Reactor for catalytic gas-phase processes

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical, petrochemical and other branches of industries using the catalytic gas-phase processes. The reactor contains the casing 1, means of initial components input 2, means of end-product output 3, catalyst area 4, heat inlet and takeoff unit designed as array of heat pipes 6, passing through the catalyst area 4. The part of every heat pipe is separated from the rest of internal heat pipe volume with membrane designed of the gas conducting material. The heat pipe volume separated with membrane can be connected with vacuum pump.

EFFECT: invention allows prevention of hydrogen diffusion along the heat pipes and provides the effective heat transfer from heat pipes to catalyst.

12 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of technological equipment for gas-phase catalytic processes and can be used in chemical, petrochemical and other industries that use gas-phase catalytic processes.

Known (RU, patent for utility model 4746) catalytic high octane gasoline from a hydrocarbon feedstock, comprising a furnace, recuperative heat exchangers, catalytic reactor, separator, distillation column with prepodavatelem a bottom part and a reflux condenser top, as well as heat exchangers and connecting piping with valves and fittings. In addition, it further comprises a refrigerator unstable catalyzate connected to the catalytic reactor and separator, installation may contain processing block regenerating gas is connected to the catalytic reactor through a furnace containing an air compressor, membrane air separation unit and the receivers.

A disadvantage of the known installation should recognize its low efficiency caused by the imperfection of the structure.

Known (SU authorship 852341,1981) reactor, preferably intended for the polymerization and copolymerization of gazoo the different monomers. The specified reactor includes a housing with input and output of the circulating gaseous medium, source components and finished product, shaft with mixing vanes, which is a heat pipe, the heat exchanger and the pump, and heat pipes are installed vertically and concentrically relative to the shaft at different radii of rotation, and means input and output of the gaseous environment are diametrically in the upper part of the reactor, between these means are the upper ends of these heat pipes.

The disadvantage of this reactor should recognize its low efficiency caused by the imperfection of the structure.

The closest analogue of the developed device can be recognized (RU, patent 2278726) reactor for the implementation of the gas-phase catalytic processes, comprising a housing, means of input components and the output medium of the finished product, expand the supply or removal of heat, made in the form of multiple heat pipes. Known reactor also contains a catalyst deposited on a heat pipe and/or casing in the form of a coating, with heat pipes on the volume of the body are staggered, and their total surface area, located in the catalytic zone is selected in such a way that ensures the supply or exhaust of the kata is eticheskoi zones are necessary for carrying out a catalytic process, the amount of thermal energy.

A disadvantage of the known device should recognize the impossibility to prevent the diffusion of hydrogen, which is located in the reactor gas inside the heat pipes, and the impossibility of effective heat transfer from the heat pipes to the catalytic Converter.

The technical problem to be solved by the proposed reactor design is to increase the efficiency of the reactor and improving the quality of products.

The technical result obtained by the implementation of the proposed reactor design is to prevent the diffusion of hydrogen inside the heat pipes, as well as providing an efficient heat transfer from the heat pipes to the catalytic Converter.

To achieve the technical result of the proposed use of the reactor for the implementation of the gas-phase catalytic processes, comprising a housing, means of input components, output medium of the finished product, the layout area of the catalyst, the site supply or removal of heat, made in the form of multiple heat pipes passing through the staging area of the catalyst, the total surface area of the heat pipes located in the catalytic zone, ensures the supply or exhaust of the catalytic zones are necessary for carrying out catalytic process, the quantity of heat energy, and a portion of each of the second heat pipe is separated from the rest of the internal volume of the heat pipe by a membrane, made of gazoprovodnogo (hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, etc.) material with the separated membrane volume of the heat pipe has a capability message to a vacuum pump. Specified the design of the heat pipe allows you to delete from the volume of the incoming pipe unwanted gas, most preferably hydrogen. The specified removal provides diffusion received unwanted gas (hydrogen) through the gas-permeable membrane in the selected volume of the heat pipe with the subsequent removal of unwanted gas using a vacuum pump. Preferably the membrane is made in the form of a tube, one of the ends is closed by a plug, and the second end has an opening connecting the interior volume of the membrane with a vacuum pump. Vodorodopronitsaemosti the membrane may be made of Nickel or a Nickel alloy. The use of palladium or platinum restricts their high cost. On the outer surface of the heat pipes may be further coated, creating a barrier to the penetration of hydrogen. The said coating may be a single-layer and multilayer. In the case of multilayer coating layers may be the same or different chemical and/or phase composition. Preferably the coating composition may include at least one substance, selected from the group consisting of the following chemicals: aluminum, molybdenum, tungsten, aluminum oxide, titanium nitride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, barium oxide, chromium oxide in polycrystalline and/or monocrystalline state, either separately or in mixture. The coating can be performed and of the chemical composition of the silicate-based, such as enamel EV-300-60M. In addition, the outer surface of each heat pipe may be polished. To prevent the formation of deposits on heat pipe on top of the coating can be optionally applied heat-resistant kremniiorganicheskie enamel (for example, CO-818 or 133-385 IC) or a varnish.

