem with vacuum insulation.

3 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to nuclear physics and technology of accelerators and can be used in particle accelerators - the tandems, and devices based on them. Such devices can be used in medicine for neutron capture therapy of cancer or in security systems to detect explosives and narcotics.

The concept of charge-exchange accelerator (tandem) was proposed in the mid-20th century. It is possible to reduce the required voltage of the high voltage generator and thereby reduce the size of the accelerator, using the bruting (reload) - change the sign of the charge particles in the acceleration process. In the process of Stripping the negative ion in the interaction with specific target becomes positive, which allows you to use twice the same accelerating voltage, i.e. to double the final energy of the particles.

The target for roughing is a gas-filled tube, a steam jet or film solids.

Most commercial distribution received accelerators-tandems in the complexes of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) or in the semiconductor industry for ion implantation. However, these complexes do not require a significant current of the ion beam, usually it does not exceed 1 mA (milliamps).

For neutron capture therapy is aka or for the detection of explosives and drugs required ion beam current of more than 5 mA.

It was previously proposed for this purpose to use the tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation [B.F.Bayanov et al. Accelerator based neutron source for the neutron-capture and fast neutron therapy at hospital. Nuclear Instr. and Methods in Physics Research A 413/2-3 (1998) 397-426]. The principle of vacuum insulation is implemented in the design of protected Pat. US 5293134, NN 5/06, 8.03.1994.

In this no accelerator accelerator tube. The potential distribution is given nested electrodes forming a multi-layer construction, mounted on a single partitioned bore of the insulator. The insulator is no direct line of sight from passing beam. This design is compact, and more reliable relatively high voltage breakdowns.

The best option for roughing beam is a gas target. When the beam current more than 5 mA film solids will quickly collapse. However, increasing the beam current increases, the required diameter of the gas-filled rough tube, which passes through the beam. The stream flowing from the gas tube grows significantly.

Air that enters the accelerating gaps, reduces high voltage durability and reliability of the accelerator. In addition, it can lead to premature Stripping of negative ions and a portion of the ions at the exit of the accelerator will have energy lower than necessary.

To reduce the flow of gas in accelerating SASO is s used turbo-molecular pump, the output of which is connected with the grinding tube. The majority of the gas circulates through the pump and grinding tube. The rest follows in the accelerating gaps through the holes in the pumped volume for input and output beam. This part of the gas flow in rough pipe is filled from the gas source.

Case turbomolecular pump when it is surrounded on the outside by air or other gas, which fills part of the high-voltage electrode (terminal)that provides cooling of the pump housing and the convenience of its operation. In such gas targets can be used several turbomolecular pumps.

Such design of the gas target was previously used and described in Pat. US 6903336, 7 H01J 37/08, 17.04.2004, 6069459, NN 5/02, 30.05.2002.

As a prototype of the selected design of the gas target, which provides a good pumping gas when using multiple pumps and speed pumping [JP 9027400, G21K 1/14, NN 5/06, 28.01.1997].

However, these designs cannot be applied in the accelerator vacuum insulation tandem. They are not compact and require the placement of housing turbomolecular pump out the vacuum volume. The high-voltage electrode of the tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation, which is the target, not borders with the external atmosphere and has a small amount due to the overall compactness of the accelerator.

From retina aimed at creating device, providing bruting beam of negative ions with a current of more than 5 mA, compact and mostly placed in the vacuum, which allows its use in accelerator-tandem with vacuum insulation. The device should not reduce the high-voltage strength of the accelerator and cause premature Stripping of negative ions.

To solve the problem in the known device, containing rough tube, the gas source and the turbomolecular pump body of the turbomolecular pump is completely in a vacuum next to the grinding tube and is cooled by a dielectric fluid, such as transformer oil.

After acceleration of the first stage of the accelerator, the beam of negative ions peeled in the rough tube that receives gas from the gas source and of the turbomolecular pump. After exiting the compression of the gas target, the beam is accelerated second stage of the tandem accelerator.

Turbomolecular pump pumps out a large part coming out of the rough tube gas, compresses it and sends it back to the rough tube, through the recirculation gas. Through the use of turbomolecular pump the gas flow in the accelerating gaps are reduced in several times, which prevents the reduction of the high-voltage strength of the accelerator and premature Stripping from izuchennyh ions. Case turbomolecular pump is located in the immediate vicinity of the grinding tube in vacuum, which ensures the compactness of the device at the required speed pumping. This target requires a small area for output communications from the vacuum part of the accelerator through a slice passing insulator.

Part of the gas flow, which is not pumps turbomolecular pump, leaving the target through the openings for entry of the beam of negative ions and out of the beam of positive ions. This part of the stream fills the gas source, which may not be in a vacuum, in the immediate vicinity of the rough tube, and it can be connected with it by a thin tube to the gas supply.

