Waterproof decorative arch ceiling in underground structures

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of panels, supports and water intake chute. The panels have U-shaped flanged cross sections. The flanges and ribs of panels are different with regard to the required width and height along the corresponding sides of U-shaped cross section. The upper support to the bearing lining fastener assembly and lower panels to support fastener assembly are spatially distanced and implemented so that canopy panels and effective canopy hanger can be remotely adjusted to the bearing tunnel lining regardless canopy panels width and lining elements width dimensions. The upper fastener assembly is provided with supporting element for assembling pin, for example, pivot block, with one end being fixed to the bearing lining by means of fastening element, for example, bolt and/or threaded pin and/or anchor. The other end is coupled with the assembling pin, by means of, for example, a pair of nuts with spherical surface and beveled washers. The lower panel to support fastener assembly is made from the supporting element and clamping element for panels and installed on the assembling pin. The panels are installed and fastened to ensure the required architectural geometry of arch and overflow conditions in the lower panel fastener assembly for water penetrating through the lining. The position of the lower fastener assembly is adjusted by the upper fastener assembly. The invention provides for different structural implementation of the upper fastener assembly and specific features of U-shaped panel profiles and lower fastener assembly for the includes tunnel and horizontal tunnel.

EFFECT: possibility of spatial assembling pin position adjustment and installation of canopy panels in designed position regardless arch configuration inaccuracies in underground structure; more effective, reliable and simplified hanger for canopy to be attached to bearing lining notwithstanding canopy panel width and lining width ensuring conditions of penetrating through lining water.

15 cl, 20 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to the construction and structural elements, and is intended for the construction and finishing of curved (curved) surfaces. Primary use in underground construction: during the construction of subways, tunnels, crossings, stores, shelters, and other objects.

The level of technology

Construction and finishing of the curved surfaces have always been the most responsible building operations with high demands for strength and hermetization the properties of structural elements and structures of them.

There are two implementation alternatives curved (curved) surfaces in complex buildings and structures:

(a) the execution of all construction works, including the formation of curved surfaces, in situ - method expensive and costly manual labor;

b) the creation of an independent private ways of executing designs for tipaimukh classes of objects - the so-called block how to perform and finish curved (curved) surfaces based on standardized building elements (blocks), which, having the benefits of the industrial production of structural elements, allow the curved surface is rosolino the arch form complex structures (buildings).

The main advantage of block methods for the creation and finishing of surfaces - industrial manufacture of structural elements, which makes the construction of low-cost due to the information process of erecting buildings for the installation work and making the process of creating structural elements outside the construction site.

In relation to the practice of creating and finishing facilities of underground stations, deep foundations are aware of the following technical solutions that implement these methods.

Known rain umbrella escalator tunnel (USSR Author's certificate No. 128483, CL E01G 5/04, 1969 - [1]), containing attached to the tunnel lining supports, located across the longitudinal axis of the tunnel, on which are mounted a water-elements of ferroconcrete items and collecting trays. The drawbacks of such waterproof umbrella are significant labor costs for manufacturing water resistance elements made of armocement, and the Assembly of them waterproof umbrella, because the Assembly is similar to the water resistance of the umbrella is not amenable to mechanization and all work is done manually. This umbrella is assembled from multiple elements, sensitive to the deformation of the tunnel lining and temperature influences, which are formed cracks through which the water leakage.

Known rain umbrella (Tunnels and m is tropolitaine. Edited Vpopov. M., "Transport", 1975, s - [2]), containing attached to the tunnel lining parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tunnel support water resistance elements made of metal, mounted on poles, collecting trays, and waterproof umbrella escalator tunnel (USSR Author's certificate No. 787666, CL E21D 11/38, E02D 29/04, 1980 - [3]), including attached to the lining parallel to the axis of the tunnel support water resistance elements and the receiving trays in which supports are provided which are located in different levels of opposing grooves into which is inserted a longitudinal edges, made in the form of a flexible tape, water resistance elements whose length is equal to the full length of the tunnel. However, rain umbrellas [2, 3], has a large number of metal water resistance elements, require a considerable amount of material and labour in its Assembly.

Known also waterproof overlap arch underground structures (USSR Author's certificate No. 1761878, E02D 29/04, 1991 - [4]), including panels of elastic flat sheets connected along the long sides between themselves and with the bearing structure of the roof by means of locking elements with fasteners. The downside of it is the complexity of the suspension umbrella in different ratios of the width of the panels of the umbrella and the width of the lining elements.