Effective heat transfer from the heat pipes to the catalyst is achieved ribbed outer surface of the heat pipes, i.e. by increasing the contact area of the heat pipe with the catalytic Converter.

Figure 1 and 2 shows the design of the reactor, and a heat pipe, with the following notation is used: the reactor vessel 1, tool 2 (socket) input components, the tool 3 (tube) output of the finished product, the catalytic region 4, the insulation 5, the heat pipe 6, the area of heat supply to the heat pipes (burner) 7, the collector 8 selection of unwanted gas from the heat pipe, vacuum pipe 9, which removes unwanted gas to the lecturer 8, the node 10 exhaust unwanted gas from the heat pipe, the casing 11 of the heat pipe, the membrane 12, channel 13 connecting the internal volume of the heat pipe and the header.

The distinctive feature of this reactor for the implementation of the gas-phase catalytic processes containing (unit) housing, means of input components, output medium of the finished product, expand the supply or removal of heat, the layout area of the catalyst, and the site heat addition or rejection is made in the form of multiple heat pipes, which are coated with a coating that prevents diffusion of hydrogen through the walls of the heat pipes is in the design of the heat pipe, namely a portion of each heat pipe is separated from the rest of the internal volume of the heat pipe by a membrane made of gazoprovodnogo (hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, etc.) material, this separated the membrane volume of the heat pipe has a capability message to a vacuum pump. Also, the heat pipe can be made of two coaxial tubes, the space between which is filled with good heat-conducting substance impermeable to unwanted gas, in particular hydrogen.

Depending on the type of catalyst, and the conditions of its use, the catalyst can be located in the annular space, and to be applied in the form of pokr is party to the heat pipe and the casing wall. In a preferred embodiment, the implementation of heat pipes on the volume of the body is distributed concentrically. In one implementation options of the catalyst can be deposited on the heat pipe in the form of a coating. However, its possible that a catalyst supported on a carrier, located in the catalytic region. In an advantageous variant of realization of the funds of the input components and the output medium of the finished product are located on opposite walls of the housing. In the housing can be located sensors that allow you to control the technological process (temperature, pressure, content of individual components of the gas mixture at the inlet and outlet of the reactor). Around and/or inside can be additionally there are means to control the process temperature. Process temperature in the reactor can be changed by changing temperature heat pipes.

Used the term "heat pipe" has the meaning generally accepted in science and engineering (see, for example, a Large encyclopedic dictionary "Polytechnic". M., Scientific edition of "Great Russian encyclopedia", 1998, str).

In addition to gas-phase catalytic processes this reactor can be used for liquid-phase catalytic processes.

The use of heat pipes with pre-picked up what remained in them working fluids allows precise amount of thermal energy supplied to the catalytic zone, which provides the chemical process under optimal conditions with a reduced content of by-products and with a maximum yield of the target product. Concentric placement on the volume of the body of heat pipes connecting them to a common manifold exhaust unwanted gas enables you to evenly distribute the incoming heat energy by the volume of the catalytic zone. Depending on the type of catalyst, and the conditions of its use, the catalyst can be located in the annular space, and to be applied in the form of a coating on thermal pipe, the casing wall and to the media. On the advanced placed in the catalytic zone, the carrier of the catalyst may be applied in the form of a coating, and the solid phase. In an advantageous variant of realization of the funds of the input components and the output medium of the finished product are located on opposite walls of the housing, on both sides of the catalytic zone. This allows you to skip parallel source components through the catalytic zone. In the housing can be located sensors that allow you to control the technological process (temperature, pressure, content of individual components of the gas mixture at the inlet and outlet of the reactor). The sensors may be operated is turned off to the system for automatic process control, including to supply thermal energy to the heat pipe. Around and/or inside can be additionally there are means to control the process temperature. These tools (shirts coolant, coils, layers of electric heater, etc.) facilitate maintaining the desired temperature in the building, especially at the large size.