The power supply system and control the pump may also be located outside the vacuum volume and connected with the pump through a slice passing insulator.

Vacuum cooling of the pump housing is difficult, therefore, necessary coolant. The system coolant supply may be located outside of the tandem accelerator, at zero potential. Then between the coolant and the pump will have a high voltage, set by the accelerator. In this case, the coolant must be dielectric. Two tubes through which the fluid will be supplied through uskoritel is, must be partially dielectric. Directly passing through the insulator in vacuum coolant may be supplied by pipes from any vacuum-tight material, for example stainless steel.

Thus, the main part of the compact compression gas target can be placed in vacuum, high-voltage electrode of the tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation. Through the use of turbomolecular pump the gas flow in the accelerating gaps are reduced in several times, which prevents the reduction of the high-voltage strength of the accelerator and premature Stripping of negative ions.

The invention is illustrated Figure 1-3.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of the vacuum part of the compression gas target, which shows:

1 - rough tube;

2 - body turbomolecular pump;

3 - the tube connecting the turbo-molecular pump and grinding tube;

4 - a) tube for coolant;

b) the power cable and control turbomolecular pump;

5 - high-voltage electrode;

6 - slice passing insulator;

7 - hole for the entrance of the beam of negative ions.

Figure 2 shows a diagram of the vacuum part of the compression gas target internal displacement and vacuum resistance, where in addition to the above positions p is cauldrons:

8 - vacuum resistance;

9 - internal volume.

Figure 3 shows a diagram of the tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation and built-in compression of the gas target, where in addition to the above positions shown:

10 - gas source;

11 - power supply and control turbomolecular pump;

12 - supply system coolant;

13 - gas part of the accelerator;

14 - high voltage power supply of the accelerator;

15 - the place of entry of the beam of negative ions in the accelerator;

16 - the exit beam of accelerated positive ions from the accelerator;

17 - the direction of the external vacuum pumping of the accelerator.

The device is part of the tandem accelerator and optimized for placement in the accelerator vacuum insulation tandem (Figure 3).

Compression gas target consists of rough tube 1, turbomolecular pump 2, the gas source 10, and features that support collaboration 11 (1, 2, 3).

Rough tube 1 is located in the high voltage electrode 5 of the tandem accelerator (figure 1, 2, 3) coaxial with the holes 7, 15, 16 (1, 3), through which the ion beam. Typical turbomolecular pump consists of a casing 2 (Fig 1, 2, 3), which houses the turbine, and power supply and control 11 (3). Case turbomolecular pump 2 is located directly in the authorized vicinity of the grinding tube 1, in high-voltage electrode 5, in a vacuum. The output flange of the body turbomolecular pump 2 is hermetically connected with the grinding tube 1 through tube 3 (Fig 1, 2). Power supply and control 11 is placed in the gas part of the accelerator 13 (Figure 3). Food turbomolecular pump can be supplied from a high voltage power supply of the accelerator 14 or through a high-voltage transformer, or generator, the rotation of which can be passed by a dielectric rod, a belt transmission or gas flow to the gas turbine (not shown).

Power supply and control turbomolecular pump 11 connected to the housing 2 of the electric wires 4b (1, 2) passing through the insulator 6.

The coolant for cooling the housing 2 turbomolecular pump must be dielectric, for example, you can use the transformer oil. In the case of turbo-molecular pump 2, the coolant can pass through standard channels, intended for cooling water. The system coolant supply 12 may be located outside of the tandem accelerator, at zero potential (Figure 3). It may consist of a compressor and a heat exchanger (not shown). Two tubes (one for intake of the fluid, the other for output), in which the liquid will be supplied through the accelerator must be dielectric is on the site of the high-voltage power supply of the accelerator 14 (Fig 3). Directly passing through the insulator 6 in the vacuum coolant can be fed through tubes 4A from any vacuum-tight material, for example stainless steel (1, 2).

The gas source 10 may consist of a gas cylinder and controlled valve, which is shown in Figure 3. Gas cylinder is placed in the gas part of the accelerator 13 (Figure 3). When the voltage of the accelerator is less than 1 MB gas cylinder can be placed outside of the accelerator, with the supply of gas through a dielectric tube (not shown). Operated valve may be an electromagnetic, piezoelectric or pneumatic. Additionally, the gas source may be equipped with a pressure reducer, a filter for cleaning the gas leak and a buffer volume, not shown.

A simple variant of the gas source provides only the on-off gas flow when the specified flow.

In other embodiments, the gas source may regulate the gas flow. If pulse opening a valve buffer volume not filled to maximum pressure, by adjusting the duration and the pulse frequency can be adjusted gas flow from the gas source.