The closest to the invention by the technical eskay essence and purpose is waterproof umbrella escalator tunnel (USSR Author's certificate No. 1671877, 1991 - [5]), with panels that are installed sequentially along the axis of the tunnel to be attached to the elements of the lining supports, and collecting trays in which the panels of the umbrella is made trough-shaped form with integral shelves, and each bearing is made in the form of studs, on which the console is installed plate with two holes, lugs, clamps and pin, while below relative to the support panel of the umbrella attached to his shelf on the bottom surface of the plate and located above the support panel of the umbrella fixed shelf on the upper surface of the plate overlapping the attachment to the plate bottom. The disadvantage of this technical solution is the complexity of the suspension umbrella in different ratios of the width of the panels of the umbrella and the width of the lining elements, the complexity of the installation and joining of adjacent panels, due to the shortcomings of the structural embodiment of the attachment of the panels to the support, in particular due to the absence in its design car safety hindered the establishment of panels in the mount, and separate fastening adjacent panels creates difficulties for their connections and installation, in addition it does not solved the problem of creating an umbrella horizontal underground structures

Disclosure of inventions

Object of the present invention is to provide a water-is amaratunga overlap (umbrella) arch underground structures, design which reduces the complexity and the complexity of installation and repair work, while ensuring the effective suspension of the umbrella to the carrier lining and protection against water penetration for both inclined and horizontal tunnel.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known water-decorative ceiling vault underground structures, including panels, supports and collecting trays, in which the panel-shaped cross-section made with the "flanging" (shelves along the sides) in the form of a code carrier tunnel lining and attached to it with the desired step on the supports, and each bearing is made in the form of a mounting stud with two attachment points - the top node of securing the support to the arch of the bearing lining and the bottom attachment of the panels according to the invention the side and collar panels on respective sides of the trough-shaped cross-section made of different accordingly to the desired width and height, the top node of securing the support to the arch of the bearing lining and the lower attachment of the panels to the support spatially separated and performed by maintaining the spatial adjustment of the position of the panels of the umbrella and the effective suspension of the umbrella to the carrier lining of the tunnel regardless of the aspect ratio of the width of the panels of the umbrella and the width of the elements Abdel and, the upper mount has a support element for mounting studs, such as turning the bar, one end of which is fixed on the arch of the bearing lining using a fastener, such as bolts and/or threaded pin, and/or anchor with thread, and the other end is connected with a mounting stud, for example, by using a pair of nuts with a spherical surface and conical washers, the lower attachment of the panels to a support made of a support element for panels installed on the mounting stud, and the pressure fixing element for panels, the panels are installed and secured with collateral the required geometry of the architectural arch form and conditions of overflow penetrating the lining of the water in the lower unit mounting panels to a support whose position is adjusted by the upper bracket. In addition, the following is provided.

Panels made with different height and width of the flanging on the sides of the trough-shaped profile panels for sloping tunnel adjacent to each other in cross section, overlap the respective flanging with adjacent panels and thus provide conditions for the overflow of water penetrating through the casing in an inclined tunnel.

Supporting element in the lower attachment of the panels to support the panels sloping tunnel made the C narashima attached to the mounting stud bracket with welded onto the thrust plate, the bracket comprises upper and lower plates and the upper plate to the lower surface of which is fastened one of the panels of the umbrella, above axis inclined tunnel, made with limb-car safety, and the bottom plate to the bottom surface of which there is another panel that is below the axis of an inclined tunnel, and welded thereto resistant strap is made with a threaded hole in which is installed the pressure fixing element for panels consisting of a clamping stud and clamp, for example, in the form of elastic koromislovnaa strap, spring washers and nuts.

Panels made with the same height and width of the flanging on the sides of the trough-shaped profile panels for horizontal tunnel adjacent to each other in cross section.

In the lower unit mounting panels to a support for a horizontal tunnel entered the chute, a basic element for panels made of movably attached to the mounting stud plate nut against the lower surfaces of which are attached to the flanging of the sides of the trough-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in horizontal cross-section of the tunnel, the pressure fixing element is designed, for example, in the form of elastic koromislovnaa strap, spring washers, and nuts securing the panel at the bottom, and the presser plate with the top and bottom of the strips, enshrining the top of the trench, above the plate-nut on the mounting stud, and the trench is made in the form of long (the entire length of the junction) inverted trough, made in cross-section in the form of a code carrier lining horizontal underground structures.

