Procedure for development of mineral placers

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to open development of mineral placers, particularly to mining and concentration of gold containing placers in winter. The procedure consists in exposing works, in sand excavating and in sand transporting to a basin, in flushing and in dump piling. Also, in winter primary excavation and sand transporting are performed with preliminary piling sand on ice of the basin, while the secondary excavation and flushing are carried out in a warm season.

EFFECT: increased degree of disintegration of hard flushed clayish sand and reduced losses of valuable component.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of open pit mining of alluvial deposits for minerals, mining and processing of gold-bearing placers in the winter.

The famous line in the comprehensive mechanization of open pit mining of placers, including mining, hauling and processing complexes in which the dredger is part of both production and delivery systems (A.S. No. 2027006, CL IS 45/00, published. 20.01.95. Bull. No. 2).

The disadvantage of this method is the inability development of placer mineral deposits in the winter, and the low efficiency of the development of high-clayey deposits.

The closest technical solution is the method of placer developments, including pre-excavation, placement in the pit of interconnected production and transport ore beneficiation, mining bottom of the reservoir, leaching and enrichment of the rock mass, the deposition of tailings (A.S. No. 1795103, CL IS 45/00, published. 15.02.93. Bull. No. 6).

However, this method is distinguished by the inability of placer developments in winter, and low efficiency, the development of high-clayey deposits.

Technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to increase development efficiency ro the epidemic of mineral deposits throughout the calendar year and the degree of disintegration of high-clayey Sands.

This is achieved by the fact that in the method of mining of alluvial deposits of minerals, including Stripping, excavation of sand and their transportation in the pool, rinsing and dumping, the primary excavation and transportation of sand produced during the winter period with prior storage in ice basin, and a secondary recess and rinse produce in the warmer months, and warehousing of sand on the surface of the ice cover between the piles and piles of leave periods, which promote the penetration of heat and rapid ice melting in the spring. On the border of the pool in the reservoir Sands leave the rear sight, the excavation of which will be made at the time of liquidation of the pool. In the warmer months at the time of melting ice warehouse Sands under its own weight is immersed in water, settles to the bottom and further development of the mining complex underwater way with the supply of productive mass for flushing waste complex. The loss of strength of the frozen high-clayey Sands when pulling them out of the array, storage on ice with the creation of many exposed surfaces conducive to freezing, exposure to ice when immersed in water and dilution water determine the speed and efficiency of disintegration.

The way to perform complex operations Illus is transferred in the drawings: figure 1 - the section a-a indicated in the work plan - figure 2, where I is the stage of work in the winter, stage II operations in the warmer months; 1 - agriculture, 2 - excavation and loading complex, 3 - pillar in the reservoir Sands, 4 - warehouse Sands, 5 - ice cover, 6 - pool, 7 - exposed areas of the ice cover, 8 - mining and washing conveyor systems, 9 - sprinkling of rock.

The invention is carried out as follows.

At the landfill mining operations create pit, which form the pool 6, limited by dams, indigenous breeds in the sides of the placers and/or entirely in the reservoir Sands. The reservoir Sands place, excavation and loading 2 and vehicle 1 complexes notch the top or bottom of the drawing, leaving pillar 3 ensuring the safety of operations. Stock formation Sands 4 ice 5 basin 6 is produced in the winter directly excavation and loading complex 2 in the critical zone and laying sand with uniform unloading of transport equipment 1 over the entire area of the ice cover 5. This leave open areas of the ice cover 7, which promote the penetration of heat and rapid ice melting in the spring. In the warmer months as a result of melting ice warehouse Sands under its own weight sinking bass is in 6, settles to the bottom and further development of the mining complex 8 with washing and laying waste rock in the blade 9.

As a result of implementing the proposed package of works is provided by the increase in the degree of disintegration trudnoponimaemyh clayey Sands at 15-18% and reduction of technological losses of valuable components at 20-23%.

1. The method of mining of alluvial deposits of minerals, including Stripping, excavation of sand and their transportation in the pool, rinsing and dumping, characterized in that the primary excavation and transportation of sand is carried out in the winter with prior storage in ice basin, and a secondary recess and washing is carried out in the warmer months.

