Method and system of taking samples from atmosphere of reactor containment of nuclear process installation

FIELD: physics; measurement.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a system of taking samples from the atmosphere of a reactor containment of a nuclear process installation and a method of obtaining such a sample. The system of taking samples contains a pipe for taking samples, which enters the reactor containment and is connected to a low pressure system and an analysis system. There is a throttling device in front of the pipe for taking samples on the side of the gas, where it connects to the atmosphere in the reactor containment. The pipe for taking samples is a small pipe with nominal inner diametre of up to 15 mm, and is preferably in form of a capillary pipe with nominal inner diametre between 1 mm and 5 mm. When implementing the method of taking samples, low pressure is created in the pipe for taking samples, compared to pressure in the reactor containment. After the sample enters the pipe for taking samples, pressure in the pipe is limited.

EFFECT: possibility of taking a sample, suitable for taking exceptionally reliable and accurate measurement values.

22 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to a system for sampling to obtain samples from the atmosphere in the containment of nuclear engineering installation. It relates also to method of obtaining such samples.

In nuclear engineering installation can occur in a defective and, in particular, emergency situations after the accident with loss of coolant significant release of radioactivity. Thus, in particular, inside surrounding the active zone of the reactor containment or cover can be formed and stand out, in particular, hydrogen gas, thus on the basis of potentially explosive gas mixtures may be harmful to containment due to uncontrollable reactions of hydrogen.

Therefore, there are various concepts to prevent such explosive gas mixtures in the shelter or containment of nuclear engineering installation, in which, if necessary, perform inertization atmosphere in the containment. This may be provided, for example, a controlled ignition and combustion of the resulting fractions of hydrogen in the containment atmosphere. The share of hydrogen reliably reduced before the gas mixture will switch the ignition limit above which may occur uncontrollable reaction of hydrogen. As the e alternative solution or addition to this may also provide for controlled flow of inert gases, such as, for example, nitrogen in the atmosphere of the containment, so that on the basis of the high proportion of inert gas in the atmosphere containment eliminates the ignition of the gas mixture.

However, for controlled and the corresponding need to handle such emergency situations, for example for targeted supply of inert gases, it is necessary for reliable determination of the corresponding current actual state of the atmosphere in the containment. On the basis of the expected in these emergency situations relatively aggressive conditions for parts and components due to possible exposure to radiation and/or chemical reactivity of the constituents of the atmosphere cannot control the atmosphere of the containment and its components on the basis of the measured actual values of the measurement using the measurement or analytical systems inside containment with sufficient accuracy and reliability. But in spite of this to have the possibility of considering as a reliable basis for managing the necessary measures to combat the current actual state of the atmosphere containment can be provided by so-called sampling, in which a small amount of the containment atmosphere selected from itoi shell of the reactor and serves in located outside the containment area of analysis and evaluation. Suitable to obtain such sample method and is suitable to implement the method, the device is known for example from DE 4126894 A1.

In such known systems, the sampling is usually performed in located outside containment analytical chamber drying gas to be measured, while then measured by a thermal conductivity analyzer the concentration of hydrogen in the dried gas. To determine from this measured value of the actual concentration of hydrogen in the containment perform the correction using the gas content in the atmosphere of the containment. This correction is usually performed under the assumption of saturated when the pressure in the containment and temperature of the containment. While the actual water vapor content in the atmosphere of the containment and the actual concentration of hydrogen can be determined only with insufficient accuracy due to possible existing overheating. Very different atmospheric conditions from the conditions of saturation to severe overheating caused due to being in the atmosphere of shares active inert gases and aerosol decay products, which depending on the progress of the accident can imagine the power of residual heat from a few kW up to many 100 kW. In addition, it should be considered that also in different zones simple the of Christianity and the height of the containment due to the different effects of cooling structures, exterior walls, cooling systems etc. can be considerable differences of temperature. So the actual temperature of the atmosphere can deviate from the temperature of saturation, for example, at more than 100C, and therefore do not provide reliable conclusions about the actual partial pressures of steam.

As an alternative solution, you could also install sensors hydrogen directly into the containment, which operate on the principle of thermal effect. These sensors can be connected using protected from interference, however, is not protected from accidents cables located outside the containment area of the measuring electronics. However, the measurement of hydrogen using only a measuring device with reduced oxygen content and, in particular, at high radial loads medium and long duration is impossible. Thus, when the internal conditions can not be a reliable measurement of the concentration of hydrogen, and in addition there is a relatively high cross-sensitivity to carbon monoxide, which may be released during the interaction of concrete with molten nuclear fuel. So just for the active management of accidents and targeted management interventions such systems are inadequate is I.

Furthermore, in known systems, the sampling can usually analyze only the shares of the individual gases, such as, for example, the proportion of hydrogen or fractions of oxygen, with a direct determination of the state passivation atmosphere containment cannot be done by direct measurement of water vapor content and carbon dioxide.

Therefore, the basis of the invention is the creation of a system of sampling to obtain samples from the atmosphere in the containment of nuclear engineering installation, which provides the samples, especially suitable for determining a particularly reliable and accurate measuring values for the fractions of the gases of the atmosphere of the containment. It also offers a particularly suitable method of obtaining such samples.

Regarding the sampling system, this task is solved according to the invention with the help of the United system of low pressure and system analysis, which is included in the protective shell of the reactor pipe sampling, before which the gas side at the connection with the atmosphere in the containment of the reactor enabled the throttle device.