Flanging sides of the trough-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in longitudinal section of the tunnel, both horizontal and vertical, are made to ensure overlap with adjacent panels and thus providing favourable conditions overflow penetrating the lining of the water, while above the panel is equipped with a visor, and the corresponding Board-shaped profile of the panel below, made with minimal flared.

In the upper mount support to the arch lining carrier supporting element for mounting studs mounted from the plate with a groove, one end of which is fixed on the arch lining carrier by means of a hook and fastener, such as bolt, and the other is connected with a mounting stud with a pair of nuts with a spherical surface and conical washers.

In the upper mount support to the arch lining carrier supporting element for mounting studs mounted out of the corner with a groove attached to the elements of the bearing lining arch using fasteners, such as bolts, and connect the frame with mounting stud with a pair of nuts with a spherical surface and conical washers.

The lower attachment of the panels to the support provided by the element of the architectural design of the interface panels.

The element of the architectural design of the interface panels are made in the form of "flashings", fixed by the latch installed in the lower unit mounting panels to a support.

Panels made of fiberglass, for example, on the basis of unsaturated polyester resins with low Flammability and other modifying additives and glass fiber reinforcing materials according to THE 2296-056-0020496 [6].

Appropriate flanging-shaped panels made in the form of a code carrier tunnel lining with a given (desired) deviation from it, and the front surface of the panel has a circular shape, polygonal or other shape depending on the architectural design.

Panels made with flanging and cross-section feeder, for example, on the type of the "lamb" with the approximation of the code carrier lining of underground structures.

The front surface feeder panels are made visible, for example, with bas-reliefs and/or relief.

Panels made with surround sides and/or flanging and provided additional niches for lamps installation.

The introduction of these distinctive features allows you to provide the spatial adjustment of the position of the mounting studs and install the panels of the umbrella in ktoe position, regardless of configuration errors arch underground structures, and also provides efficient, more reliable and simple suspension of the umbrella to the carrier lining regardless of the aspect ratio of the width of the panels of the umbrella and the width of the lining elements while ensuring overflow penetrating into the tunnel through the lining of the water. The proposed design of the umbrella is design with compensation and adjustment of the spatial position of its elements and all of the umbrella as a whole and is designed to create overlapping set as inclined underground structures, and horizontal. Thus, the proposed water-decorative ceiling vault underground structures, design of which reduces the complexity and the complexity of installation and repair work, while ensuring the effective suspension of the umbrella to the carrier lining and protection against water penetration.

A brief description of graphic materials

The invention is illustrated graphic materials, is shown in figure 1-17. 1 shows a longitudinal section of the inclined arch underground structures (in particular arch underground station deep under the surface) with water-decorative overlay (umbrella), figure 2 - its cross-section; figure 3 - cross section G-g of figure 2 (a longitudinal section through the attachment points). Figure 4 shows the bonds of the l-junction of the four panels in the cross section (remote element In figure 2 - when using link (Zachodni) umbrella two panels), figure 5 - this node in longitudinal section (remote item B, figure 1). Figure 6 shows the attachment of the umbrella in an inclined underground construction (in particular escalator tunnel) - the design of the lower attachment of the panels to the support and the top of the mount support to the arch of the carrier tunnel lining (mount at the curved edge of the tubing). 7 to 10 illustrate other run of the upper mount support to the lining, depending on the characteristics of the latter and/or locations of mounting: 7 - fixing the hole in the inner edge of the tubing, Fig - mount two curved edges of the tubing, Fig.9 - fastening to metallically; figure 10 is fixed to the concrete surface. Figure 11 shows a longitudinal section of the code horizontal underground structures (in particular arch underground station deep under the surface) with water-decorative overlay (umbrella), Fig - its cross-section, Fig - section f-F Fig (a longitudinal section through the attachment points). On Fig shows the articulator four panels in the cross section (remote element E Fig - when using link (Zachodni) umbrella of three panels), Fig - this node in longitudinal section (section 3-3 Fig). On Fig and Fig shows the attachment of the umbrella in a horizontal underground facilities the AI (the tunnel) - the performance of the lower attachment of the panels to the support and the top of the mount support to the arch of the carrier tunnel lining (mount at the curved edge of the tubing with swivel strap).