2. Method development of placer mineral deposits according to claim 1, characterized in that pre-storage Sands leave exposed areas of the surface of the ice cover.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of mineral deposits, particularly clay placers, and can be implemented in mining industry. The method consists in striking developed placers, in their layer-specific excavation with parallel trenches leaving between-trenches massifs, in concentrating and in piling. Also between the first trench and the circuit of developed deposit an additional ditch is made, wherein water is supplied; when a successive trench is entered, each preceding trench is successively filled with water. When the last trench is driven, deposit is flooded; between trenches massifs are debugged by means of a drag or dredger; notably, debugging is performed from the first trench to the last one.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of clay placers development by means of increased degree of disintegration and extraction of valuable component at reduced technological losses.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of deposits, particularly, gravel deposits, and can be implemented in mining industry. The method consists in stripping sand, in excavating and transporting sand to a hopper of a washing installation, in concentrating and in piling. Prior to transporting sand into the hopper of the washing installation, sand is piled in a trench laid in the center of the gravel deposit along the length of a production block at the depth below the level of the soil of the sand bed; the trench is filled with water. Also sands are piled in the trench below the water level, and their successive excavation is performed by the underwater method.

EFFECT: increased degree of disintegration of hard washed clayish sand and reduced process losses of valuable component with reduced cost for sand transporting.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method of development of buried water-flooded placers includes preliminary concentration of useful component of sands in lower portion of placer by means of excitation of elastic oscillations in placer sands and successive stoped excavation. A tubular shell is inserted into the placer; the height of the shell exceeds the distance from the surface to the float of the spacer. Excitation of elastic oscillations in spacer sands is performed by means of their transmitting from the surface via the tubular shell. After compressive force has been formed from interior surface of the shell onto contacting surface of covering volume of barren material and after completion of vibratory processing the hydraulic stoped excavation of lower part of the placer is carried out; washing water is supplied via sprayers assembled at walls of the tubular shell and pulp is withdrawn via soil intake openings located at walls of the tubular shell between the sprayers. Also after completion of stoped excavation of lower part of the placer the stoped space is backfilled by supplied backfilling pulp and water withdrawal. Further backfilling pulp is formed from mixture of water with barren rock, for instance, with tailings of sand concentration. After backfilling of excavated space pressure onto surface of covering volume of waste material contacting with interior surface of the shell is dropped to zero and the shell is extracted.

EFFECT: increased selectivity of excavation.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to excavation of mineral deposits, and particularly to gravel deposits, and can be used in the mining industry. The method involves pre-formation of a basin, formation of a dry zone on the productive stratum and basin in the stripped area, fitting interconnected, mining, transport and dump systems into the basin. Formation of the basin in the stripped area is done after piling up sand in it, with further extraction of the latter using a subsurface technique. The minimum distance from the basin to the heap of sand, as well as the depth of the basin, is determined from the maximum degree of weakening of the latter and technological parameters of the mining equipment.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of excavating high-clayey alluvial deposits.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to mining and can be used in excavating deep-seated deposits of minerals, formed by layers with different strength. The method of excavating deep-seated deposits of minerals involves excavating a mining horizon, hydraulic mining of wells on the mining horizon, when mining waterlogged minerals, lying under the mining horizon. From the heading to the deposit of the mineral, dewatering wells are drilled and the head of ground water, in the productive stratum of the deposit, is lowered to a level lower than the sill of the mining horizon. To lower the head of ground water over the deposit to a level safe for mining, in the water bearing bed from the mining horizon, rising, inclined-rising, horizontal guide holes are made, and from the surface to the heading, wells with cased hole filters are made. All these wells are hydraulically linked to each other and to a pump system, from which water is supplied to a domestic water head works, undergoing preliminary purification. The invention can also be used for washing out mineral deposits when hydromining and for water collection in underground water catch basins.