This invention proceeds from the fact that to determine the characteristic for the current actual state of the atmosphere containment, especially accurate measured values obtained p is both with especially high precision display conditions of the atmosphere inside the containment. For this purpose it is necessary to exclude the influences that can cause a falsification of the composition of the sample compared with the actual composition of the atmosphere in the containment. As was established, as one possible source of such deviations properties of the samples taken from the properties of the actual atmosphere of the containment in situation of an accident can be considered generally conducted by drying the gas to be measured and the subsequent accounting for the effects of water vapor content in the assumption of saturation conditions in the containment. If a significant release of radioactivity and hydrogen and the assumption of saturated steam based on the measured temperatures of the atmosphere it easily leads to prepoznavanje explosive atmosphere conditions and may lead to the initiation of inappropriate proteomes, which may represent a danger to the integrity of the protective shell.

To avoid making such boundary conditions and provide instead for direct detection of the actual conditions of the atmosphere in the containment when possible existing overheating or other complicating conditions, it is necessary to reliably prevent condensation may be contained in the atmosphere and thus are also in the sample pair in the pipeline sampling also when crossing the colder zones protective about the glasses, and thus already before reaching the applicable valuation measurement. To ensure this, with special high working safety and passive way, i.e. without the need for active management outside the system sampling performed to save the superheated condition during transport of the sample through the pipeline sampling. This is achieved through consistent persistence of low pressure in the pipeline sampling during transportation of the samples. Established already in the pipeline sampling before taking the actual sample for transport reasons, a reduced pressure is maintained during the transportation of the sample in the pipeline sampling, via a suitable throttling of the pipeline sampling in the input area.

For conservation under reduced pressure during transport of the sample through the pipeline sampling is simple and reliable way pipeline sampling is preferably in the form of a small pipe with a nominal diameter up to 15 mm, and in a particularly preferred embodiment, in the form of a capillary tube with a nominal diameter of about 1-5 mm in Addition, due to such execution pipeline sampling ensured that the volume taken the Rob can be particularly small, so even at relatively high quantities released into the atmosphere containment of radioactivity in the outer zone of the reactor containment can make a particularly small amount of the total radioactivity. In addition, having such dimensions pipe sampling also has high reliability with respect to damage, because even if you know full rupture sampling occur due to this additional leakage from the reactor containment in its environment is only minor in comparison, and without having provided the estimated leak.

Due to this, it is possible in General to refuse mandatory in conventional systems, sampling based on the possible large cross-sections leakage double shut-off devices in the area of the openings in the protective shell, including input into the system sampling. In addition, the capillary tube with a diameter of, for example, 3 mm and a wall thickness of only 0.5 mm already have a design pressure of more than 50 bar, which basically increases the reliability against failure at the design pressure of the containment, for example about 5 bar. Assuming, for example, 5-10 takes samples from the containment additionally produced savings of 10-20 stop valves of the containment. This leads, on the one hand, to a considerable decrease in SRT is on, and also provides by excluding fittings in this zone, the optimal overheating of the sample in the passageway.

The throttle device can be a single reactor or to provide a larger inlet diameter is also a multistage throttle, or choke in the form of a porous body. The throttle device preferably has a thin penetration hole size of 0.05-2 mm, preferably 0.5 mm in combination with the prescribed sizes of pipelines sampling, designed the system sampling directly after sampling ensures that the pressure drop in the pipeline sampling to less than about 50% of the available containment pressure through passive means. Thus, provided immediate drying gas and overheating for throttling is provided in the entire area of the pipeline sampling inside containment. In the area of the passage through the outer wall of the protective sheath also has a much more favorable conditions, because even at high partial pressures of gas in a few bar can easily be achieved heating, for example, from 50 to 80C., in particular due to the additional heating using low-temperature heating element, and thereby, it is possible reliably to remain below the critical value is their temperature, for example, concrete is about 80-100C.

In addition, the throttle device is preferably supplemented by the filter unit, thus preventing deterioration even in the case of coarse dirt or the like, While the filter unit, which can be provided, in particular, to deter coarse aerosols, preferably contains a porous filter material, such as, for example, the powder material or weave of metal fibers. Due to additional short-term backwashing with compressed air or nitrogen, preferably from cylinders with pressures greater than 10 bar to the pressure in the cylinder, for example, 100 bar, is provided additionally reliable flushing may be contaminated throttle cross-sections.

To ensure reliable estimates of the samples and, in particular, a relatively accurate analysis of the components of the gas share in her pipeline sampling provided outside the containment direct heat, and enabled after the pipeline sampling analysis system is preferably equipped with heated outer housing by type of unit. It is advisable executed so that the analysis of the samples can be performed in the temperature range of about 120C or large excess pressures in the containment up to 160C. thus, when evaluating taken the samples reliably eliminates condensation, so that you can determine the most accurate measurements for an individual gas constituents of the atmosphere's protective shell.

Particularly high operational reliability and mechanical stability of the sampling system is achieved by the fact that the pipeline sampling preferably laid in a protective tube.

In order for reasons particularly high working reliability to keep the number of active components inside containment is particularly small, the system low pressure sampling system preferably is located outside containment. As a system of reduced pressure may be provided, in particular, located outside the containment system of pumps, such as diaphragm vacuum pump or ink-jet vacuum pump. In the alternative or additionally may be provided to supply quick vacuum pulse plug by using a rapidly opening valve vacuum tank. When multi-run sampling system, i.e. in parallel operation of several pipelines sampling can be instead of a Central pumping unit is also provided for each pipeline sampling separate pump low pressure, in particular microvacuum pump.

p> The analysis system is preferably located relatively close to the containment to hold a small amount of ways of transportation. The analysis system may contain, in particular, a large number of adsorption columns, with different adsorption columns is the separation of gas constituents and the subsequent selective measurement of gas components on thermal conductivity detectors at the exit from the column. At the same time in a small volume of gas, for example less than 1 l, it is possible to carry out a complete gas analysis by passing the gas through the adsorption column relative to water vapour, as well as in parallel adsorption columns is possible to measure the content of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide and/or carbon monoxide, and possibly inert gases even in noisy environments. From these analytical values along with the possible danger of the atmosphere containment to get specific information about the possible state of damage of the reactor core and its position, for example, by measuring WITH. In the alternative or as an additional measure to improve reliability, you can perform the determination of hydrogen concentration simply in thermostat using the detector teploprovodnost is, as well as determining the fraction of steam using capacitive polymer directly in the measured gas. The corresponding sensitive to radiation and temperature microprocessor electronic evaluation unit equipped with shielding separately outside of thermostat.