Positions on the drawings indicated:

1 - the tunnel lining

2 - support

3, 4, 35 - side panel

5 - collecting trays

6 - the top node of securing the support to the arch of the bearing lining

7 is a bottom mount panels

8 - mounting stud

9 - swivel strap

10 - nut with a spherical surface

11 - conical washer

12 - bolt

13 - spring washer

14 - bracket

15 is a bottom plate bracket

16 is a top plate bracket

17 - limb-car safety

18 - resistant strap

19 - clamping stud

20 - nut

21 - spring washer

22 - elastic koromislovnaa strap

23 - latch

24 is an element of architectural design interface panels "flashings"

25, 26 - "flanging" (end shelf on the sides of the trough-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in the cross section of the tunnel

27 - hook

28 is a plate with a groove

29 - nut

30 corner with a groove

31 is a threaded pin

32 - washer

33 - anchor

34 - panel Central

35 - side panel

36 - trough Central

37 - chute side

38 - flashings Central

39 - flashings side

40 - plate-nut

41 - latina pressure

42 - strip

43 Board panel with a minimum flanging

44 - visor panel

The implementation of the invention

Offer water resistance and decorative overlay (umbrella) arch underground structure contains elements mounted on the casing 1 by means of bearings 2 waterproof decorative panel, side panels 3, 4 (respectively left and right) - in an inclined tunnel (Fig.1-6) and the side panels 35 and the Central panel 34 in a horizontal tunnel (11-17), as well as collecting trays 5 and special protective and decorative elements of architectural design interface panels 24. Panels made of fiberglass, for example, on the basis of unsaturated polyester resins with low Flammability and other modifying additives and glass fiber reinforcement materials on THE 2296-056-0020496 [6]; made in advance outside of the construction site on specialized production, for example, by contact molding. Such panels are relatively lightweight, making them does not require complex manufacturing processes, they are convenient for packaging, storage and transportation, as well as simplifying installation and operation overlap (umbrella) arch underground structures, do not require massive fasteners (enough to install the mounting stud M 16 and the presser pin M12).

Each panel 3, 4, 34, 35 has cartoonporno cross-section and provided with end shelves (flanging) 25, 26, the curved shape of the arch lining carrier 1 tunnel, along the sides of the feeder adjacent to each other in the cross section of the tunnel. Flanging 25 and 26 for horizontal tunnel is made of the same width and height, and inclined tunnel - different width and height to ensure overlap the respective flanging with adjacent panels and thus provide conditions for the overflow of water along an inclined tunnel, penetrating through his carrier lining. Bead-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in longitudinal section of the tunnel as the inclined and horizontal, also have design features, namely: one of the adjacent panels has a Board-shaped profile with a minimum frame 43, and the other is equipped with a visor 44, which also is designed to meet the conditions of overflow across the water tunnel, penetrating through his carrier lining.

Panels 3, 4, 34, 35 attached to the casing 1 on the supports 2. In the cross section of the tunnel the number of panels can be 2, as in figure 2, or 3, as Fig. The combination of these two 3, 4, or three 35, 34, 35 panels connected in a transverse direction, forms a section (link, section, step) umbrella, the longitudinal size is determined by the size of the panels in the transverse direction (width panels) and/or the size of the width of the tubing lining and obul the pouring step installation of the supports 2 in the longitudinal direction of the tunnel. The umbrella is composed by a set of sections, mounted on supports 2 along the length of the tunnel.

Each bearing 2 comprises upper 6 and lower 7 knots securing the support to the arch lining carrier 1 underground structures (inclined or horizontal) and the mounting stud 8. The attachment points 6 and 7 is performed with maintaining the spatial adjustment of the position of the panels of the umbrella and the effective suspension of the umbrella to the carrier lining of the tunnel regardless of the aspect ratio of the width of the panels of the umbrella and the width of the lining elements. This is provided by their design.

Constructive performance of the top 6 of the mount support to the arch lining carrier 1 similarly for inclined and horizontal underground structures and takes into account the characteristics of the lining 1 and the specific mounting location. When the base mount - the mount at the curved edge of the tubing (6) - top mount bearing 2 to the arch lining carrier 1 is mounted a rotary slats 9, one end of which is fixed on the arch lining carrier 1 by means of the mounting element, such as a bolt 12 with a spring washer 13, and the other is connected with a mounting stud 8 with a pair of nuts with a spherical surface 10 and conical washers 11. One of the corners of the rotary slats 9 cut ("bevel") (see section W-W figure 6) to ensure smooth rotation at the desired angle around the OLT County 12 swivel strap 9 with fixed thereto a mounting stud 8. The proposed connection mounting stud 8 with the rotary plate 9 provides both the ability of the translational movement of the mounting studs 8 (up and down)and the ability to change its position relative to the tunnel (due to the turning of the bar 9), and deviation (swing) its axis within the required small angular deviations. Fundamentally the design of the top of the mount is not changed, and in other embodiments, mounting, spatial adjustment of the mounting studs 8 and the associated lower attachment 7 panels to the support provided in each of them. However, taken into account the specific location of the place of fastening of a support. So when attaching the edges of the tubing provided its features presented on Fig.7 and Fig.