EFFECT: safer mining when flooding minerals and layers above them, as well as increased efficiency of mining and improvement of environmental conservation.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering and can be used directly in development of subsea mineral deposits, where mineral components are pumped out by airlift. Method for starting and stopping of offshore airlift, where starting process includes compressed air supply via pressure pipeline from compressor to mixer of lifting pipe, while stopping process includes stopping of compressed air supply via pressure pipeline from compressor to mixer of lifting pipe, compressed air supply from compressor to upper part of said offshore airlift's lifting pipe and its discharging to atmosphere, as well as compressor stopping. In the course of offshore airlift starting process amount of sea water supply to lifting pipe of offshore airlift is pre-defined, connection between upper part of lifting pipe and atmosphere is closed, compressed air is supplied into upper part of lifting pipe of offshore airlift, sea water is displaced from lifting pipe to ocean through connecting pipe, compressed air supply into upper part of lifting pipe is stopped after the required air pressure in said pipe is achieved, connection of lifting pipe with ocean through connecting pipe is closed, connection between upper part of lifting pipe with atmosphere is restored with simultaneous supply of compressed air into mixer of lifting pipe. After that, connection between lifting pipe and ocean is provided through connecting pipe, amount of sea water supplied into lifting pipe is monitored, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined target value and balanced with it through adjustment of sea water flowrate in said connecting pipe. And when water-air mix is spread over the entire length of lifting pipe, unrestricted supply of sea water through connecting pipe to lifting pipe is restored. And in the course of offshore airlift stopping process, pressure value in upper part of lifting pipe is pre-defined, then this value is monitored during compressed air supply from compressor to upper part of offshore airlift's lifting pipe, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined value and as soon as they become equal said compressor is stopped. After that, connection between lifting pipe and ocean through connecting pipe is closed and connection of upper part of lifting pipe with atmosphere is opened again.

EFFECT: improvement of offshore airlift starting and stopping method.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering and can be used directly in development of subsea mineral deposits, where mineral components are pumped out by airlift. Method for starting and operating of offshore airlift includes pumping out of components from subsea mineral deposits as a part of hydromixture, supply of compressed air into mixer of lifting pipe, creation of multicomponent mixture after the compressed air is injected into hydromixture flow, and transporting of multicomponent mixture flow in lifting pipe of offshore airlift. In this method pressure value of air-water mixture is pre-defined in operating mixer of lifting pipe, where compressed air is supplied from compressor during airlift operation at its operating performance rate. Then compressed air is supplied from compressor into lifting pipe mixer, which is located above operating mixer, the air localised in accumulator is additionally compressed up to the pressure in operating mixer by supplying sea water into said accumulator under its static pressure. Then this additionally compressed air is supplied into operating mixer, pressure of sea water in operating mixer is monitored during the process of compressed air supply into it, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined target value and as soon as they become equal supply of compressed air into said mixer is stopped, as well as supply of sea water into accumulator, while compressed air from compressor is supplied simultaneously into operating mixer through accumulator. After that, during offshore airlift operation, accumulator is charged with compressed air from compressor by means of parallel supply of sea water from said accumulator into operating mixer, when a difference is established between supply of compressed air from compressor to accumulator and supply of compressed air from accumulator to operating mixer.

EFFECT: improvement of method for starting and operating of offshore airlift, as well as system for its implementation.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used in dredging of thawed placers. Method includes removal of dead ground from dredging site, digging of drainage trench, pre-dredging of sand layer, removal of boulders, flooding and dredging of sands. Pre-dredging is performed over the uncovered area through sand blading by backhoe excavator, which draws transverse juds in travelling trench.

EFFECT: improved dredger performance, reduced loss of mineral in the soil, and lower unit costs of dredging of hard-dredging placers.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to combined development of gold placers using mini-dredges. Complex consists of a dredge with a stacker and installations meant for deep processing of sandy and clay rock of gold placers, a high-head hydromonitor device with a system controlling the barrel movement in a vertical plane, and a hydraulic transport free-flow system. Complex is equipped with a bridge rigidly fixed in the dredge nose part. Bridge is provided with a round divertor intended for movement, and a round divertor meant for a support, which are rigidly fixed on the bridge posts. High-head hydromonitor device is installed on a base rotated by means of a drive. Rotary base is hinged to the platform and equipped with linear guideways. Platform is equipped with a drive of linear guideways which are connected with a round divertor intended for movement, and provided with an additional support connected with round divertor meant for the support.