The system preferably operates so that the measuring sensors after the performed analysis are washed with inert gases and thereby reduces the emissivity of the load in the area analyzers compared to continuous analysis. System management and device preferably is carried out by means of freely programmable digital control, so that, for example, depending on the actual situation of the location in the installation taking into account the different transportation times to agree on the appropriate vacuum pulses by changing the parameters. Due to the high isolation of less than 100 W/m2minimized heat loss in the area of the pipe and thermostat to less than 5 kW of power in continuous mode, so you can provide power even when the power supply, permanently or with a quick connect battery through the network or a separate diesel emergency power supply.

To ensure a targeted supply samples taken in the analysis system in the pipeline usati the samples in front of the entrance or at the entrance to the analysis system preferably included insulating the tank for testing. Before it can be incorporated buffer tank or a buffer of the pipeline, the volume of which in a suitable embodiment, the approximately 2-10 times the volume of the insulation of the tank for testing. This ensures that once free from the losses of the working phase of low pressure pipelines sampling to pass in a protective shell in the next phase of pressure increase at the expense of what is possible in this case, lowering the temperature below the dew point in the capillary tube inside the containment cannot be transported modified measuring gas until the volume of the measuring gas (insulating tank sample). Due to the subsequent reverse washing dry gas such as nitrogen, drying of these areas before taking the next sample. As an alternative solution, the compression of the measuring gas can be initiated through the gas flow due to upstream volume and the small size of emerging small thread of the piston in the pipeline again excluded the input of the modified measurement gas in the reservoir of sample preparation.

To ensure retention stipulated settlement overheating the samples during transport through the pipeline sampling pipe sampling preferably ispolnen with heating in the area outside the containment. Thus, it is possible without installing the active components inside the containment to ensure that, where appropriate, through targeted heating of different areas of the pipeline sampling eliminates condensation even at relatively long transportation routes.

For holding possibly released in the outer zone sampling radioactivity is particularly low, in another preferred embodiment of the pipeline sampling connected part of the protective shell of the reactor pipe reverse flow. Due to this you can carry out, in particular, the reverse flow of recovered radioactive substances with the help of compressors and/or due to the location of the site slowing down of the inert gas, for example, on the basis of activated carbon or zeolite. This is achieved by using particularly simple means due to the fact that the transportation and the creation of a vacuum by using a jet of gas or, at least, temporarily using seized from gas cylinders compressed gas.

Regarding the method of obtaining samples of the specified kind, this task is solved by the fact that in the pipeline sampling creates a reduced pressure compared to the pressure inside the reactor containment, however after logging the sample into the pipeline taken the I samples the pressure in the pipeline sampling limit of about 60% of the pressure in the containment. This is preferably achieved by the fact that the entry of the sample into the pipeline sampling and/or occurrence of the component parts of the atmosphere in the pipeline sampling drossellied.

The above concept of sampling and subsequent analysis provides attainable accuracy and reliability, essentially, regardless of the protective shell of the reactor current oxygen concentration. To further increase reliability and thereby working security preferably achieved through a combination of this method with the so-called method of thermal effect to measure the hydrogen concentration in the containment of the reactor, which operates independently of the oxygen concentration.

This is preferably performed additionally in several places in the containment as a redundancy measure hydrogen concentration on the principle of thermal effect. Provided for the measurement of both methods are preferably located in the same areas of space containment, so that especially in the early phase flow potential accidents can be achieved through the comparison included both ways of measuring values with each other relatively accurately detect the concentration of combustible gas, oxygen concentration and a valid Konzentrat the Yu hydrogen.

In the method of thermal effect in the sensor head, which is installed directly in the atmosphere containment, place catalytically active thread and not acting as a catalyst heated thread. In the presence of hydrogen in the ambient atmosphere, depending on the available oxygen concentration, oxidation on the catalytically active threads, through which the cable is connected to outside the containment electronic device.

Occurring due to the starting temperature rises, the increase in electrical resistance is compensated by means of an electrical bridge circuit. Current compensation is a direct measure of the incident hydrogen oxidation and it can give the signal quality measurement of hydrogen or the concentration of combustible gas.

Resulting signals it further processed to be used in both methods of analysis of the control and evaluation.

Obtained using the above method, thermal conductivity of hydrogen concentration corresponds to the actual concentration regardless of the current oxygen concentration. By comparing obtained using both methods values of hydrogen concentration can thereby determine the actual concentration of hydrogen (TopLop is bednesti), also, when excess oxygen excess concentration of hydrogen through thermal effect.

Available in possible emergencies related to safety, probable cases, relatively high concentrations of hydrogen at reduced oxygen concentrations to determine the maximum concentration of hydrogen on the principle of thermal conductivity, the concentration of combustible gas by means of a method using a sensor of a thermal effect and additionally oxygen concentration.

By controlling the obtained measuring values using appropriate computational scheme of the analysis system sampling and constant comparison with the measurement values of the method using a cable and sensors can additionally define the rate of hydrogen, and on the basis of the determined amount of oxygen in the containment additionally, the rate of oxidation of hydrogen and balance them. Due to this, along with the assessment of the current potential danger for the installation, you can do also important conclusions about the accident, for example, is stopped if the oxidation of the fuel rods, so maybe purposeful initiation of appropriate proteomes.