The upper mount support 2 to the arch lining carrier 1 is mounted from the plate with a groove 28, one end of which is connected with a mounting stud 8 with a pair of nuts with a spherical surface 10 and conical washers 11 and the other end fixed to the arch lining carrier 1 by means of a hook 27 and nuts 29 and a fastener, such as bolt 12 with a spring washer 13 (Fig.7). This design (using the holes in the inner edge of the tubing) is preferable for the case when the bearing is located by thin curved edges of the tubing.

The top node mount the Oia supports 2 to the arch lining carrier 1 is mounted out of the corner with a groove 30, attached to the elements of the bearing lining 1 (two curved edges of the tubing), using fasteners, such as bolt 12 with a spring washer 13, and connected to the mounting stud with a pair of nuts with a spherical surface 10 and conical washers 11 (Fig). This solution is intended for the case when the bearing is located closer to the middle of the tubing, and provides increased rigidity and structural strength of the mount.

Also take into account the peculiarities of the lining. So when the mount is not in the curvilinear edge of the tubing, in cases where the location of the supports have on other surfaces, the design of the top of the mount support 2 to the arch lining carrier 1 has its own characteristics, presented in figure 9 and figure 10. In the attachment to metallically (Fig.9) for fixing the rotary slat 9 is threaded pin 31 and nuts 29, the fastening monolithic concrete or precast concrete blocks (figure 10) to fasten the swivel strap 9 is provided anchor 33, the washer 32 and a nut 29.

Constructive performance of the bottom 7 of the attachment of the panels to a support inclined and horizontal underground structures differently, taking into account the specifics of each and provides fastening of panels made with features respectively for inclined and horizontal underground structures.

So, are exposed to the IOM technical solution of the water-decorative overlay (umbrella) arch inclined underground structures (tunnels) the following is provided.

Panel to create overlapping inclined underground structures, as mentioned above, made by flanging 25, 26 adjacent to each other in the cross section of the tunnel, different-sized in height and width to ensure overlap the respective flanging with adjacent panels and thus provide conditions overflow penetrating the lining of water in an inclined tunnel. The lower attachment of the panels to a support made with this in mind, and is as shown in Fig.6 (as well as 7-10), from narashima attached to the mounting pin 8 of the bracket 14 welded to the thrust plate 18, clamping studs 19, the nut 20, the spring washers 21 and elastic koromislovnaa strap 22. The bracket 14 has a bottom 15 and top plate 16, and the upper plate 16 is made with the limb-safety device 17 and to the bottom plate 15 is welded resistant strap 18. In structural elements 15 and 18 threaded hole coaxial mounting stud 8, under the presser pin 19. The latter, together with a nut 20, a spring washer 21 and the elastic koromislovnaa strap 22 is initially screwed into the specified hole so that the upper end of the clamping studs 19 did not go beyond the top surface of the bottom plate and accordingly the gap between the top 16 and bottom plate 15 was left completely free. In this gap is inserted (easy thanks to the presence of limb-car safety 17) to its lower edge the flared-25 - panel, which is located above the bearing along the axis of the tunnel and fixed presser pin 19. In the gap between the bottom plate 15 and koromislovnaa strap 22 is inserted with its upper edge flared 26 - panel, which is located below the bearing axis of the tunnel and fixed with elastic koromislovnaa strap 22, the spring washers 21 and nuts 20. Frame 25 top panel is overlapping the flange 26 of the bottom panel. This is necessary in order flowing from top to bottom (along the tunnel) through the panels, the water could not get into the zone of junction of the panels of the umbrella. Thus on the support 2 is fixed the lower and upper edges (ends) of the panels accordingly their flanging 25 and 26, which provides fastening each panel on each leg of the two sides in the cross section of the tunnel. However due to the fact that the width of the flange 25 panel installed above the axis of an inclined tunnel that is greater than the width of the flange 26 of the panel installed below the axis of an inclined tunnel, formed by the overlap of adjacent sections of the panel, and drain water receiving tray 5 is provided without additional parts and seals. The presence of the visor 44 and minimum flanging bead 43 on the panels, joined in longitudinal section of the tunnel, in particular in selige tunnel (node - 2, 4), also solves the problem of overflow (across the tunnel) of water, p is onecause through the carrier lining arch underground structures.

