Method of magnesium-bearing nanomodifying agent receiving
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy field and can be used for manufacturing of high-duty cast iron with globular graphite. For receiving of magnesium-bearing nano- modifying agent is blended with water solution of polyvinyl alcohol, chloride of magnesium and iron in molar correlation (10-5):1:1, agreeably, it is evaporated specified mixture before gel formation after what it is implemented carbonation at temperature 350-500°C in atmosphere of inert gas with formation of carbon nanotube, filled by chloride of magnesium and iron.
EFFECT: invention decrease magnesium losses 1,5-2 times with introduction of nano- modifying agents into the cast iron.
6 ex, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
The invention relates to the field of metallurgy and can be used in the manufacture of high-strength nodular cast iron.
A method of obtaining magniysoderzhaschee ligatures, including the input of granulated magnesium in the molten flow of silicon-containing Ferroalloy simultaneously with salt additive at a ratio of 10:(0.2 to 1). As salt additive is a mixture of halides of alkali and alkaline earth metals, melting point which is lower than the 50-200°C melting point of magnesium (RF Patent No. 2058416, M CL SS 35/00, SS 1/10, 20.04.1996).
The disadvantage of this method is that with the introduction of granular magnesium in the molten ferrosilicon significant loss of magnesium due to its evaporation, since the evaporation temperature of the metal magnesium (1120°C) below the melting temperature of ferrosilicon 1220-1400°C. Not excluded the loss of magnesium in the inoculant is added to the iron, as salt additive evaporates at the temperature of melting cast iron. Decreases also as a modification of nodular cast iron.
Another disadvantage of the above method is the need to implement costly metallurgical equipment: induction furnace, ladle feeder, a powerful source of electrical energy. You will need according to the corresponding energy consumption for melting and technological overheating of ferrosilicon in the limit of 1400-1500°C. Therefore, use of this method requires significant depreciation and energy costs.
A method of obtaining metal-containing carbon nanostructures of organic compounds with the addition of inorganic salts, which comprises heating to 300°C a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol and chlorides of the metals, in particular chloride copper (1) or (2)taken in a molar ratio of polyvinyl alcohol: chloride copper (20-1):1. The initial mixture of polyvinyl alcohol and chloride of copper (2) is prepared by mixing solutions of these compounds, with subsequent drying to obtain a gel (RF Patent No. 2221744, M. CL. SW 31/02, WV 3/00, published. 20.01.2004).
The disadvantage of this method is that it is used to obtain a copper-containing carbon nanostructures and cannot be used to obtain a modifier for the spheroidizing of carbon in cast iron, as the copper is not spheroidizing element.
The problem solved by the invention is to obtain a modifier having a set of properties for the production of high-strength nodular cast iron.
The method of obtaining the magnesium-containing modifier necessary is characterized by the fact that the mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol, chlorides of magnesium and iron taken in a molar ratio of (5-10):1:1, respectively, is evaporated specified compounds is the formation of gel, followed by carbonization at a temperature of 350-500°C in an atmosphere of inert gas with the formation of carbon nanotubes filled with chloride of magnesium and iron.
In the process of obtaining of nano modifiers mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol, chlorides of magnesium and iron, and then evaporated with the formation of the gel, which is a preliminary stage before carbonization. In the carbonization process are formed carbon nanotubes partially filled with magnesium chloride and ferric chloride, i.e. magnesium chloride and ferric chloride are prisoners in carbon nanotubes. The carbonation in the atmosphere of inert gas provides additional protection from oxidation magnesium, iron, carbon. When entering into liquid iron nanotubes are exempt from magnesium chloride and ferric chloride. Magnesium provides spheroidization iron, ferric chloride contributes to the immersion of the alloy into the melt. Carbon nanotubes contribute to the grinding of grain cast iron. When you enter the modifier necessary in the iron loss of magnesium is not significant as it is encapsulated in nanotubes. When the ratio of polyvinyl alcohol to magnesium chloride and ferric chloride in a heated mixture of more than (10):1:1 are formed nanotubes, not filled with magnesium chloride and ferric chloride, so the modifier does not sink in the molten metal, which increases the burning magnesium. Dropping effectsdipyridamole.