In another case, a controlled valve may be a mass flow controller that regulates the flow of gas based on the feedback with built-in flow meter of gas.

problemy valve can be equipped with a separate power supply and control is not shown.

The control signals turbomolecular pump or a controlled valve can be transmitted in the tandem accelerator through a fiber optic cable, not shown.

In the simplest form, rough tube 1 and the casing of the turbo-molecular pump 2 are located directly in the high-voltage electrode 5 of the tandem accelerator (Figure 1). In this case, the high-voltage electrode 5 is sealed, except for the openings for entry and exit of the beam. To reduce the impact on the high-voltage strength of the accelerator radiation and charged particles formed by the interaction of the beam with the target gas, the high-voltage electrode 5 may be added to the internal volume 9 (Figure 2). Internal sealed volume 9, except openings for entry and exit of the beam, and is separated from the high voltage electrode at a distance of not less than two diameters of the grinding tube 1. In this case, the high-voltage electrode 5 is not sealed and has openings or louvers for external pumping 17, and the other electrodes of the tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation.

To improve the pumping efficiency and further reduction of the gas flow in the accelerating gaps accelerator can be applied vacuum resistance 8 (Figure 2), which is a tube, coaxially with the grinding pipe 1 and sealed on the high voltage electrode 5 or the internal volume of 9, in the latter two versions, respectively.

The device operates as follows.

Created by the source of negative ions (not shown), the beam is accelerated first stage of the accelerator. Then through the hole to enter the beam of negative ions 7 beam enters the high-voltage electrode 5, where peeled in the rough tube 1. Bruting is in the interaction of the beam with the gas. The gas flow in rough pipe 1 should be sufficient to virtually the entire beam chipped. After exiting the rough tube 1, the beam is accelerated second stage of the tandem accelerator. Sufficient for Stripping the beam of the gas flow will be greater value in case of the compact accelerator with a current greater than 5 mA, as well as rough tube 1 must be of length less than 1 m and an inner diameter of about 1 centimeter. This thread has to be pumped before entering the high-voltage accelerating gaps.

Coming out of the rough tube 1 gas to flow into the high-voltage electrode 5 (Fig 1) or the internal volume 9 (Figure 2). Then a large part of the gas flow is pumped turbine housing turbo-molecular pump 2, and the rest of the flow goes through the holes 7 for entry and exit of the beam in the accelerating gaps. Of accelerating gaps, the gas is pumped external vacuum pumping of the accelerator 17. In the second case (Figure 2) part of the gas stream which leaves the int is NNI volume 9, falls into the high-voltage electrode 5, and from there to accelerating gap of the accelerator.

Turbomolecular pump 2 pumping speed of several hundred liters per second will decrease the gas flow in the accelerating gaps several times, if the diameter of the holes for input 7 and output beam will not exceed 3 see Conductivity of holes, and therefore the gas flow in the accelerating gaps will decrease when adding vacuum resistance 8 (Figure 2). You must find the above variables so that the gas flow in the accelerating gaps did not lead to the reduction of the high-voltage strength of the accelerator and premature Stripping of negative ions. The required speed of rotation of the turbine of the turbo-molecular pump 2 is set by the power supply and control 11, possibly taking into account its temperature.

Turbomolecular pumped by the pump 2, the gas is compressed and through the tube 3 gets back to the grinding pipe 1. Also in the grinding pipe 1 enters the gas flow from the gas source 10, the magnitude is equal to the flow in the accelerating gaps. It is advisable when you enable the accelerator to reduce the gas flow from the gas source 10, to reduce the gas flow in the accelerating gaps, and then gradually increase to a stationary value. This will allow you to compensate for the increased emission from the electrodes at the beginning of operation of the accelerator.

In the case of Turbov kularnava pump 2 is heated. Vacuum cooling of the pump housing is difficult, so the tubes 4A to him by the system coolant supply 12 is continuously fed dielectric coolant.

The advantage of the invention is that the housing turbomolecular pump is completely in a vacuum, near the grinding tube. When this compression gas target requires a small area for output communications from the vacuum part of the accelerator through a slice passing insulator, which allows its use in accelerator-tandem with vacuum insulation. The device does not reduce the high-voltage strength of the accelerator and does not lead to premature Stripping of negative ions. Despite the location in the vacuum case turbomolecular pump does not overheat due to the cooling of dielectric fluid.

1. Compression gas target for roughing beam of negative ions, containing rough tube, a gas source and a turbomolecular pump, characterized in that the casing of the turbo-molecular pump is completely vacuum close to the rough pipe.

2. Compression gas target according to claim 1, characterized in that the casing of the turbo-molecular pump is cooled by a dielectric liquid.

3. The tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation, characterized in that including the AET compression gas target according to claim 1.



 

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