Panel to create overlapping horizontal underground structures made of the same height and width of the flanging on the sides of the trough-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in the cross section of the tunnel.

The lower attachment of the panels to the support in a horizontal tunnel is made with this in mind, and is, as shown in Fig, movably attached to the mounting stud plate nut 40 (support element), to the lower surfaces of which are attached to the flange 26 (same width and height) of the sides of the trough-shaped profile panels 34 (35)adjacent to each other in the cross section of the tunnel, and the pressure fixing element. Recently made, for example, in the form of elastic koromislovnaa strap 22, spring washers 13 and nuts 29 securing the panel at the bottom. On top of the plate-nut 40 on the mounting pin 8 (N-m the number of mounting studs) are fixed by means of the presser plate 41 and spacers 42 (top and bottom) of the trench 36 (37), which is also a constituent element of the lower attachment of the panels to the support in a horizontal tunnel. The Central groove 36 and side chute 37 is made in the form of long (the entire length of the joint panels) overturned feeder, made in cross-section in the form of a code carrier lining horizontal underground structures, and cover the joint of the panels 35 and 4 (Fig, 14, 15). With this Central groove 36 is mounted with overlapping lateral grooves 37, together forming the groove section and providing a draining of the water penetrating through the lining of the tunnel, the receiving tray 5. The presence of the visor 44 and side with minimal flared 43 on the panels 34, 35, joined in longitudinal section of the tunnel, in particular at the junction of the side 35 and 34 Central panels (site M - Fig, 14), also solves the problem of overflow (across the tunnel) water penetrating through the carrier lining of the tunnel.

In addition, the lower attachment of the panels to a support for the inclined and horizontal tunnels equipped with the element of the architectural design of the interface panels - flat strips 24 (38, 39), held by means of a latch 23, which is installed on the mounting stud 8 and pressed elastic koromislovnaa strap 22 to the thrust rod 18 to the inclined tunnel, and to the plate-nut 40 to the horizontal tunnel.

Mounting waterproof decorative overlay (umbrella) arch underground structures (tunnels) next.

The initial stages of installation for horizontal and inclined tunnels are similar and consist of the following operations. In made in the edges of the tubing lining 1 tunnel screw holes set supports 2 - mounting stud 8 with the top 6 and bottom 7 of the attachment points. When this is required (and hence the project is th position) the position of each mounting stud 8 support 2 is exposed upper mount: moving the mounting studs 8 (up and down) relative to the reference element and the rotating swivel strap around 9 the axis of the fastening element 12 (along the tunnel). Thanks to the proposed rolling attaching mounting stud 8 with nuts with a spherical surface 10 and conical washers 11 possible deviation (swing) within the required small angular deviations, which simplifies the installation of the panels, compensating for the errors of the arch form. After adjusting the spatial position of the supports of the upper bracket, and align their regulations in accordance with the project proceed to a further stage - direct mounting - mounting and fastening them at the bottom of the mount. The operation of this stage for mounting an umbrella for inclined underground structures and horizontal vary.

When mounting the umbrella inclined underground structure mounting and fastening of panels in the lower attachment point (6) is produced as follows.

