Viscous ferromagnetic motor

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: proposed motor can be used in power engineering. The motor contains a ferromagnetic circular rotor, inside of which there is an immovable magnet with a linear shape, and outside - two C-shaped permanent magnets. The permanent magnetic viscosity τ of the material of the rotor, radius R and angular speed ω are linked by the expression τ=0.186 X0/ω R, where X0 is the average distance between poles of the C-shaped magnets. The motor is started by external winding of the rotor to angular speed ωstart>0.186 X0/τ R. A sensor is fitted on the rotor, linked to a receiver (magnetic or optical sensor-receiver pair). On the C-shaped magnets, there are magnetising coils, connected in series to a direct current source, the control input of which is connected to the circuit for automatic control from the series-connected with the output of the above mentioned receiver a pulse former, D flip-flop, phase detector, low pass filter and a direct current amplifier. The second input of the phase detector is connected to a circuit of reference signal from series connected reference generator and comparator.

EFFECT: possibility of automatic stabilisation of speed of rotation of the rotor of the motor in varying work load mode.

2 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used in the development of a new class of magnetic motors, which are based on ferromagnetic thermodynamic (FMTD) effect.

FMTD effect is the occurrence of the force applied to the ferromagnetic substance in the direction of its motion in spatially localized saturating magnetic field, explain the magnetocaloric process of adiabatic cooling of ferromagnetic substance when it demagnetization saturating magnetic field, at which the center of gravity of the specified localized magnetic field and the center of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic substances are spatially separated in the dynamics of the movement of ferromagnetic substance with a speed consistent with the parameter of the magnetic viscosity of the ferromagnet, while committed under the action of the force of the mechanical work on the movement of ferromagnetic substance and supports the movement of the latter is due to the inflow of thermal energy to the ferromagnetic substance from the environment.

Currently, there are no equivalents to the claimed technical solution.

The aim of the invention is the possibility of direct conversion of thermal energy of the environment into mechanical work in the form of a rotating rotor.

The achievement of the stated is th purpose of the invention is achieved in ferromagnetism the engine, consisting of ferromagnetic annular rotor rotation axis, inside of which is fixedly mounted magnet linear shape, and the outside is symmetrically located relative to the poles of the specified magnet linear form two permanent magnet C-shaped with the same position of the magnetic poles relative to the axis of symmetry of the magnet linear form with constant magnetic viscosity τ ferromagnetic annular rotor aligned with its radius R and angular speed ω according to the equality τ=0,186 X0/ω R, where X0- the average distance between the poles of the permanent magnets are C-shaped, and start ferromagnetism of the engine is carried out by rotating ferromagnetic annular rotor external impact to the angular velocity ωstart>0,186 X0/τ R

Another objective of the invention is the provision of automatic tuning of angular velocity of rotation of the ferromagnetic annular rotor by a specified amount.

This goal is achieved in the above device, characterized in that the ferromagnetic annular rotor is fixed in a certain angular position sensor associated with the receiver (magnetic or optical vapor sensor-receiver), and the magnets C-shaped executed winding bias, consistently turn is connected to a regulated source of direct current, the control input of which is connected with the scheme of automatic control of serially connected with the output of the specified receiver pulse shaper, D-flip-flop phase detector, low pass filter and DC amplifier and to the second input of the phase detector is connected to the circuit reference signal of the series-connected reference generator and comparator.

The rotation of the ferromagnetic annular rotor of the claimed technical solution is provided by the torque arising from the action of the tangential forces in the ferromagnetic material of the rotor of the motor in the two gaps between the axis of symmetry of the magnet linear form and one of the poles of the two permanent magnets are C-shaped, in which the magnetic field of these magnets is directed in the same direction, in this direction is the rotation of the rotor. In accordance with FMTD effect of these forces arise if the saturating magnetic field of ferromagnetic material is moving at some velocity, consistent with the longitudinal size of the saturating magnetic field and the time constant of the magnetic viscosity of ferric material. In the absence of motion of ferric material in the saturating magnetic field, these tangential forces do not occur. Therefore, to bring the engine to work, you need an external impact is to spin ferromagnetic annular rotor.