The proposed reactor is endothermic chemical reaction is as follows. Pre-determine the optimal thermal conditions of the process. Pick up the working fluid, thermophysical properties of which correspond to the optimum temperature of the reaction. Calculate the total area of the heat pipes located in the catalytic zone. Create catalytic zone by placing and fixing of the catalyst. If necessary, use additional means of temperature control give the body the required thermal conditions. Bring heat energy to the ends of the heat pipes located outside the reactor vessel. Served in case the original components, pass them through a catalytic zone, adjusting if necessary by measuring modes the filing of the original components. Away from the body of the finished product, if necessary, separating it from unreacted starting components. the ri the flow in the reactor exothermic reaction heat pipe according to the above diagram divert heat from the reactor. Coming from the reaction zone inside the heat pipes unwanted gas diffuses through the membrane with the subsequent removal of his section of the heat pipe, separated by a membrane.

The use of the proposed reactor design illustrated on the example of the steam reforming of methane.

The process of steam reforming of methane leaks on the catalyst (NiO on Al2O3) at a temperature of 6501000C and pressure 57 MPa. In the process of methane is formed mixture

H2and WITH the. Hydrogen penetrates heat pipes and worsen the performance of an ongoing process, interacting with the fluid (e.g., sodium) and displacing the steam from the upper part of the heat pipes. Sodium is used as coolant in the heat pipe. The steam reforming reaction takes place with absorption of heat at the level of 3.4 kJ per 1 kg of converted methane. The membrane is made of Nickel. By creating a differential pressure on both sides of the membrane, the hydrogen diffuses through the membrane and is removed through the vacuum pump.

Pipe reactor are heat pipes filled with sodium, polished finned surface of these pipes by a single-layer coating of silicon carbide. Inside the heat pipe is installed Nickel membrane, made in the form of a tube, one of the ends is closed by a plug, and the Torah end has a hole, connecting the internal volume of the membrane with a vacuum pump. On the surface of the added media located in the space between the heat pipes, applied layer of catalyst (NiO on Al2O3). The process in the reactor is carried out at a pressure of 7 MPa and a temperature of 900C.

Determination of the optimal total surface area of the heat pipe located in the catalytic zone, were trained by gradually increasing the value of the specified area.

Thus, it was found that for a reactor of specified design volume of 6 m3the optimal value of the total area is 3.3 m2and for similar reactor with a volume of 8 m3- 4,8 m2.

Thus, while maintaining the standard process of steam reforming of methane volume of catalyst space reduced by 3545% while maintaining the reaction time of the race. Dramatically reduced the capital cost of establishing the system of the reactor furnace, at least 70-85%.

When using the optimal value of the surface area of the heat pipe design is developed in the reactor installed in a checkerboard pattern, without using a catalyst, the process actually happens.

When using the catalyst, deposited on the surface of the heat pipe design is developed and installed concentrica the key, when using the optimal value of the surface area of the heat pipe design is developed in the reactor, the product yield increased by about 15%, and the operating mode is reduced by 1.3 times.

When using the catalyst, deposited on the surface of the heat pipe design is developed and installed in a checkerboard pattern, but with an increased area of heat pipes designed structures located in the reactor, increasing the yield of the target product was 13%, while the operating mode is reduced by 1.3 times.

When using the catalyst, deposited on the surface of the heat pipe design is developed and installed in a checkerboard pattern, but when calculating the reduction of the area of heat pipes located in the reactor, increasing the yield of the target product was 16%, while the operating mode is reduced by 1.3 times.