These methods are preferably used, in particular, in transition, early f the e accident because in the further course of the accident, the oxygen reacts in containment. So the cables are in the way with the use of sensors and cables are preferable from the standpoint of cost of manufacture and installation be done in the form of a plastic cable with the rejection of fully ceramic design, duration of operation at an average load of irradiation up to 24 hours can be considered as sufficient. During the continuation of an accident due to heavy load irradiation can prevent the failure of the cable, which is also recognized by the electronics, so then applies only to the method of sampling and analysis.

Benefits advantages of the invention consist in particular in that by establishing appropriately selected low pressure in the pipeline sampling and holding by throttling when entering the sample in the pipeline sampling, as well as during transportation of the sample from the place of capture to located outside the containment system analysis consistently remains overheated state of the samples. This eliminates leading to possible distortion of the results of the analysis of the condensation of water vapor during transportation of the samples. Thus the sample can be analyzed as to what PR is particularly accurately reflect the actual relationships within containment. Thus, it is possible to obtain a particularly reliable measurement results of the current actual state of the atmosphere containment without the use of generalized data or estimates. Due to the achieved particularly precise determination of the actual values for the atmosphere of the containment is especially appropriate conditions for the implementation and management of proteomelab and thus particularly reliable control even when controlling in the conditions of the accident.

In addition, due to the chosen dimensions of the pipeline sampling and other components occurring when sampling the leakage of radioactivity can be kept particularly small, even in relatively severe emergency situations, so that the penetration of radioactive substances into the environment can be kept particularly small. Due to the high isolation of less than 100 W/m2heat loss in the area of pipeline and Cabinet are minimized to less than 5 kW of continuous power, so the power supply even in situations of off current is provided through a network of batteries or a separate diesel emergency power supply continuously or within a short period of time. In the early phase of a possible course of the accident can provide continuous measurement of the concentration of hydrogen using a suitable comb the nation is additionally located in the containment sensors hydrogen and the above method. When this is carried out additionally in several places in the containment measurement of hydrogen concentration on the principle of thermal effect. To do this, the sensor head is placed catalytically active thread and valid non-catalytic heated filament. Upon the occurrence of hydrogen oxidation on the catalytically active threads, through which the cable is connected to outside the containment electronic device. The resulting change in the electrical resistance is compensated by means of an electrical bridge circuit. The received signal is further processed to be used in both the control and evaluation. Due to this, in a short time you can create a continuous signal of hydrogen concentration and upon receipt of the analysis and obtained by the conductivity measuring the amount of hydrogen it is possible to draw conclusions about the content of oxygen in the atmosphere.

By controlling the obtained measuring values and comparison with the method using sensors and cable can optionally control the time of failure of the cable based on extreme loads irradiation zone of the cable.

In one of the embodiments of the sampling system to the pipeline sampling connected part of the protective blockbreaker return line.

In one embodiment of the method of sampling low pressure spontaneously create with the quick-opening valve, and the amount of suction from the return tank to the low pressure. The volume of the sample for separate analysis can be limited to less than 1 l and/or radioactivity content is less than 1010Bq. In another embodiment of the method of sampling at a partial pressure of steam in a few bar seats sampling exclude overcoming the dew point in the measuring gas by reducing the pressure in the unit of analysis is preferably up to 1 bar.

Below is a detailed description of examples of implementation of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, which depict:

figure 1 - system sampling;

figure 2 is an alternative embodiment of the sampling system, and

figure 3 is a throttle device for use in the system of sampling according to figure 1 or 2.

Identical parts are marked in all figures the same positions.

System 1 sampling, shown in figure 1, is provided for receiving the sample from the atmosphere in a protective shell 1 of the reactor neizabranog nuclear engineering installation. For this system 1 sampling includes many members of the protective sheath 2 of the reactor through the passage 4 in its outer wall 6 of the 8 pipelines sampling. They are connected cher the C valve unit 10, which can selectively and specifically to choose any pipeline 8 sampling system 12 low pressure system 14 analysis. The system 14 of the analyses made with the possibility of heating by type of thermostat the outer body 16, in which in addition to the valve block 10 is enclosed in the casing of the detector 18. The detector 18, made for example in the form of a capacitive sensor, connected to the first electronic device 20 for determining the content of water vapor, with the second measuring location 22 to determine the percentage of hydrogen, preferably on the principle of thermal conductivity, and the third measuring 24 to determine the percentage of oxygen. Measuring designated 20, 22, 24 are connected at the output with the Central electronic unit 26 estimates, which also performs all system control and, if necessary, a comparison of the redundant sensor signal. In neizabranog embodiment, the cooling may be missing, and measuring the space 22 and 24 can be located in thermostat 16.

System 1 sampling is used to obtain the most accurate and reliable measurement results share of the gas atmosphere inside the containment 2. This includes purposeful exclusion of condensation jointly transported water vapor when translating the robe from the interior of the protective sheath 2 of the reactor in the gas separator 18, so together the transported water vapor quantitatively and qualitatively measured and taken into account in the subsequent evaluation. To ensure this, the system 1 sampling performed with the possibility of transferring the sample into the overheated condition in the gas separator 18 system 14 analysis. When this overheating condition is established and maintained through passive means, i.e. without the need for external intervention, due to the fact that during transportation of the sample in the pipeline 8 sampling is set and held suitably selected negative pressure. For this purpose, the pipes 8 sampling at its included in the protective sheath 2 reactor end provided with each throttle device 30.