Automatic stabilization of the angular velocity of rotation of the ferromagnetic ring of the rotor is ensured by the adjustment of the value of the saturating magnetic field, which affects the rate of change of the magnetic susceptibility ferromagnetism substance of the rotor and, consequently, on the value of the above tangential forces, forming the rotational torque of the rotor, balancing moments of friction and load. As a stabilizing object used reference oscillator, the oscillation frequency of which is compared in a phase detector with oscillations whose frequency is, for example, equal to half the frequency of rotation of the ferromagnetic ring of the rotor, in a static system of automatic regulation.

The invention is clear from the submitted drawings.

Figure 1 presents the scheme ferromagnetism engine (look at the design from above)containing ferromagnetic annular rotor 1 with the axis 2 of rotation fixedly mounted magnet linear forms 3 and two permanent magnets 4 and 5 are C-shaped with bias windings 6 and 7, respectively, are connected in series to a regulated constant current source 8 mounted on a ferromagnetic annular rotor sensor (magnetic or optical) 9, associated with the receiver 10, the pulse signal from the output of which is fed to block avtomaticheskogo the regulation of the angular velocity of rotation of the motor rotor, which consists of serially connected with the output of the specified receiver pulse shaper 11, D-flip-flop 12, the phase detector 13, the low pass filter 14 and the DC amplifier 15 and to the second input of phase detector 13 is connected to the circuit reference signal of the series-connected reference oscillator 16 and a comparator 17.

Figure 2 given a graph of the magnetization curve of the ferromagnetic material - dependence of the magnetic induction In the ferric material from the magnetic field strength H in a static state. When tension Hminthe magnetic field of the gradient of b(H) reaches its maximum.

Figure 3 shows a plot of the magnetic susceptibility χ from the intensity of the magnetic field H is known curve Stoletov. Magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnetic reaches its maximum χmaxwith the largest slope maxdB/dH and begins again to fall with an increase in the strength of the magnetic field saturation, in particular, reaches values of χminwhen the magnetic field Hmax>Hmin. When N=0 magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnet is equal to its initial value χbeg.

Figure 4 presents the static at ω=0 (figa) and dynamic at ω~ω0(figb) characteristics depending on the relative magnetic permeability µ(x) on the site saturating m is gitogo field between the axis of symmetry of the magnet linear form, shown in phantom line in figure 1, and the poles of the permanent magnets C-shaped (S-poles in figure 1), where magnetic fluxes of these magnets are formed (indicated by arrows in figure 1 with the same directions). The length of this section is equal to X0/2.

Figure 5 on the curve Stoletov (see figure 3) marked the position of the working point for the static values of the magnetic susceptibility χ0ferromagnetic material in the magnetic field H0acting in it and created only one magnet linear forms 3 and the magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnetic at different values of magnetic field strength in him from the joint action of the magnetic fields of the magnets 3 and 4 (5). So, in the left pane relative to the working point indicates the strength of the magnetic field H1=N0-NWith minand Hmin=N0-NMaxwhere δ [n]With=NMax-NWith minthe differential magnetic field strength of a C-shaped magnet 4 (5) when the differential direct current in the winding 6 (7) ΔI=I2-I1. At the right side relative to the working point indicates the strength of the magnetic field H2=N0+HC minand Hmax=N0+HC maxwhere ΔHC=NC max-HC minas in the first case. It is seen that at low current I1in the winding 6 (7) the values of the static magnetic is th susceptibility of ferromagnetic matter χ 1and χ2and when the current I2respectively the values of χmaxand χmin. In the first case, the differential static magnetic vospriimchivosti is Δχ112and the second Δχ2=χmaxminand, obviously, Δχ21.

Figure 6 is given in relative performance graphs of the torque M(ω) from the angular velocity ω of rotation of the ferromagnetic annular rotor for two different values of the bias currents I1and I2permanent magnets are C-shaped 4 and 5. The intersection of the corresponding pairs of graphs M(ω) with feedback lines at the marked points lying on the same vertical line (indicated by the dashed line)corresponds to the stable States of a closed-loop automatic control system with angular velocity ω0* rotation of ferromagnetic annular rotor. It is clarified that with the increase of the friction torque (load) in the axis 2 of the ferromagnetic annular rotor 1 for the conservation of the angular velocity ω0* the rotation of the latter constant and stable you want to increase the value of the produced torque M(ω), for example, in the range of initial values of Mminto the value of Mmaxby a corresponding increase in the current I bias.

Consider the action of salaamgarage.