When using the catalyst, deposited on the surface of the heat pipe design is developed and arranged in a checkerboard pattern, the total surface area which is located in the reactor, calculated using all these parameters, the yield of the target product, compared with option 2, is increased by 24%, and the operating mode is reduced 1.6 times.

The use of the proposed reactor design which allows you to rapidly achieve a constant temperature in the catalyst space on the entire volume of the reactor, which leads to an increase in the percentage of yield by increasing the proportion of unreacted starting components, as well as reduction of the time of the exit of the reactor to the operating mode.

1. The reactor for the implementation of the gas-phase catalytic processes, comprising a housing, means of input components, output medium of the finished product, the layout area of the catalyst, the site supply or removal of heat, made in the form of multiple heat pipes passing through the staging area of the catalyst, the total surface area of the heat pipes located in the catalytic zone, ensures the supply or exhaust of the catalytic zones are necessary for carrying out a catalytic process the amount of heat, characterized in that the portion of each heat pipe is separated from the rest of the internal volume of the heat pipe by a membrane made of gazoprovodnogo material with the separated membrane volume heat pipes made with the possibility of messages with a vacuum pump.

2. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the membrane is made of vodorodopronitsaemosti material.

3. The reactor according to claim 2, characterized in that the membrane is made of Nickel or a Nickel alloy.

4. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the membrane is made in the form of a tube, one of the ends which is acrit cover and the second end has an opening connecting the interior volume of the membrane with a vacuum pump.

5. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that on the outer surface of the heat pipes are coated, creating a barrier to the penetration of hydrogen.

6. The reactor according to claim 5, characterized in that the coating that protects against the penetration of hydrogen contains more than one layer.

7. The reactor according to claim 5, characterized in that the coating that protects against the penetration of hydrogen contains more than one layer, the composition of which is identical.

8. The reactor according to claim 5, characterized in that the coating that protects against the penetration of hydrogen contains more than one layer of different composition.

9. The reactor according to claim 5, characterized in that the coating composition includes at least one material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, molybdenum, tungsten, aluminum oxide, titanium nitride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, barium oxide, chromium oxide in polycrystalline and/or monocrystalline state.

10. The reactor according to claim 5, characterized in that the coating is made of the chemical composition of the silicate-based.

11. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer surface of the heat pipe is made of polished.

12. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that on the surface of the heat pipe on top of the coating is additionally applied heat-resistant kremniiorganicheskie EMA is or varnish.



 

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5 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: petrochemical industry; other industries; method of production of the alkylate by the sulfuric-acid alkylation in the multiphase reactor.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the alkylate by the sulfuric-acid alkylation in the multiphase reactor, in which the hydraulic mode is provided, which forms the pulsations for attaining the best commixing and the combined interphase mass-transfer and the heat-transfer. The method provides for feeding of the hydrocarbon component consisting of the olefin, the olefin predecessor or their mixture and isoalkane at least partially in the gaseous state into the reactor with the down flow in the presence of the liquid sulfuric acid, and with the internal static system of mixing. The liquid sulfuric acid is fed with constant speed, and the speed of feeding of the olefin, the olefin predecessor or their mixture is increasing until the pressure fall sufficient for formation of the pulsating flow. The internal static system of mixing contains the head including the structure for contacting, which has the free space exceeding 50 % of the volume. The system of the heads may consist of the materials, which are either inert, or catalytically active by their nature.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the alkylate by the sulfuric-acid alkylation in the multiphase reactor providing formation of the pulsations for attaining the best commixing and the corresponding interphase mass-transfer and the heat-transfer.

10 cl, 4 dwg, 8 ex

Reactor // 2246345

FIELD: chemical industry, catalytic processes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a reactor for catalytic processes and is dealt with the field of chemical industry and may be used for catalytic processes. The reactor contains: a body; units of input and output for a reaction mixture and products of reactions; units of loading and unloading of a catalyst; a catalyst layer with the groups of the parallel hollow gas-permeable chambers located on it in height in one or several horizontal planes and each of the chambers has a perforated gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt connected to the group collector and used for input of additional amount of the reaction mixture. Each of perforated gas-permeable chambers is supplied with the second gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt. At that the impenetrable butts of the pipes are located on the opposite sides. The given engineering solution provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.

EFFECT: the invention provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.

5 cl, 4 dwg

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