The throttle device 30, in front of which is enabled to prevent blocking, and contain coarse aerosol filter 32 consisting, for example, from a porous filtering material, such as powdered metal or plexus metal fibers made this deliberately so, to save each pipeline 8 sampling also when entering the flow of atmosphere from the interior of the protective sheath 2 reactor low pressure, in particular, less than or equal to about 50% of the pressure in the containment. To achieve this with a relatively simple among the STV each pipeline 8 sampling performed, on the one hand, in the form of a capillary tube with a relatively small internal nominal diameter of about 3 mm on the other hand, enabled before him, the throttle device 30 is of suitable size and has a free flow cross-section of about 0.5 mm. Transportation of samples is due to the reduced pressure in the capillary tubes with a speed of preferably from more than 5 m/s to 50 m/s, so you can implement a small duration of transportation.

In addition, pipelines 8 sampling is performed with heating in the area outside the outer wall 6 of the protective sheath 2 of the reactor. Pass through the protective shell of the reactor is heated using low-temperature elements to less than 80C. ensures that even with a relatively long passage of the pipeline are saving superheated condition of the samples prior to joining the system 14 analysis. To return possibly extracted together with the breakdown of radioactive substances into the interior of the protective sheath 2 reactor each pipeline 8 sampling connected with leading protective shell 2 reactor return pipe 40. This return line 40, in which is included as a possible buffer tank 42 return shipments, provided under quality systems is 12 reduced pressure by a vacuum pump, so it can be further used for the evacuation of the corresponding pipeline 8 sampling and backward transportation in the protective sheath 2 of the reactor.

In the exemplary embodiment according to figure 2, the system 1' of the sampling system has 14' analysis, which is performed essentially modular. The system 14' analysis contains the module 50 sampling and measurement module 52, which is made in the form of a thermostat heated outer housing 16. In this example, the execution module 50 sampling is the reservoir 54 to isolate the sample in which the intermediate is stored extracted through the pipe 8 sampling from the interior of the protective sheath 2 reactor the sample is directly analyzed or retained for further evaluation. In addition, the module 50 sampling contains the necessary probes, microcephaly with many inputs, the locking microcephaly, rapidly opening the vacuum valves and chokes and/or valves to reduce pressure.

Due to the upstream reservoir 54 isolation of the sample in the pipeline 8 sampling additional volume 55 ensures that the next regime of low pressure phase of the pressure build-up due to the possible overcoming of the dew point in the capillary tube inside the protective shell 2 reactor change the i.i.d. measurement gas is not transported in the volume of the measuring gas. As an alternative solution due to closing are included in the pipeline 8 sampling valve 90 and the pressure increases through the feed gas pipeline 92 and passing through the additional volume 55 can be the same way to achieve increased pressure in the tank 54 isolation of the sample without distortion of the measuring gas. By flushing with dry gas, for example nitrogen, drying of these areas before taking the next sample. As an alternative solution, the compression of the measuring gas can be initiated by gas flow through the pipe 92 and close the valve 90, while on the basis of pre-included extra volume 55 and piston flow in the pipeline again excludes the entrance of the modified measuring gas in the tank insulation samples. An additional volume 55 may serve, in particular, the buffer volume, and can be 2-5 times larger than the internal volume of the tank 54 isolation of the sample.

In the measuring module 52 contains components dosing sample, and measurements of the adsorption column and the measuring space and the sensors 20, 22, 24. The measuring module 52 is connected through the discharge pipe 56, which includes the fan 58 low pressure system 60 exhaust air.

In addition, the system is 1 and' sampling to ensure a particularly small release of radioactivity through the return pipe 40 is connected with a plot 62 deceleration inert gas, in particular, based on activated carbon or zeolite. As shown also in figure 2, optionally in combination to the system sampling or as a redundant measurements provided by the measurement of hydrogen concentration. It contains several maps in a protective sheath 2 reactor sensors 94 hydrogen, which are connected with outside the protective shell 2 block 96 evaluation. The data points from signals delivered additionally used in both the electronic control and evaluation.

The sample included the relevant pipeline sampling throttle device 30 shown in section and in enlarged scale in figure 3. The throttle device 30 includes a main body 70, which is through having the appropriate size and shape wall holder 72 mounted on the wall element of the protective sheath 2 of the reactor. In addition, the main body 70 is connected to the input end of the pipe 8 sampling.

To provide throttling of the gas inlet of the gas atmosphere in the pipeline 8 sampling throttle device 30 includes a throttle body 74, which in comparison with the nominal diameter is made in the form of a capillary tube pipe 8 sampling of about 3 mm has a lower free throughput cross-section of about 0.5 mm Entrance area of the throttle body 74 surrounded, p is essentially cylindrical, provided in the form of a coarse separator liquid separator 76 droplets and particles. Inside the separator 76 for the formation of the filtering device is a filtering body 78 of sintered metal or woven fabrics of metal fibers. Formed from these components, the system is surrounded provided as protection against splashes of sheath 80.

List of items:

1, 1' System sampling

2 containment reactor

4 Pass

6, the Outer wall

8 Pipeline sampling

10 Valve unit

12 low pressure System

14, 14' System analysis

16 the Outer body

18 the Detector/gas separator in containment

20, 22, 24 of the Measuring place

26 Electronic evaluation unit and process control

30 Throttle device

32 Filter

40 Return line

42 Tank return shipments

50 Module sampling

52 Measuring module

54 isolation Module samples

55 Additional volume

56 Lateral pipeline

58 Fan low pressure

60 the exhaust System

62 Plot of deceleration inert gas

70 Main body

72 Wall holder

74 Throttle body

76 Separator drops or solid particles

78 Filter body

80 Shell

90 Valve

92 Flow g is for

94 Sensors hydrogen

96 the evaluation Unit

1. System (1, 1') sampling to obtain samples from the atmosphere in a protective sheath (2) reactor nuclear engineering installation, containing connected to the system (12) low pressure and connected to the system (14) analysis, which is the protective sheath (2) reactor pipe (8) sampling, in front of which side of the gas at the connection with the atmosphere in a protective sheath (2) reactor enabled the throttle device (30), and pipeline (8) sampling is made in the form of a small pipe with a nominal diameter up to 15 mm, preferably in the form of a capillary tube with a nominal diameter of from about 1 mm to 5 mm

2. System (1, 1') sampling to claim 1, the throttle device (30) which has a free flow cross-section of from 0.05 to 2 mm, preferably about 0.5 mm.

3. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, the throttle device (30) is equipped with a filter unit (32).

4. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, the system (14) analysis which is supplied with heated outer housing (16).

5. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, in which the outer insulation limits heat loss to less than 100 W/m2preferably less than 50 W/m2.

6. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, the power supply for protection against power outages contains baht is reinou network and/or a separate diesel units emergency power supply.

7. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, which is to control and regulate equipped with a freely programmable digital control unit.

8. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, the pipe (8) sampling which is laid in a protective tube.

9. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, the system (12) low pressure which is located outside the containment (2) of the reactor.

10. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, in the pipeline (8) sampling which before entry into the system (14) analysis included tank (54) isolation of the sample.

11. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 11, the reservoir (54) isolation of the sample which has 2-5 smaller internal volume than is included in front of him, the buffer amount.

12. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, the pipe (8) sampling which is performed with heating in the area outside the containment (2) of the reactor.

13. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, the system (14) analysis which provides for gas analysis components of the fraction of hydrogen and/or content of the steam and/or carbon monoxide multiple capacitive polymer sensors and/or detectors thermal conductivity.

14. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, to the pipeline (8) sampling which is connected included in the protective sheath (2) reactor return line (40).

15. System (1, 1') sampling according to claim 1, containing a few based on the principle of thermal effect Yes the Chikov (94) hydrogen, located within the protective envelope (2) of the reactor and is connected to the data transmission with an external unit (96) assessment and through him with total electronic control unit (26) evaluation.

16. The method of obtaining samples from the atmosphere in a protective sheath (2) reactor nuclear engineering installation, which in the pipeline (8) sampling creates a low pressure in comparison with the existing in a protective sheath (2) reactor pressure, when the input samples in the pipeline (8) sampling the pressure in the pipe (8) sampling limit, and a pipeline (8) sampling is made in the form of a small pipe with a nominal diameter up to 15 mm, preferably in the form of a capillary tube with a nominal diameter of from about 1 mm to 5 mm

17. The method according to clause 16, in which a reduced pressure spontaneously create with the quick-opening valve, and the amount of suction from the return tank low pressure.

18. The method according to any of PP or 18, in which after completion of sampling perform the change of pressure with backwashing devices analysis and pipeline sampling.

19. The method according to clause 16, in which the volume of the sample for separate analysis is limited to less than 1 l and/or radioactivity content is less than 1010BC.

20. The method according to clause 16, in which drossellied occurrence of samples in the pipeline(8) sampling.

21. The method according to clause 16, in which at a partial pressure of steam in a few bar seats sampling by reducing the pressure in the unit of analysis is preferably up to 1 bar exclude overcoming the dew point in the measuring gas.

22. The method according to clause 16, which define additional measured value for the concentration of hydrogen in the containment (2) reactor using the method of thermal effect.



 

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The invention relates to methods and devices for obtaining samples from the atmosphere in a hermetically closed vessel, in particular from the tank of reactor protection of nuclear power plants

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a barrel, a dynamic system made as a rod rotatable around its axis and a sample receiver connected to it movably, a charging chamber - a cartridge chamber, closure mechanism and percussion trigger. The closure mechanism consists of a body, a lock and a latch; the lock is fitted with a cup; an extractor hook to get a used cartridge from the cartridge chamber, stops, a core bullet with a sting, a limiter, an L-shaped groove. The body is fixed in the upper part of the barrel and is fitted by a shaped channel, an annular cut, through holes and a stopper limiting the lock movement within the L-shaped groove and the latch comprises bolts and a spring. The latch bolts are made so that to be able to close through holes of the body and block the lock stops in its annular cut; the core bullet sting is made so that to go beyond the cup when the lock is moving which allows the core bullet sting to reflect the used cartridge to the body through hole when interacting with a spring-loaded striker.

EFFECT: providing for favourable interaction of the closure mechanism parts, protection of its parts against unfavourable conditions, increasing labour productivity.

8 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and veterinary science, namely to histological analysis. Polychromatic colouring method for detecting the general organ histostructure includes histological images of xylenes, alcohols of drop concentration, distilled water, Carazzi's hematoxyline, tap water (three portions), acidified distilled water, Akimchenkov's paint, acidified distilled water, graded alcohols, mixed xylene and alcohol 100 (taken in equal parts), xylenes thereafter balmed. The method includes in addition one more passage Akimchenkov's paint followed by rinsing in acidified distilled water.

EFFECT: allows for considerably improved colouring quality of histological images, making it possible to differentiate with confidence both epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues in histological preparations of all organs.

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to field of environment protection, namely to device and method of control of air pollution with nano-sized particles when they are emitted into atmosphere. Device for control of air pollution with nano-sized particles contains container with depositing substrate. Container is made from material possessing high heat capacity and chemically inert to atmospheric components. Upper part of container is covered with hermetic lid, inside container movable rod with support made from low heat-capacity material is placed. Depositing substrate is made in form of microdispersive chemically inert powder, which possesses increased active surface. Substrate is laid on support in thin layer. In upper part of lateral part of container there is a row of holes for formation of convective and turbulent air flows inside container. Method of control of air pollution with nano-sized particles lies in sedimentation of aerosols on depositing substrate. As substrate thin layer of microdispersive chemically inert powder, which possesses increased active surface is used. Before sedimentation gradient of temperatures between substrate and atmospheric air flow is created. Particle sedimentation is carried out on microporous quasi-surface formed by aggregates from microdispersive mineral particles and interlayers of capillary liquid. In order to form capillary liquid relative air humidity higher than 50% is created, and nano-sized particles are retained on substrate by action of molecular forces of vandervals type.