When the ratio of polyvinyl alcohol to magnesium chloride and ferric chloride in a heated mixture of less than (5):1:1 magnesium chloride and ferric chloride partially out of carbon nanotubes and with the introduction of nano modifiers in iron increase the loss of magnesium. The modification is not effective.
When the temperature of the mixture is less than 350°C carbonization occurs, when the heating temperature greater than 500°begins With the destruction of the nanotubes.
Thus, the technical result of this method is the reduction of losses of magnesium upon receipt of the modifier and the reduction of his stupor when the modification by enclosing it in nanotubes. In addition, we reduced the energy cost of obtaining modifier.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 presents the fragments of magnesium-containing modifier necessary. The proposed method of producing magnesium-containing of nano modifiers implemented as follows.
Mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), chlorides of magnesium and iron in a molar ratio of PVA:MgCl2:FeCl2=10:1:1. The mixture solution was poured to a thickness of 5 mm in a ceramic bowl. The mixture of the solutions evaporated at a temperature of 100°C with the formation of the gel, and then spent the carbonization by heating to a temperature of 350°C in an atmosphere of arg is on. Figure 1 shows a fragment of the structure of nanotubes filled with chlorides of magnesium and iron.
Mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), chlorides of magnesium and iron in a molar ratio of PVA:MgCl2:FeCl2=10:1:1. The mixture solution was poured to a thickness of 5 mm in a ceramic bowl. The mixture of the solutions evaporated at a temperature of 100°C with the formation of the gel, and then spent the carbonization by heating to a temperature of 500°C in argon atmosphere. The structure of the obtained nano modifiers shown in figure 2, similar to the one shown in figure 1.
Mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), chlorides of magnesium and iron in a molar ratio of PVA:MgCl2:FeCl2=5:1:1. The mixture solution was poured to a thickness of 5 mm in a ceramic bowl. The mixture of the solutions evaporated at a temperature of 100°C with the formation of the gel, and then spent the carbonization by heating in an argon atmosphere to a temperature of 350°C. figure 3 shows a fragment of the structure of nanotubes filled with chlorides of magnesium and iron.
Mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), chlorides of magnesium and iron in a molar ratio of PVA:MgCl2:FeCl2=5:1:1. The mixture solution was poured to a thickness of 5 mm in a ceramic bowl. The mixture of the solutions evaporated at a temperature of 100°C with the formation of the gel, and then spent ka is bonitati when heated in an argon atmosphere to a temperature of 500°C. The structure of the obtained nano modifiers shown in figure 4, similar to those shown in figures 1, 2, 3.
Mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), chlorides of magnesium and iron in a molar ratio of PVA:MgCl2:FeCl2=11:1:1. The mixture solution was poured to a thickness of 5 mm in a ceramic bowl. The mixture of the solutions evaporated at a temperature of 100°C with the formation of the gel, and then spent the carbonization by heating in an argon atmosphere to a temperature of 500°C. figure 5 shows a fragment of the structure of nanotubes, it is seen that the obtained nanotubes, sparsely filled chlorides of magnesium and iron. As a result of this increasing frenzy of magnesium when the inoculant is added to the iron.
Mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), chlorides of magnesium and iron in a molar ratio of PVA:MgCl2:FeCl3=4:1:1. The mixture solution was poured to a thickness of 5 mm in a ceramic bowl. The mixture of the solutions evaporated at a temperature of 100°C with the formation of the gel, and then spent the carbonization by heating to a temperature of 500°C. figure 6 shows a fragment of the structure of nanotubes, it is seen that the resulting excessive amount of crystalline phase of chlorides of magnesium and iron. As a result of this increasing frenzy of magnesium when you enter the modifier necessary in cast iron.
When the temperature of heating a mixture of less than 350°C and above 500°C, meet single what s nanotubes, that does not allow the product to be used as a modifier.
The study of the structure and composition of the obtained products of carbonization was carried out using transmission electron microscopy transmission electron microscope JEM-200CX.
The resulting modifier was tested at the time of receipt of nodular cast iron brand VC, the results of the experiments are given in table 1, which showed that when the inoculant is added to the molten cast iron is formed spherical graphite, the best are the examples 1, 2, 3, 4. The number entered in the cast iron of nano modifiers were determined by calculation. Upon receipt of modifier necessary almost completely excluded losses of magnesium, reduces the loss of magnesium in the input modifier necessary in cast iron.