Installation of panels 3, 4 of the umbrella inclined tunnel can be produced, starting either from the bottom, with the lower end of the tunnel, or from the top, with its upper end. The first option is preferable, as this allows easier access to the upper attachment point of the support, for example, if you need additional adjustment of the spatial position of the mounting studs 8 and accordingly, the provisions enshrined therein the bottom of the mount panel. Installation of the Vedas is t for each section, moving upward from the first section to follow. First, install the side (if the number of panels in the cross section of the tunnel is equal to 2, as in figure 2) panel with visor 44 of the first (the bottom axis of the tunnel) section N-m the number of supports designed according to the project for attaching one panel. For this purpose, the side panel 4 the lower edge of the panel - frame 25 is slid easily without hooking and scoring, due to the presence of the limb of the safety device 17, and focusing on it, under the top plate 16 of the bracket 14 (in the space between the top 16 and bottom 15 plates). Clamping stud 19 with the attached latch 23, the elastic koromislovnaa strap 22, a spring washer 19 and nut 20 (or clamping stud 19 without these elements) installed in the threaded hole initially in each support so that between the upper surface of the lower plate 15 and the lower surface of the upper plate 16 of the bracket 14 remained full clearance (not blocked by a pin), that is, the stud is screwed so that its upper end did not go beyond the upper surface of the bottom plate. Therefore, the frame 25 of the panel 4 can be easily inserted into this gap and slid inside curved brackets 14 (in the space between the top 16 and bottom 15 plates). Thereafter, the presser pin 19 of each of the pillars (from those intended for fastening one panelu cross-section of the tunnel) is screwed into the threaded hole on, pressing the upper end of the retainer studs 19 of the frame 25 to the lower surface of the upper plate 16, so fixing the lower edge of the side panel 4 on the supports 2, which are located in the cross section of the tunnel. Next fix in the cross section of the tunnel, the top edge of the side panel 4 on the supports 2, above, in accordance with a specified pitch along the tunnel. For this purpose, the upper (as viewed along the axis of the inclined tunnel bottom to top) edge of the side panel 4 - flanging 26 - down under the bottom plate 15 of the bracket 14. Then fix the frame 26 on all feet one panel, clamping it on each support between the bottom plate 15 and the latch 23 by means of the clamping fixing element is elastic koromislovnaa strap 22, the spring washers 21 and nuts 20, screw it into the thread last spring pin 19, and ending thus the installation of the first panel, the first (lower) sections of the umbrella inclined tunnel. After that, the same procedure mount the second (with a minimum flanging) side panel 3 (if the number of panels in the cross section of the tunnel is 2). At this junction in longitudinal section of the tunnel left and right (3 and 4) side panels carry out so and selige tunnel (upper part of the arch of the tunnel) to ensure draining of the water in the cross section of the tunnel and to prevent penetration inside her, pazant. To do this, when mounting the second side panel in each section and also when mounting each subsequent sections necessarily provide the overlap. As shown in figure 4, adjacent panels 3 and 4 (in each section) in longitudinal section of the tunnel visor 44 covers (overlaps) Board with minimum flared 43.

After fixing the second side panel Assembly of the first section completed, and start installation of the following sections (above axis inclined tunnel). To the number of pillars in the cross section of the tunnel, at the bottom node (on the bottom surface of plate 15) are already fixed by the frame 26 of the upper edges of the panels 3 and 4 of the previous (below axis inclined tunnel section, then all the corresponding lower attachment points to attach the frame 25 of the lower edge of the side panels 4 (with visor). Do it in the same order as and when you pin the bottom edge of the panel first section. Sidebar 4 flared 25 (bottom panel) is slid under the top plate 16 of the bracket 14 in between the bottom plate 15 and a top plate 16, the gap, push further inside curved brackets 14 (the bottom edge 25 of the upper panel is overlapping the upper edge 26 of the bottom panel due to the proposed design of the bottom of the mount and the implementation of the width and height of the OTB is chowki 25 large size than flanging 26). Then press the upper end of the clamping studs 19 of the frame 25 to the lower surface of the upper plate 16, the pre-loosening nut 20 (or setting its skin tightening preliminary, final tightening only later, after you install both edges of the panel and the edge of the next panel), and then compressing, and thus assuring the bottom edge of the side panel 4 of the next section at the bottom 7 of the attachment points of the supports 2. Further fixed in the same way as it was done during the installation of the first section, the upper edge of the side panel 4 on the supports 2, above, in accordance with a specified along the tunnel step, and then do the same thing with the side panel 3 of the same section, thereby finishing the installation of the next section. As before, observe the correct overlap (visor 44 overlaps Board with minimum flared 43) abutting the adjacent side panel sections in longitudinal section of the tunnel. After installation of the second section (and each subsequent, similarly, the second) formed in the cross section of the tunnel junction between the panels of adjacent sections close strengthened underneath the panel element of the architectural design of the interface panels: fasten flashings 24 in the latch 23 of the respective supports. When installing each subsequent section in the cross section of the tunnel is also provided re is the freight to the previous one: the bottom edge of the panels wider flanging 25 overlap the upper edges of the panels - less wide flange 26, respectively visor 44 corresponding panel subsequent section (above axis inclined tunnel) is located above the cross-section of the tunnel visor 44 corresponding panel of the previous section (below axis inclined tunnel). Due to this drain water receiving tray 5 is provided without additional parts and seals.

When installing an umbrella horizontal tunnel mounting and fastening of panels in the lower mount (Fig, 17) is as follows.