EFFECT: increase of quality and reliability of atmosphere state estimation in areas of enterprises which use nano-technologies.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine and biology, in particular to instruments for microscopic research and diagnostics. Device for containing histological and biological samples includes working zone, bin for integumentary glasses with cut in lower part, integumentary glass pusher, means for laying integumentary glass, able to produce alternating motion above working zone, and press connected with drive of alternating motion of means for laying integumentary glass. Integumentary glass pusher is made in form of plate whose thickness is less than thickness of integumentary glass. Means for laying integumentary glass is made in form of at least one spring-loaded plate or needle, with length exceeding width of pusher, and is placed directly under it. Rotation axis of means for laying integumentary glass is fixed in the same fastener with pusher base, said fastener is connected with drive of alternating motion in direction perpendicular to working zone, representing carriage on which guides for press lifting and descending are placed. Press is made in form of at least one elastic pressure element, fixed on lever which has side prop, located in contact with guides on carriage.

EFFECT: simplification of device servicing, as well as in increase of accuracy of placing integumentary glass on stage.

4 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine and biology, in particular to instruments for microscopic research and diagnostics. Device for containing histological and biological samples includes working zone, bin for integumentary glasses with cut in lower part, integumentary glass pusher, means for laying integumentary glass, able to produce alternating motion above working zone, and press connected with drive of alternating motion of means for laying integumentary glass. Integumentary glass pusher is made in form of plate whose thickness is less than thickness of integumentary glass. Means for laying integumentary glass is made in form of at least one spring-loaded plate or needle, with length exceeding width of pusher, and is placed directly under it. Rotation axis of means for laying integumentary glass is fixed in the same fastener with pusher base, said fastener is connected with drive of alternating motion in direction perpendicular to working zone, representing carriage on which guides for press lifting and descending are placed. Press is made in form of at least one elastic pressure element, fixed on lever which has side prop, located in contact with guides on carriage.

EFFECT: simplification of device servicing, as well as in increase of accuracy of placing integumentary glass on stage.

4 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: aerosol biological sampling instrument comprises a casing with outlet union to connect the appliance designed to force air through the sampling instrument, a vortex chamber with intake branch pipe arranged tangentially therein and a cyclone. The cyclone base is connected to the vortex chamber upper part. The proposed device comprises also a circulation fluid collector fitted at the cyclone top and a sorbing fluid reservoir connected, via the drain pipe, with the circulation fluid collector. The sorbing fluid reservoir is also connected to the drain pipe. The sampling instrument incorporates also the sorbing fluid sprayer and fluid ejector representing a nozzle arranged in the first inner channel of intake branch pipe. The latter represents a stepwise pipe with the smaller diameter on the branch pipe inlet, while fluid ejector nozzle is arranged on the intake branch pipe larger-diameter part in the section of diameter stepwise change and is connected, via the ejector pipe, with the said reservoir. Note here that the intake branch pipe has the second inner stepwise channel with smaller diameter on the branch pipe inlet side. The sprayer comprises additionally an air ejector representing a nozzle arranged in the said second inner channel of intake branch pipe located in the larger-diameter second inner channel part in the section of diameter stepwise change and is connected, via the ejector pipe, with the said reservoir.

EFFECT: reduced loss of fluid circulating in sampling instrument, higher efficiency of entrapping aerosol particles from air flow.

3 cl, 3 dwg

Sampling instrument // 2353913

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed sampling instrument comprises components of control and discharge and a system of intake pipes. The length of pipes is selected subject to sampling levels, while their amount is defined by the number of sampling points. Aforesaid intake pipes are fixed in the bracket vertically and in parallel to each other. There are flexible pipes tightly connected, by their one ends, with the lower ends of the aforesaid pipes and, by their other ends, connected to appropriate unions fitted in holes. Note that the holes are arranged in a passage element representing a disk. The proposed sampling instrument incorporates additionally a positioning shaft furnished with a bend arranged eccentrically at right angle to the shaft rotation axis. The shaft bend features a ledge representing truncated cone arranged at the bend end and at right angle to it. The shaft has a though inner bore with its outlet connected to the drain pipe. Note that the shaft ledge truncated cone features the shape and sizes corresponding to those of their receiving seats arranged on the passage element opening outlet. Aforesaid passage element is arranged in the reservoir hatch furnished with a hole through which the positioning shaft cylindrical part is passed. The shaft circular part tightly abuts upon the hatch inner side and is connected to aforesaid disk along its edges to form a rigid frame. The shaft horizontal part located in the said frame accommodates a spring to lock the ledge truncated cone in its seat.

EFFECT: higher reliability, ease of sampling.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to metering equipment and may be used in mixture sampling from pipeline in oil production industry, stowing complexes of mining enterprises in transportation of mill tails of mining enterprises and in other industries, where high accuracy is required for definition of admixtures and granulometric composition, in certain points of pipeline section. Installation comprises mounting nozzle arranged in the form of flange insert installed in pipeline. Device for elimination of vibrations is fixed on external surface of flange insert. This device is arranged in the form of several cartridges with covers and bottoms located in one section that is perpendicular to pipeline axis. Sampling tubes with bent ends at the level of mixture sampling are rigidly connected to covers and bottoms of cartridges of device for vibrations elimination and are equipped with taps and arranged with different diameter, which is larger at pipeline bottom and reduces to the top of pipeline.

EFFECT: provision of simultaneous sampling in different points of section along pipeline perimeter.