One of the important properties of ferromagnetic materials is the so-called magnetic viscosity, magnetic aftereffect is a time lag of magnetization of a ferromagnet from changes in magnetic field strength. In the most simple cases, the change of the magnetization ΔJ depending on time t is described by the formula

where J0and Jrespectively the values of the magnetization immediately after a change in the intensity H of the magnetic field at time t=0 and after the establishment of a new equilibrium state, τ is a constant that characterizes the rate of the process and called the time constant of relaxation. The value of τ depends on the nature of magnetic viscosity and different materials can vary from 10-9with up to several tens of hours. Note that the magnetization J is defined as J=-µ0N (where B - magnetic induction in the ferromagnet in a field H) are related by the relation χ=J/µ0H=µ-1, where µ0=1,256*10-6GN/m is the absolute magnetic permeability of vacuum, μ is the relative magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic material. Therefore, for the magnetic susceptibility χ of a ferromagnet in a changing magnetic field is true, the equation analogous to (1).

Another important property of ferromagnets is to reduce the magnetic χ(N) (or, in other words, the relative magnetic permeability µ(N)=χ(N)+1, as indicated in figure 4) of a ferromagnet in a saturating magnetic field, which follows from the curve Stoletov (figure 3).

These two properties are used in the proposed technical solution.

As is known, the effect of magnetic field on the ferromagnetic leads to its namagnicheniya. Magnetic induction increases with magnetic field strength H (figure 2) until saturationuswhen the field strength Hmax. When the field strength Hminthe slope of the magnetic induction maximum - max(dB/dH), and magnetic susceptibility also reaches its maximum χmax(figure 3), and when Hmaxbecomes equal to χmin. Static magnetic susceptibility suggests ignoring the effect of magnetic viscosity, i.e. in equation (1) t→∞ or t>>τ. It presents on figa, that is, when the ferromagnetic annular rotor 1 (Fig 1) is not rotating (ω=0). However, in the dynamics of rotation of the rotor changes the magnetic susceptibility does not have time to follow the static values of the magnetic susceptibility, which is consistent with the expression (1) and reflected on figb. Therefore, the center of gravity in the interval from the end of the magnet linear form 3 (N pole) to the pole of a permanent magnet With-shape 4 with the opposite pole (S pole), where m is gnite lines of both these magnets are directed in the same direction, is, for example, at the point X0/4 from the origin at the end of the pole of the magnet linear forms 3 and the center of magnetization of the ferromagnetic material in the specified area of the rotor 1 is located at the point X*, that is behind the center of gravity at a distance Δ=(X0/4)-X*>0, where X0- the distance between the poles S and N of the permanent magnet C-shaped 4 (5). The presence of this discrepancy centers leads to the action of a constant force F, directed along the tangent to the ferromagnetic ring rotor 1, i.e. in the direction of increasing magnetic field strength between the poles of the permanent magnet C-shaped 4 (5), as shown figure by the arrow in figure 1 with angular velocity ω.

In figure 1 the arrows indicate the directions of the vectors of the magnetic field created by the magnets 3, 4 and 5. It is easy to see that in one of polapremium between the poles of the permanent magnets C-shaped 4 and 5, the magnetic lines of force are directed according to, and in the other counter. This allows one polapremium to increase the magnetic field strength, and the other, on the contrary, reduce it to the same value, the corresponding magnetic field strength of a single permanent magnet C-shaped 4 (or 5) compared with the magnetic field H0created only one mage is ICOM linear form 3 in ferromagnetic annular rotor 1, the value of which is taken for the operating point indicated on the graph of figure 5. Changing the magnetic field in the permanent magnets of the C-shaped 4 and 5 under the action of flowing a constant current in their windings 6 and 7, in the range of H0-H1=N2-N0to H0-Hmin=Hmax-N0that is , with the magnitude of the change ΔHC=H1-Hmin=Hmax-N2(see figure 5), you can change the scale of the changes in the magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnetic substances in the working polybromide indicated on figb, with the highest magnetic field strength. Note that all of these figure 5 points lie on the drop-down part of the characteristics χ(N), i.e. the saturation of the ferromagnetic material.