EFFECT: intensifying mining process including development of terrace high-level placers.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of closely cemented and high plasticity sandy and clay rocks of terrace gold placers combined with development of the dredge range. Complex consists of a dredge with a stacker and installations meant for deep processing of sandy and clay rock of gold placers, a high-head hydromonitor device with a system controlling the barrel turn in a vertical plane, and a hydraulic transport pressure system. Complex is equipped with a bridge one end of which is hinged to a cross member of the dredge nose part posts and connected with a bridge turn drive, and free end is equipped with a linear guideway moving in a horizontal plane by means of a drive. Free end of the bridge by means of guides and sliding supports is telescoped with a crossbar with a stable support, which moves by means of a drive, and bridge is equipped with an additional stable support adjustable as per position relative to the hinge and movable linear guideway. Bridge is provided with longitudinal holes and guides. Additional stable support comes into contact with the bridge longitudinal holes, and is equipped with linear guideways coming into contact with the bridge guides. High-head hydromonitor device is installed on the end of the movable crossbar so that it can move in a vertical plane by means of a drive. The bridge turn drive is installed on a movable base connected via linear guideways to the guides.

EFFECT: intensifying mining process.

6 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of mineral deposits, particularly clay placers, and can be implemented in mining industry. The method consists in striking developed placers, in their layer-specific excavation with parallel trenches leaving between-trenches massifs, in concentrating and in piling. Also between the first trench and the circuit of developed deposit an additional ditch is made, wherein water is supplied; when a successive trench is entered, each preceding trench is successively filled with water. When the last trench is driven, deposit is flooded; between trenches massifs are debugged by means of a drag or dredger; notably, debugging is performed from the first trench to the last one.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of clay placers development by means of increased degree of disintegration and extraction of valuable component at reduced technological losses.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of deposits, particularly, gravel deposits, and can be implemented in mining industry. The method consists in stripping sand, in excavating and transporting sand to a hopper of a washing installation, in concentrating and in piling. Prior to transporting sand into the hopper of the washing installation, sand is piled in a trench laid in the center of the gravel deposit along the length of a production block at the depth below the level of the soil of the sand bed; the trench is filled with water. Also sands are piled in the trench below the water level, and their successive excavation is performed by the underwater method.

EFFECT: increased degree of disintegration of hard washed clayish sand and reduced process losses of valuable component with reduced cost for sand transporting.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of connate gravel deposits of solid minerals, particularly beach deposits of shelf. The method of development of connate water-flooded placers consists in preliminary concentration of useful component of sands in a lower part of the placer by means of excitation of elastic vibration and in successive stopped excavation. A tubular casing is introduced into the placer; the height of the casing exceeds the distance from the surface to the raft of the placer, excitation of elastic vibration in placer sands is performed by means of their transmission from surface via the tubular casing. Further a compressive force onto contacting surface, covering volume of empty material, is exerted from the side of interior surface of the casing. Then lower part of placer is hydraulically excavated by means of supply of washing water through nozzles arranged at walls of the tubular casing; pulp is withdrawn through soil draw-off apertures made at walls of the tubular casing between nozzles. Also after completion of excavation of lower part of the placer, pressure onto the surface, covering volume of empty material contacting with interior surface of the casing, is dropped to zero. When the cavity of the casing has been filled to a level corresponding to a ground level, the casing is pulled off.

EFFECT: increased selective extraction.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-transporting pressurised system with elements of cavitation consists of pipe with bends and of connected between them narrowing and expansion elements. The system is equipped with complex of jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation and with a rigidly fixed vortex. The narrowing element and expansion element are connected non-rigidly and pressure tight. The system of jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation consists of an upper and lower nozzles directed so as to provide air supply along the motion of the main direction of hydro-flow in the zone of the expansion element. Also the system of jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation is installed between the narrowing and expansion elements. The interior diameter of the end of the expansion element coupled with the narrowing element through seal rings is bigger, than the interior diameter of the narrowing element end. The crevice of the upper nozzle is installed so as to direct air supply to the wall of the expansion element, while the crevice of the lower nozzle is installed to direct air supply to the central part of the main direction of hydro-flow motion. Vortexes are arranged inside the narrowing and expansion elements and are made in form of right triangles.

EFFECT: intensification of process of sand-clay rock destruction by means of aero-hydrodynamic cavitation with pressurised hydro-transporting to systems of deep processing.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be implemented at development of underflow gravel deposits located in canyon like river valleys in the North. All works are carried out in winter time. Preliminary an ice dike is built by layer-by-layer silvering upstream of the developed site in the river valley to stop water flow; this dike dams a stream canal with its weight; further after irrigation and ice removal of the site the underflow sediments forming the gravel deposit are developed according to procedure including their preliminary freezing with atmosphere cold, then layer-by-layer mechanical cutting off and raising on boards of the valley. To accelerate freezing of underflow sediments with atmosphere cold there is foreseen driving of trenches of required parameters.