2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: liquid proportioner comprises a casing, a cylindrical part arranged inside aforesaid casing, a piston reciprocating in the aforesaid cylindrical part and piston drive. It incorporates also a secondary appliance to accelerate the piston on emptying the proportioner as compared to the piston motion on suction. The said secondary appliance incorporates the means to generate power required for acceleration, appliance to block the said power generation source and the appliance to start up the latter. The invention also covers the method of proportioning using the aforesaid proportioner.

EFFECT: simple and accurate proportioning.

14 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to analytical methods for analysis of liquid samples and will find application in sampling of fractions both in regular and highly efficient liquid chromatography, in analytical chemistry, biochemistry and other fields of analysis that require flow switching. Method for sampling of liquid samples consists in installation of test tube coaxially under outlet opening for liquid flow, flow switching to the other test tube and sample sampling in test tube. Sampling of sample in test tube is done by switch setting to fixed position defined by the following ratio: a1=r(1+0.4÷0.7), and switching of liquid flow is carried out by means of its diversion along soaked surfaces of controlled inclined chute of switch at the following ratio a2=r(1-0.4÷0.7), a1, a2 is distance from axis of opening for liquid flow to the edge of specified inclined chute that faces the flow, mm; r is 0.5 of liquid flow diameter, mm. Device for sampling of liquid samples comprises rotary disk with test tubes for sampling, movable stem with channel provided with outlet opening for liquid flow, magnet switch of flow and collector of liquid with outlet opening. Magnet switch of flow is equipped with inclined chute with upper and lower working soaked surfaces, which are rigidly installed in collector by their lower ends. Upper ends of chute working surfaces are matched and form single front edge, and collector wall located under chute is installed between upper edge and lower ends of chute working surfaces. At that angle of chute upper working surface incline is more than angle of its lower working surface incline.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability of sampling, prevention of sampled liquid ingress to collector and improved safety of device maintenance.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.

SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: hydrology; hydrobiology.

SUBSTANCE: device for simultaneous sampling of water samples taken from layers of water laying close to each other, has set of cylinders with pistons disposed onto carrying frame. End parts of all cylinders are hermetically tied with multiplier, which is connected with pump by means of hose pipe. Front edges of all cylinders are provided with beaks having entrance holes for taking water samples. Pistons moves inside cylinders due to hydraulic tie-rod. Space inside hose-pipe, multiplier and end parts of all cylinders is filled with water to avoid corrosion.

EFFECT: improved reliability of efficiency of operation; better protection corrosion.

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: device has cylindrical housing, heater, clamp, pump for pumping water to be investigated, and valve for insulation of the sample from ambient water. The device is provided with a unit which has an assembly of cells with microbiological filters connected in parallel. The diameters of the cells are different. The device has additional heater mounted in the top part of the housing and additional valve. The cell assembly is interposed between the valves.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sampling.

1 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: device has cylindrical housing, heater, clamp, pump for pumping water to be investigated, and valve for insulation of the sample from ambient water. The device is provided with a unit which has an assembly of cells with microbiological filters connected in parallel. The diameters of the cells are different. The device has additional heater mounted in the top part of the housing and additional valve. The cell assembly is interposed between the valves.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sampling.

1 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: sampling device has sampler, changeable batching member which is made separately from the sampler, housing, and wind-protection device. The wind-protection device is made of porous diaphragm mounted in the base of the housing and overlaps it. The sampler is mounted to provide the distance between the inlet port of the sampler and diaphragm to be 0.1D<L<0.3D, where D is the diameter of diaphragm and L is the distance between the inlet port of the sampler and diaphragm.

EFFECT: improved design.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: test technology.

SUBSTANCE: sample for testing porous materials by means of shock compression is made in form of a disc with flat parallel bases and cone side surface. Diameters of bases of disc relate as (7-8):1. Thickness of sample equals to (0,15-0,2) diameter of larger base.

EFFECT: reduced number of tests; improved precision.

2 dwg

FIELD: meteorology.

SUBSTANCE: device has sampling cylinder provided with cutting ring with teeth, piston with pusher, cutting members secured to the inner side of the ring, and cover with central threaded opening for the pusher made of a screw. The cover and pusher are provided with handles.

EFFECT: enhanced convenience of sampling snow.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: analyzing and/or investigating of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the sampling member and means for measuring the flow parameters into the pipeline, pumping a part of the flow through the sampling member, and determining the parameters of the flow.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sampling.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the sampling member into the pipeline, separating the branch with inhomogeneous distribution of inclusions upstream of the sampling, directing the branch to the mixer for the intensive homogenizing, combining the flow branches, and sampling the combined flow. The device has sampling member, by-pass pipeline for branching the flow, and mixer. The mixer is mounted on the horizontal section of the pipeline between the inlet of the by-pass pipeline and its outlet for homogenizing the flow branch, which does not flow through the by-pass pipeline.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sampling.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has hollow body which is a fragment of force pipeline at vertically placed portion of mouth armature. Tool for controlling flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance is made in form of valve, connected to rotary support. Sample chamber is a ring-shaped hollow in hollow body, placed at same level with valve and connected at inlet to flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance through extracting channels, made on hollow body. Extracting channels are made in form of side slits, positioned symmetrically relatively to valve rotation axis. Ring-shaped hollow on hollow body is connected at outlet to locking tool, mounted at extension of valve shaft and made in form of sample-taking valve. Valve shaft and sample-taking valve are interconnected through hollow intermediate shaft. Sample-taking valve is placed in the body of locking tool with possible reciprocal movement. Valve shaft and hollow intermediate shaft are interconnected with possible mutual rotation for a quarter of one turn.

EFFECT: simplified construction and maintenance, higher quality.

4 dwg

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