First consider the distribution of the magnetic field in the magnetic core of ferromagnetic annular rotor. The magnetic field of the magnet linear form 3 is divided in the magnetic core into two equal parts with magnetic fields in them equal to N0that static (ω=0) creates the longest parts of the rotor 1 between the permanent magnets C-shaped 4 and 5, the magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnetic equal to χ0. The influence of magnetic fields of permanent magnets C-shaped 4 and 5 in these parts of the magnetic circuit is missing, because atonality in relation to each other is enabled the counter, that is, facing each other the same poles (N against N bottom and S against S top figure 1). Therefore, when the rotation of the ferromagnetic annular rotor included in a magnetic gap of a permanent magnet C-shaped 4 from its N pole ferromagnetic substance with magnetic susceptibility equal to χ0in polybromide between this pole and the axis of symmetry of the magnet linear form 3 (indicated by the dash-dotted horizontal line in figure 1), where the magnetic field strength equal to H1will increase its magnetic susceptibility exponentially to a value close to χ1although somewhat smaller this value, typical for static mode. Getting into polybrominated X0/2 between the said axis of symmetry and the S pole of the permanent magnet C-shaped 4, the magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnet in a magnetic field of strength H2>H1will decrease exponentially with magnitude close to χ1the value of χ21characteristic static mode (ω=0), although a slightly higher value than the value than χ2due to the dynamics of movement (ω>0). At the end of the specified polybromide, that is, outside the influence of the pole S of the permanent magnet C-shaped 4, the ferromagnetic comes back into the area with intensity mA the magnetic field H aboutcreated only magnet linear forms 3, while the magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnetic increased again from values close to χ2to the value of χ0almost corresponding to the static condition, since the gap of the magnetic circuit between the magnets 4 and 5 greatly exceeds the distance X0provided that πR/X0>>1. The same can be observed for a system of magnets 3 and 5.

It is clear that the dynamics of rotation of the ferromagnetic ring of the rotor 1 relative to the specified configuration saturating magnetic fields those parts of the ferromagnet, which at any given point in time are located in the magnetic field strength H1where Hmin≤H1≤H0will have magnetic susceptibility, exponentially increasing to a value of χ1substantially greater than the magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnetic seeking value

χ2in the part of the ferromagnet, which at the same time is located in the magnetic field intensity H2where N0≤H2≤Hmaxi.e. at any point in time have the inequality χ12that is stored permanently. This explains the origin of the tangential force F, applied to the ferromagnetic ring rotor from the side of the considered magnetic is istemi and support under certain conditions, the mode of rotational motion. By preserving this mode, the rotational movement is equality occur under the specified tangential force torque M(ω)≈2FR the sum of the moments of friction MTPand payload MH. Specified equilibration occurs at a certain angular velocity ω of rotation of the ferromagnetic ring of the rotor 1 due to the fact that with increase in the angular velocity of rotation, in first approximation, linearly increasing friction torque. In addition, the analysis of the applied force F shows that this force reaches its maximum under the condition

τ=0,186 X0/ω R, determined by the design of the device and the parameter of the magnetic viscosity of ferric material, which is made of ferromagnetic annular rotor 1.

In the known electromagnetic motors - AC or DC - rotation of the rotor due to its magnetic interaction with the rotating relative to the rotor magnetic field, that is also used factor behind the center of the magnetization of the rotor from the center of gravity of the magnetic system, external to the rotor. However, the same effect in this technical solution is not achieved at the expense of the movement (rotation) of the external magnetic field, and by moving the state of magnetization of the ferromagnetic annular rotor in the reverse n the Board is relatively static (fixed in space) of an external magnetic field, formed by the magnets 3, 4 and 5, but on the strict condition that the rotor 1 is provided in the rotational movement of the external (single) exposure. Local switching of magnetization of the relevant parts of the ferromagnetic ring of the rotor 1 in the magnetic fields of the magnets 3-5 is continuous in time as the rotation of the rotor, and for an observer associated with the rotor, it seems that this alternating magnetization moves along a generatrix of the annular rotor in the opposite direction relative to the direction of rotation of the rotor, which may be observed from a fixed coordinate system. Under this interpretation, we must assume that we are dealing with parametric engine, which replaced the rotation of the external magnetic field inherent in the known electromagnetic motors, to rotate (in opposite direction) of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic ferric material annular rotor, a spatial displacement parameters (magnetic susceptibility) of the ferromagnet.