The proposed method of producing magnesium-containing of nano modifiers allows you to get the modifier to obtain nodular cast iron, virtually eliminate the loss of magnesium upon receipt of the modifier, the frenzy of magnesium when inoculation is reduced to 1.5-2 times. The way Energetichesky low-cost.
The method of obtaining the magnesium-containing modifier necessary, characterized in that the mixed aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol, chlorides of magnesium and iron in a molar ratio (10-5):1:1, respectively, is evaporated from azanuy mixture to gel formation, followed by carbonization at a temperature of 350-500°C in an atmosphere of inert gas with the formation of carbon nanotubes filled with chloride of magnesium and iron.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy field, particularly to magnesium-bearing ligature making practice for high-strength ligatures, used for manufacturing of hard part, for instance automobile crankshaft. Ligature contains, wt %: magnesium 17-20, cerium 0.4-0.6, copper is the rest. In the method in the capacity of integumentary flux it is used powdered baric flux, which is charged on magnesium, copper is fractional introduced: at first 60-70 wt % of its total amount, and then - by 10 wt % by components melting with addition of flux for saving of melt blanket, process is implemented at the temperature 725-800°C, chosen on the basis of binary constitution diagram Mg-Cu, during 40-60 min with conclusive layer induction of refining flux of thickness 1-2 cm and introduction of cerium with solid subsurface mixing of received ligature. Then ligature is crushed for pieces 2-4 kg, after what it is introduced into the cast iron in amount 0.65-0.85 wt % of cast iron weight.
EFFECT: distribution uniformity of alloying ingredients with increased grade of ligature assimilation, hardening and increasing of cast iron wear resistance, stability and safety of its receiving methods and usage, and also cost cutting for energy carriers and cost reduction of used components.
3 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns metallurgy field, foundry. Particularly it concerns control modes of grey and high-duty cast iron and can be used at single-piece, large-scale and mass production of cast iron castings. In method there is received basic alloy of cast iron with usage of alloying, modifying and graphitising admixtures, process qualities are controlled and corrected including operation by effect of spheroidising and vermiculising modification at the section of casting mold charging. It is implemented one-time ladleman cast iron treatment, making preliminary calculation the quantity of alloying, modifying and graphitising admixtures depending on weight of liquid metal, containing of sulphur and oxygen, basic elements and alloying inside of basic cast iron melt and time of holding modifying effect, at that control of all process parameters is outfitted by overall video surveillance system for manufacturing operations with registration and delivering of received results into computer data base and to the lighting panel. Finishing of modifying effect is alerted by acoustic alarm.
EFFECT: stabile, steady and reliable manufacturing of casting grey and high-duty cast iron at minimal modifier metering characteristic or ligation, providing manufacturing of cast iron castings with specified metallographic and physical-mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns metallurgy field and can be used in foundry. Particularly it is used for desulfurising and modification of cast iron and receiving of cast iron products with structure of globular and vermicular graphite. Filler contains, wt %: 18÷75 magnesium, part of which is introduced in metal phase; aluminium, barium, calcium, titanium, rare-earth metals at its total content 1÷10, and also iron and silicon (as the rest) - in the form of one or several materials, choose from group, including ferrosilicium, magnesium - iron - silicon alloy; mixture of metal silicon with cast iron and/or steel rattle, and/or chip, and/or powder. In filler content can also be included passivator in the form of one or several materials from group, including fired dolomite, calcium fluoride, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, soda, in amount which is a part of total content in filler of iron and silicon.
EFFECT: cast iron mechanical properties rising at the expense of improvement of form and character of allocation graphite in it.
2 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns the siderurgy area and may be used when manufacturing the remelting fabricating parts that are used in the cast iron foundry production. The metal stock is loaded for melting inside an induction furnace until the melted down composition is obtained. In the furnace, upon the mirror of fusion the carbonates of the alkaline-earth metals are introduced in amounts of 10-20%, and the carboniferous material depending upon the required chemical composition of cast iron. The invention permits to intensify impregnation with carbon process, eradicates occurrence of refining foam and facilitates the sulfur removal.