EFFECT: increased year yield of mined mass; prolongation of working season; facilitating river and valley cleanness, also facilitating free access of fish to spawning area.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to mining valuable minerals from strong and high-ductile sandy and clay rocks during open mining of gold-bearing placers. The hydro-transportation pressure system with cavitation elements comprises a pipe with curves, and pipe narrowing and widening elements, rigidly joined together. The hydro-transportation pressure system has a jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation system and rigidly fixed swirlers. The jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation system comprises a system of jet nozzles, which are directed, with provision for supplying air in the direction of the main movement of the hydro-stream, in the zone of the widening element, and fitted between the narrowing element and the widening element with insertion of jet nozzles in the wall of the widening element, with provision for air-tightness. Round diverters are fitted in front of the jet nozzles. The swirlers are fitted inside the narrowing element and the widening element, and are in form of right-angled triangles, the acute angles of which in the narrowing element, are oriented in the main direction of movement of the hydro-stream, and opposite the main direction of movement of the hydro-stream in the widening element.

EFFECT: intensification of the process of guided destruction of sandy and clay rocks using jet aero-hydrodynamic cavitation with pressure hydro-transportation to high-level processing systems.

6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to mining minerals from high-strength and high-plasticity sand and clay rocks during surface mining of gold-bearing placers. The hydro-transportation pressure system with mechanical cavitation has a narrowing element and an element for expanding the mechanical cavitator, with rigidly fixed swirlers. The movable reflecting element has an opening with curved edges. The swirlers are in form of right-angled triangles, the acute angles of which, in the narrowing element, are aligned in the direction of motion of the hydro-stream, and in the expansion element - against the direction of motion of the hydro-stream. The movable reflecting element is fitted on an axis with provision for periodic partial covering of the narrowest opening of the mechanical cavitator on both sides and is connected to the actuator of its rotation in the vertical plane.

EFFECT: intensification of the process of directed crushing of sand and clay rocks using mechanical cavitation with application of hydro-transportation to high-level processing system.

7 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to excavation of mineral deposits, and particularly to gravel deposits, and can be used in the mining industry. The method involves pre-formation of a basin, formation of a dry zone on the productive stratum and basin in the stripped area, fitting interconnected, mining, transport and dump systems into the basin. Formation of the basin in the stripped area is done after piling up sand in it, with further extraction of the latter using a subsurface technique. The minimum distance from the basin to the heap of sand, as well as the depth of the basin, is determined from the maximum degree of weakening of the latter and technological parameters of the mining equipment.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of excavating high-clayey alluvial deposits.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used in dredging of thawed placers. Method includes removal of dead ground from dredging site, digging of drainage trench, pre-dredging of sand layer, removal of boulders, flooding and dredging of sands. Pre-dredging is performed over the uncovered area through sand blading by backhoe excavator, which draws transverse juds in travelling trench.

EFFECT: improved dredger performance, reduced loss of mineral in the soil, and lower unit costs of dredging of hard-dredging placers.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to loose ground mining devices, and can be used for deep alluvial deposits of hard mineral resources, and mainly coastal shelf deposits. Alluvial mining device includes a body with a suction connection pipe and with scouring atomisers connected with a discharge cavity. Body is made in the form of a tubular shell the height of which exceeds the distance from surface to rim rock, and lateral dimensions of the body do not exceed a double action radius of scouring atomisers. Body cross section is square-shaped, at that scouring atomisers are arranged on the sides of the square, and suction connection pipes are located at its angles. Body is equipped at least with one vibrator. Internal wall of the body is equipped with a device forming a force impact which is perpendicular to internal surface of the body; device is made in the form of a hollow torus-shaped shell attached to internal surface of the body and equipped with the device changing pressure in the shell cavity, mostly with a reversible hydraulic pump.

EFFECT: providing the possibility of removing loose materials, and maintaining a vertical position of the resulting cavity walls.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has screw, having transporting spiral ribbon held on the shaft. Equipment is provided with U-shaped chute and perforated drum with armature in form of screw ribbon, having curvilinear shape in cross-section, arched in the direction of movement. Drum is mounted in upper portion of U-shaped chute. In its lower portion a screw is mounted.

EFFECT: higher productiveness.

3 dwg

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