The occurrence of tangential force F, therefore, due to the fact that the ferromagnetic substance with a higher magnetic susceptibility χ1located in the magnetic field of lower intensity H1tends to get involved in the area of the magnetic field with a higher intensity of H2and leaving this field H ferromagnetic substance does not interfere with that, so it has a smaller magnetic susceptibility χ2. And such conditions are formed only in the presence of rotational motion of a ferromagnetic annular rotor 1. In this case, as the analysis shows, the power tatiania Fexceeds the braking force FΔon the plot of the magnetic system with a length of X0/2 between the axis of symmetry of the magnet direct form 3 and the S pole of the permanent magnet C-shaped 4, so that F=F-FΔwhile driving tangential force F can be represented by the following expression:

where h=χ1(H1)/χ2(H2)>>1 - relative differential magnetic susceptibility of ferric material at the beginning of polybromide X0/2, where the saturating magnetic field is maximum and is equal to N2and in the end, S - cross-section of the ferromagnetic annular rotor 1, associated with the magnetic field, α= ∆ T/τ is the ratio of time spent ferromagnetic substances ferromagnetic annular rotor 1 in polybromide magnetic field with a magnetic field H2and equal to Δt=X0/2ωR, to a constant magnetic viscosity of the ferromagnet. Exploring the function (2) at the extremum on the search parameter α, we find that the force F reaches its maximum at the value α*=2,69 that line is there is a previously specified value τ=0,186 X 0/ω R. This means that any change in the angular speed ω about its optimal value ω0=0,186 X0/τ R will reduce the magnitude of the force F that supports the specified rotational movement of the ferromagnetic ring of the rotor 1, and the increase of this power is possible with a corresponding increase in the intensity of the magnetic field H2in permanent magnets is shaped by increasing the bias current I in the windings 6 and 7 by an adjustable constant current source 8, which directly follows from expression (2). Thus, by adjusting the bias current in the coils 6 and 7 of the magnets 4 and 5, it is possible to resist the change in the angular speed when the load changes on the axis 2 of the ferromagnetic annular rotor 1.

The expression (2) below to calculate the force F arising in polybromide

X0/2 where the magnetic field intensity H2and results in the delay of the center of the magnetization of a ferromagnetic associated with this land, from the center of gravity of the magnetic field. However, it is also necessary to evaluate the force acting in the opposite direction on the part of the length of X0/2, which has a magnetic field strength H1and the center of the magnetization, on the contrary, ahead of the center of attraction in this area of the magnetic field. Quite obviously is about, what this force is substantially smaller in modulus than previously considered force F, since, firstly, the magnetic field in this area is weaker (H1<H2), and secondly, almost half on this part of the differential magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnetic less than the area with the magnetic field H2. Indeed, on a plot of the magnetic field H1magnetic susceptibility varies from χ0to χ1and on the main site with a field strength of H2it varies from χ1to χ2then there is twice as much as it can be seen from figure 5. In almost reasonable calculations braking force of the ferromagnetic ring of the rotor 1 on the plot with the magnetic field H1may be 10-15% with respect to the force F calculated according to (2) for a segment with a field strength of H2.

The task of maintaining the angular velocity of rotation of the ferromagnetic ring of the rotor is constant and equal to ω0* accurately resolved using the automatic control system static type, defined using the control system of the inertial element (when used instead of the inertial element of the integrator system is static, that is, with zero residual error in regulation, but has IU ISEE performance. Using a pair of: the sensor 9 receiver 10 (magnetic or optical related items) are recorded pulses at the output of the pulse shaper 11, the frequency of which is equal to the speed of rotation ω/2π ferromagnetic annular rotor 1. These pulses arrive at the D-flip-flop 12, the output of which is formed meander signal frequency ω/4π, which is supplied to the first input of phase detector 13, to the second input of which is fed meander signal from the comparator 17, the input of which is the effect of a harmonic oscillation with a stable frequency ω0*/4π, resulting at the output of phase detector 13 is formed of a periodic pulse sequence with a frequency of ≈ ω0*/4π and pulse duration corresponding to the difference of the phase comparison in the phase detector fluctuations, the polarity of which is determined by the direction of deviation of the frequency ω of the frequency ω0*, namely when ω<ω0* impulses of positive polarity, and when ω>ω0*on the contrary, the pulses of negative polarity. The specified sequence of pulses at the output of the lowpass filter 14, for example an integrating RC-chain turns into a smoothed DC voltage with the corresponding current value and polarity. This voltage is fed to the control input of the controlled source is permanent current 8, changing the desired value of current I bias permanent magnets C-shaped 4 and 5, in particular, in such a way that recovers the approximate equality ω≈ω0* with the required accuracy. The residual errors of automatic control Δω=ω-ω0* is determined by the feedback factor for open circuit automatic regulation. The higher the ratio, the smaller the residual error Δω, however, when excessive increase factor specified system of automatic regulation may be unstable, prone to excitation that should be taken into account when designing.