EFFECT: intensification of impregnation with carbon process and eradication of occurrences of refining foam.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: ferrous metallurgy, namely compositions of modifying agents for producing cast pieces of cast iron with vermicular or compact graphite.
SUBSTANCE: complex modifying agent contains next relation of components, mass %: magnesium, 0.5 - 10; calcium, 0.1 - 10; aluminum, 0.1 - 10; silicon, 30 - 80; total content of cerium and yttrium, 0.5 - 15; manganese, 0.1 - 15; lanthanum, 0.001 - 10; magnesia, 0.001 - 5; total content of oxides of rare earth metals, 0.001 - 10; iron, the balance.
EFFECT: stable process of producing cast pieces of cast iron with vermicular or compact graphite, lowered casting stresses, improved heat conductance of cast iron.
FIELD: metallurgy; production of foundry cast iron of perfect workability.
SUBSTANCE: proposed semifinished product is made from composition system of white cast iron. Structure contains, independently or in complex, spheroidal or flattened particles of graphite whose outer surface is partially or fully coated with ferrite. Particles are dispersed at density of 50 particles/mm2 or more. Cast iron is produced by casting the melt of white cast iron constituents containing the spheroidizing agent. After casting, rolling and heat treatment are performed for obtaining spheroidal particles of graphite or heating and hot rolling are performed for obtaining flattened particles of graphite.
EFFECT: enhanced workability; good characteristics of dampening vibrations and absorbing sound.
11 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: metallurgy, namely foundry, particularly processes for obtaining magnesium-containing modifying agents used for producing cast iron with spheroidal graphite.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing, heating, pouring and crystallizing melt under protective flux. Melt is heated till temperature higher than liquidus temperature t1 by 10 - 99°C; pressure value is in range 10-3 - 0.9 x 10-1 MPa. Invention allows prepare modifying master alloy with easy-to-melt magnesium-containing component, with high density and uniform distribution of properties in the whole volume.
EFFECT: improved properties of master alloy at minimum consumption of materials.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: metallurgy; production of ingots made out of mottled cast iron with austenitic-bainite structure.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with metallurgy, in particular, with development of a method of production of mottled cast irons with globular graphite, which may be used for manufacture of components being worn under action of increased loadings. The method provides, that the mottled cast iron is melted down in the induction furnace, the liquid melt at pouring into a ladle is modified with magnesium-bearing addition alloys for formation of the ball-shaped graphite impurities in the ingots and during casting into a sandy-argillaceous mold expos it to inoculating modification. The ingots after crystallization are pulled out from the molds at the temperature of 900-1000°C, transposed to a furnace with temperature of 950-1000°C and keep there during 10-30 mines. After the aging the ingot is exposed to quenching in an isothermal bath at the temperature of 300-320°C within 1-1.5 hour. At that they use the cast iron of following chemical composition, (in mass %): carbon - 3.2-3.4, silicon - 3.0-3.3, manganese - 0.3-0.4, magnesium - 0.04-0.07, molybdenum - 1.5-1.7, nickel - 2.2-2.6, sulfur - 0.01-0.012, phosphorus - 0.06-0.08, iron - the rest. The invention allows to obtain a mottled cast iron with globular graphite and austenitic-bainite structure, high impact resistance, strength, hardness, wear resistance and quasi-isotropy.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a mottled cast iron with globular graphite and austenitic-bainite structure resistant to wear under action of increased loadings.
FIELD: metallurgy, in particular modified gray cast iron for cast shape.
SUBSTANCE: claimed modifying agent contains (mass %) ferrosilicon barium 0.5-5.0 and gypsum 25-5 %.
EFFECT: increased recovery of ferrosilicon barium and sulfur, absence of gypsum dusting formation, decreased chilling effect and improved cast mechanical properties.
FIELD: ferrous metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: briquette includes silicon-containing material, carbon-containing material, and cement as binder. Silicon-containing material includes metallurgical silicon carbide and carbon-containing material includes carbon-siliceous mixture.
EFFECT: improved process of manufacturing castings from synthetic cast irons thanks to simultaneous postcarbonization and modification.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at production of finishing compositions, film coatings, radiation-resistant materials. The diamond-carbon material contains the carbon in the form of diamond cubic modification and the X-ray amorphous phase in the mass ratio (40-80):(60-20) respectively; the content of said material is as follows (wt %): carbon 89.1-95.2; hydrogen 1.2-5.0; nitrogen 2.1-4.8; oxygen 0.1-4.7; non-combustible admixtures 1.4-4.8. This material is obtained in enclosed volume, in the gas phase inert to carbon by the detonation of carbon-containing explosive with oxygen deficiency placed into the shell of deoxidant-containing condensed phase with deoxidant/carbon-containing explosive mass ratio not less than 0.01:1. The samples of the obtained diamond-carbon material are prepared for elemental analysis by exposition at 120-140°C under vacuum 0.01-10.0 Pa during 3-5 hrs and following treatment at 1050-1200°C by the oxygen flow with the rate providing their combustion during 40-50 s.
EFFECT: invention allows to obtain the product with high carbon content, predictable properties and ultimate composition in the desired phase state.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 25 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the catalytic systems based on gold; usage of nanometric gold precipitation by the condensation from vapour phase to the activated carrier; system of breathing organs defence using aforesaid catalytic systems. The method of heterogenous catalytic system making is described including: 1) condensation from vapour phase of the catalytically active gold clusters with dimensions in the range from 0.5 to 50 nm to the nanoporous carrier; 2) the following stages: (a) impregnation of water-soluble salt to the catalyst nanoporous carrier; (b) thermic treatment of the said impregnated carrier at temperature more than approximately 200°C; (c) condensation from vapour phase of the catalytically active gold clusters with dimensions in the range from 0.5 to 50 nm to the said thermically treated nanoporous carrier; 3) following stages: a) aggregation of the relatively small particles multifold and of the relatively large particles multifold to the multifold of nanoporous composite particles; b) precipitation of catalytically active gold clusters with dimensions in the range from 0.5 to 50 nm gold clusters to the said composite particles by the condensation from vapour phase. The described heterogenous catalytic system contain: 1) nanoporous carrier; at least one water-soluble salt impregnated to the said carrier; clusters of catalytically active gold with dimensions in the range from 0.5 to 50 nm precipitated on the said carrier with the penetration depth index in the range from ca 1×10-9 to ca 0.1; 2) multifold of the composite catalytically active particles characterised in that said catalytically active particles are obtained from the components containing relatively small particles and relatively large particles with said composite particles containing catalytically active gold precipitated on the relatively small particles by the condensation from vapour phase. The system of breathing organs defence including any of aforesaid heterogenous catalytic systems is described.
EFFECT: invention provides essential improvement of the method of gold-containing catalytic systems preparation and enhancing of their characteristics.
22 cl, 71 ex, 4 tbl, 58 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to micro- and nanoelectronics and may be used in production of integral silicon chemical and biosensors for automated control of environment, in ecology, in chemical production, in biology and medicine. Invention is aimed at reduction of nanosensor size, reduction of defectiveness, increased sensitivity, repeatability and efficiency, achievement of compatibility with standard industrial technology VLSI. In method for manufacture of nanosensor, which consists in the fact that dielectric layer is created on silicon substrate, and on surface of dielectric layer silicon layer is formed, from which nanowire with ohm contacts is formed via mask by etching, etching for formation of nanowire with ohm contacts of specified size is carried out in vapours of xenon difluoride with the rate of 36÷100 nm/min, at temperature of 5÷20°C, for 0.3÷1.3 min., silicon layer, from which nanowire is formed with ohm contacts by etching, is created with thickness of 11÷45 nm, and etching mask used is mask of polymer polymethyl methacrylate with thickness of 50÷150 nm.
EFFECT: reduction of nanosensor size, reduction of defectiveness, increased sensitivity, repeatability and efficiency, achievement of compatibility with standard industrial technology VLSI.