Figure 6 presents the results of the automatic regulation of the angular velocity ω0* rotation of ferromagnetic annular rotor 1 for the two extreme loadings on axis 2 - minimum (idle mode) and close to the maximum (mode, the critical load for the respective rotational moments Mminand Mmax. It should be noted an important fact that ω0*<ω0=0,186 X0/τ R, which is caused by the need to ensure in a closed system of automatic regulation of the necessary reserves the sustainability of its functioning under changing loads. The stability conditions of stabilization is defined mathematically by the difference between the signs of derivatives of the function about atoi communication (hyperbolic curves figure 6) and the function of the rotational moment at the point of intersection of these curves.

On the other hand, the steeper these curves at the point of their intersection, the greater the speed of the system of automatic regulation and the smaller the residual error Δω. Precisely because of this circumstance, and we have to choose the angular velocity of rotation ω0* below the optimal angular velocity ω0by sacrificing some amount of power that can be obtained as the load without stabilization of the angular velocity of rotation ω0*. However, the development of the proposed engine choice ferromagnetic should take into consideration the specified ratio ω0=0,186 X0/τ R>ω0*.

As follows from expressions (2) and the graph for M(ω) figure 6, at low angular speeds of rotation of the ferromagnetic annular rotor sharply decreases the amount of torque that prevents zamorakian rotor from its stationary state, since the friction torque even without connected loads (i.e. idling) is not always zero. Depending on the magnitude of the friction torque and subject to the attached load, the value of which does not exceed the critical for this type of engine, start last in the work shall be supplied from an external source unwinding ferromagnetic annular rotor at least until the magnitude of the angular velocity, priblizitel is but equal to ω 0* when a closed system of automatic control, and when an unknown load to the guaranteed value of ωstart>0,186 X0/τ R, as indicated above, if you are not using the idle mode.

Given this, it is expedient to give effect to declare ferromagnetiske engine is disabled when the load is in an idle mode with a subsequent, preferably smooth, the increase in the connected load. It can be shown that when the increase in the connected load above its critical value, the rotation of the ferromagnetic annular rotor stops, the engine stops.

1. Ferromagnetiske engine, consisting of a ferromagnetic annular rotor rotation axis, inside of which is fixedly mounted magnet linear shape, and the outside is symmetrically located relative to the poles of the specified magnet linear form two permanent magnet C-shaped with the same position of the magnetic poles relative to the axis of symmetry of the magnet linear form with constant magnetic viscosity τ ferromagnetic annular rotor aligned with its radius R and angular speed ω according to the equality τ=0,186 X0/ω R, where X0- the average distance between the poles of the permanent magnets are C-shaped and run by ferrum nicolasnova of the engine is carried out by rotating ferromagnetic annular rotor external impact to the angular velocity
ωstart>0,186 X0/τ R

2. The engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the ferromagnetic annular rotor is fixed in a certain angular position sensor associated with the receiver (magnetic or optical vapor sensor-receiver), and the magnets C-shaped executed bias winding, series-connected to a regulated source of direct current, a control input which is connected with the scheme of automatic control of serially connected with the output of the specified receiver pulse shaper, D-flip-flop phase detector, low pass filter and DC amplifier and to the second input of the phase detector is connected to the circuit reference signal of the series-connected reference oscillator and the comparator.



 

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2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used as a device for converting the magnetic field energy into mechanical rotary motion. The magnetoviscous rotator contains a permanent magnet with homogenous or inhomogenous magnetic field between its poles and a ferromagnetic disk (ring) with an axis of rotation, linked with each other. The ferromagnetic disk is made of ferromagnetic material with magnetic viscosity, the relaxation constant of which τ relative to the ferromagnetic disk (ring) rotation period T is selected, for example, according to the condition: τ˜TX0/4.4πR where X0 is the length of the magnetic gap between the permanent magnet poles. An edge of the ferromagnetic disk (ring) with the radius R is placed in the said magnetic gap. The magnetic field strength in the permanent magnet gap is selected as saturating for the ferromagnetic disk (ring) material.

EFFECT: power efficiency increase.

9 dwg

Starter-generator // 2321765

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: starter-generator comprises two-phase rectifying inductive machine with electromagnetic asymmetry, transistor commutator made of the minimum number of switches. The main winding of each of two phases is connected with the power source through a transistor of the inverter. Each recuperating winding of two phases is connected with the power source through a diode of inverter.

EFFECT: simplified structure and reduced losses.

3 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; drive motors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed permanent-magnet motor has twin stator incorporating permanent magnets in the form of U-section solenoids disposed on inner surface of stator and two rotors, one per each permanent-magnet section, in the form of arched bars rigidly coupled with axis of revolution, as well as coupling and flywheel. Rotor magnet is attracted by stator solenoid due to interaction of unlike-polarity poles of stator and rotor magnets which turns rotor through definite angle until like-polarity poles of stator and rotor magnets are aligned. As rotor magnet end front along its running leaves dead zone, it is pushed out of stator magnet and ensures continuous rotary motion. When rotor passes through dead zone, its rotary motion is maintained by flywheel and dc machine running as motor supplied with power from storage battery that functions to help rotor pass through dead zone. Upon leaving dead zone rotor shaft load reduces and dc machine runs as generator. In his way electrical energy is recuperated and used for booster charge of storage battery.

EFFECT: enhanced power output and efficiency.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; generation of extremely intensive magnetic fields by magnetic cumulation method.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed for manufacturing cylindrical shell with conductors disposed along generating line includes placement of insulated conductors on main cylindrical mandrel, its potting in curing compound, and post-curing mechanical treatment of shell. Insulated conductors are wound on additional T-shaped mandrel that has cylindrical part and base perpendicular to its axis; base carries longitudinal cleats with slits on its opposite ends for winding two conductor coils at a time. Coils are placed upon trimming on main cylindrical mandrel so that conductors are arranged along generating line of mandrel, this procedure being followed by removing fixation clamps from parts.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; building up extremely intensive magnetic fields by magnetic cumulation method.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for manufacturing cylindrical shell with conductors disposed along its generating line includes placement of insulated conductors on main cylindrical mandrel, its potting in curable compound, and mechanical post-curing treatment. Conductors are placed on additional cylindrical mandrel by tight spiral winding in one layer of conductors. Then two strips are attached by means of adhesive along generating line of mandrel in a spaced relation, and conductors are cut along space. Rectangular sheet obtained in the process is wound on main mandrel to form desired number of layers wherein conductors are disposed along mandrel generating line.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: using three-phase synchronous machines for power generation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed motor-generator set has three-phase synchronous motor and three-phase synchronous generator both mounted on common shaft excited by permanent magnets. Motor and generator rotors and stators are salient-pole components. Stator poles carry stator windings. Motor and generator stator poles measure 120 electrical degrees along rotor outer circumference. Motor and stator field permanent magnets are disposed on rotor backs between its poles. Flat compensating permanent magnets installed in center of generator rotor poles are disposed in panes crossing generator axis.

EFFECT: enhanced economic efficiency of power generation.

1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: conversion of explosive material chemical energy into electrical energy using magnetocumulative or explosion-magnetic generators for magnetic cumulation of energy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed magnetocumulative generator that depends for its operation on compression of magnetic flux and is designed for use in experimental physics as off-line pulsed energy supply, as well as in studying properties of materials exposed to super-intensive magnetic fields, in experiments with plasma chambers, acceleration of liners, and the like has permanent-magnet system. Spiral magnetocumulative generator is coaxially mounted inside system. Magnetocumulative generator has magnetic flux compression cavity. This cavity is confined by external coaxial spiral conductor and internal explosive-charge conductor, as well as by initiation system. The latter is disposed on one of butt-ends. Permanent-magnet system is assembled of at least one radially magnetized external magnet and axially magnetized internal magnet provided with axial hole. External magnet is disposed on external surface of magnetocumulative generator spiral conductor. Internal magnet is mounted at butt-end of spiral conductor on initiation system side, like poles of external and internal magnets facing magnetic flux compression cavity.