FIELD: physics, semiconductors.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods for creation of metal nanowires on surface of semiconductor substrates and may be used in creation of solid-state electronic instruments. Substance of invention: in method for creation of conducting nanowires on surface of semiconductor substrates, copper is deposited on surface of silicon Si(lll) with formation of buffer layer of copper silicide Cu2Si at the temperature of 500°C under conditions of ultrahigh vacuum. Buffer layer of copper silicide is formed with monatomic thickness, afterwards at temperature of 20°C at least 10 layers of copper are deposited on atomic steps of buffer layer surface, which form nanowires of epitaxial copper that are oriented along atomic steps of substrate.
EFFECT: provides for creation of nanowires that possess high conductivity, with the possibility of these nanowires formation location control.
SUBSTANCE: method includes heating of silica oxide photon crystals with modifying agent - crystal phosphor cesium iodide in vacuum at temperature not less than 800°C during not less than 15 hr. Cesium iodide can be activated with different admixtures (Na, Tl, In, CO3 etc), providing more bright (in comparison with pure CsJ) radioluminescence on the different waves of the visible-light spectrum. Usage of the scintillator - cesium iodide as filler provides good wettability (caused by capillary forces) of silica oxide microspheres with the melted cesium iodide without outer pressure. It allows to obtain optically inverted composite having approximately the same optical contrast (ratio of the refractive indexes relating to microspheres medium and to the medium filling the pores between microspheres) as initial silica oxide has.
EFFECT: obtaining of the end product with high yield.
4 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with the proposed method, copper matrix is pressed at 100 to 300 MPa and sintered at 5640 to 680°C for 1 to 2 h in protective-reducing gaseous atmosphere to produce apparent-porosity structure. Nonstructural component is introduced therein in vacuum impregnation of the matrix with suspension of refractory material nanoparticles in glycerin-based protective fluid at 1 to 10 kPa. Aforesaid protective fluid is removed at 80 to 95% of its boiling point. Finally, final sintering is effected at 810 to 1020°C for 1 to 2 h in protective-reducing gaseous atmosphere.
EFFECT: simplified process, expanded technological performances, improved physical-mechanical properties.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: prealloyed powder is received by means of mechanical activation of powders mixture of initial components at temperature, not exceeding 150°C, up to formation in powder of nanostructural and/or amorphous state. Directly after the activation it is implemented pressing at pthe pressure not less than 510 MPa at oom temperature or 0.2 Tmelt or, where Tmelt - melting temperature of the lowest melt component of powder composition, or at crystallisation temperature of amorphous phase.
EFFECT: increasing of density, strength with keeping of peculiarities of structural condition, received at mechano-chemical synthesis.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed laser material is a ceramic polycrystalline microstructure substance with particle size of 3-100 mcm, containing a twinned nanostructure inside the particles with size of 50-300 nm, made from halides of alkali, alkali-earth and rare-earth metals or their solid solutions, with vacancy or impurity laser-active centres with concentration of 1015-1021 cm-3. The method involves thermomechanical processing a monocrystal, made from halides of metals, and cooling. Thermomechanical processing is done until attaining 55-90% degree of deformation of the monocrystal at flow temperature of the chosen monocrystal, obtaining a ceramic polycrystalline microstructure substance, characterised by particle size of 3-100 mcm and containing a twinned nanostructure inside the particles with size of 50-300 nm.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties, increased microhardness and failure viscosity.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves chemical reduction of noble metal ions from an aqueous solution of its compound with a reducing agent being anionic polyelectrolyte and noble metal ions concentrated 0.1-5 mg-ion/dm3 and polyelectrolyte concentrated 5-350 mg/dm3. The process is intensified due to temperature rise within 20-60°C and/or light exposure 500-3000 lux.
EFFECT: invention allows for nano- and micro- monocrystals in free liquid volume without sol particle impurity while maintaining the size within specified range.
9 cl, 12 ex, 1 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: during manufacture of structured surface wood grain pattern is applied on board surface (2) by means of printing method, then the first partially optically transparent coating (22) from varnish is applied on wood grain pattern. Using method of direct or indirect printing, the first coating is coated with partially optically transparent second coating (24) from varnish with spatially varied distribution of applied substance amount so that the second layer creates negative surface structure, in which surface structures that actually imitate indents are created in the form of elevations (28).
EFFECT: provides for improvement of surface structure.
39 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.
EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.