EFFECT: reduced leakage fluxes beyond magnetic-flux compression loop, enhanced initial energy in compression loop of spiral magnetocumulative generator.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering; power supply systems for various fields of national economy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electrical energy generating unit has low-to-high voltage converter connected to external power supply that conveys its output voltage through diode to charging capacitor. Accumulated charge is periodically passed from capacitor through discharger to first inductance coil accommodating second inductance coil disposed coaxially therein and having greater turn number. Second coil is resonance-tuned to operating period of discharger. Voltage picked off this coil is transferred through diode to charging capacitor. Electrical energy is conveyed to power consumer by means of third inductance coil mounted coaxially with respect to two first ones. It is coupled with these coils by mutual inductance and is connected to rectifier.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: pulse equipment engineering, in particular, technology for magnetic accumulation of energy, related to problem of fast compression of magnetic flow by means of metallic casing, accelerated by air blast produced by detonation of explosive substance; technology for forming high voltage pulses, which can be used for powering high impedance loads, like, for example, electronic accelerators, lasers, plasma sources, UHF-devices, and the like.

SUBSTANCE: method for producing voltage pulse includes operations for creating starting magnetic flow, compressing it under effect from explosive substance charge explosion products in main hollow, output of magnetic flow into accumulating hollow and forming of pulse in load and, additionally, compression of magnetic flow is performed in accumulating hollow, forming of pulse is performed in additional forming hollow, and main, accumulating and forming hollows are filled with electro-durable gas. Device for realization of magnetic-cumulative method of voltage pulse production includes spiral magnetic-cumulative generator, having coaxial external spiral-shaped conductor and inner conductor with charge of explosive substance, the two forming between each other aforementioned main hollow for compressing magnetic flow, and also accumulating hollow and load. Device additionally has pulse forming hollow, positioned between additional hollow and load. Accumulating hollow is formed by additional spiral conductor, connected to spiral conductor of magnetic-cumulative generator and to portion of inner conductor. In accumulating hollow coaxially with inner conductor of magnetic-cumulative generator, ring-shaped conical dielectric element is positioned. All hollow are connected to system for pumping electric-durable gas. Ring-shaped conical dielectric element is made with outer cylindrical surface, adjacent to inner surface of additional spiral conductor, and to inner conical surface. Angle α between outer surface of portion of inner conductor, positioned in accumulating hollow, and inner surface of conical ring-shaped dielectric element is made in accordance to relation 7°≤α≤30°.

EFFECT: increased power, increased current pulse amplitude, shorter pulse duration, increased electric durability.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: explosive pulse engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for manufacturing spiral coil for magnetic explosion generator producing current pulses of mega-ampere level intended to obtain more densely wound coil of higher inductance and, hence, higher current gain of magnetic explosion generator includes winding of insulated conductors on mandrel, coil potting in compound, curing of the latter, and coil removal from mandrel. Round-section conductor is deformed prior to winding until its sectional area is enclosed by oval, then it is covered with insulation and wound so that small axis of oval is disposed in parallel with spiral coil axis.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of coil.

1 cl 2 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, of equipment for transformation of heat energy, including that of the Sun, to electric energy.

SUBSTANCE: electric generator contains stator with stator winding and rotor positioned therein, made in form of piston; stator is provided with two vessels filled with gas, connected hermetically to each other via a hollow cylinder, which is made of material with high magnetic penetrability and having two limiters on the ends of cylinder, and piston is positioned inside aforementioned cylinder, made of magnetic-hard material and provided with piston rings, while stator winding is wound on cylinder and its ends are connected to load clamps.

EFFECT: provision of high efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: technology for transformation of chemical energy of explosive substance to electromagnetic energy.

SUBSTANCE: autonomous magnetic cumulative generator consists of spiral conductor, current-conductive liner with a charge of substance and initiation system, magnetic stream compression hollow, load and a system of permanent magnets, containing at least one magnet, positioned above spiral conductor with magnetization of parallel surface of spiral conductor, system of permanent magnets contains an additional magnet, positioned above spiral conductor on the side of load with magnetization of perpendicular surface of spiral conductor, while force lines of magnetic field of a system of magnets and in the compression hollow form a closed contour.

EFFECT: decreased dissipation flows beyond limits of magnetic flow compression contour and, as a result, increased starting energy in compression contour of magnetic cumulative generator.

1 cl, 7 dwg

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