First, proceed to installing a Central (if the number of panels in the cross section of the tunnel is 3 - 11-16) waterproof panel 34. For this purpose, the lower threaded ends of the mounting rods 8 navertyvajut nuts 29 (top), set the presser plate 41 and the upper strip 42. Then install the chute 36 - "put it on N-e number of mounting studs available through the chute 36 holes on each mounting stud 8 have lower gasket 42 is set according to the design position of the plate-nut 40 and fix installed "package" nut 29 (top). Then install the latch 23, the elastic koromislovnaa bar 22, a spring washer 13 and navertyvajut nuts 29 (bottom), compressing the installed elements, but leaving a gap with plastino the-nut 40. After that make the installation of Central water panels 34: get in the left gap one of the flanging dockable panels 34, mounted it under the plate-nut 40 and is clamped by means of a nut 29 (bottom) with spring washer 13, another flared this panel are fixed similarly to the first (and in parallel with it) other relevant supports, installed in cross section with the required step along the tunnel. Mounting height flanging panel 34, and hence the entire panel is additionally regulated by the plate-nut 40 and nuts 29 (top). After installation of the Central panel 34 in the same order, mount the side panels 35. In this exercise the junction of the Central 34 35 and side panels in such a way as to provide overlapping joint in longitudinal section of the tunnel: the visor 44 of the Central panel 34 covers the Board with minimal flared 43 side panel 35 (Fig), making them overlap and respectively providing drain water in the cross section of the tunnel, and not let any water inside. Side chute 37, respectively, is mounted under the Central chute 36 (Fig) to ensure water drainage. After installation, Central 34 and two side 35 of the panels is completed the installation of the first section of the umbrella horizontal tunnel. Then start installation of the following (along the axis of the tunnel) egosense. Installs the following Central panel 34 adjacent the flanging cross-section of the tunnel to the flanging of the previous installed Central panel 34. For this first frame is fixed in the supports, where the already established second flanging the previous panel: led into the gap between the plate-nut 40 and the latch 23, the pre-slightly loosening the nut 29 (or not holding it right, and then again tightening and fixing so flanging this panel (after installing another flanging this panel in all relevant supports that hold the panel). Next, in the same way, install the side panels, forming the following section. The junction of the Central panel 34 is closed by an element of architectural design - Central flat strips 38, which is fixed by the latch 23 of the respective supports. Accordingly, the junction of the side panels 35 is closed by an element of architectural design - side flashings 39, which is fixed similarly to the corresponding latches 23.

Dismantling and replacement, if necessary, individual panels offer waterproof umbrella as inclined and horizontal underground structures, carried out easily, without violating the provisions established adjacent panels. So for sloping tunnel is produced as follows.

Dismantling on inaut panel 3, supplied with the minimum frame 43. Remove the battens 24 adjacent to the removable panels on both sides, pressing the edges of the latches 23. Then loosen the clamp flanging the lower edge of the removable panel, slightly turning the nut 20 and the clamping studs 19. Its upper edge is completely free, svintsova nut 20 with washers 21 and removing koromislovnaa strap 22 and the latch 23, which this panel is docked. Then, gently release the removable panel from the overall design of the umbrella, without violating the provisions established adjacent panels, as structurally provided and the process for dismantling (figure 5). For installation of the new panel to replace the dismantled perform these steps in reverse order. If you want the dismantling of the panel 4 with visor 44, it is carried out only after the dismantling of the panel 3.

The implementation of the invention is not limited to the given examples of its implementation, other constructive solutions. For example, pressure fixing element in the lower mount can serve figured nut. Panels can be made with the flanging and the cross-section of "nothing", for example, on the type of the "lamb" with the approximation of the code carrier lining of underground structures, as well as surround sides and/or flanging and can be supplied complete is Ino niches for installation of lamps, the front surface feeder panels can be made visible, for example with bas-reliefs and/or reliefs, etc. depending on the architectural design.

The application specified in the invention of the panels and the proposed design of the umbrella provides effective water resistance, the plane of junction of the panels are securely blocked their end shelves, umbrella there are no items requiring the seal, and the panel made a solid without holes, which also improves the water resistance of the umbrella, all the water falling on the umbrella, merges in his panels in collecting trays and does not leak into the plane of the joint between the panels. Applied panel and the proposed design of the umbrella also extends to the decorative execution arch underground structures. When that great opportunities are achieved while maintaining a small overall size, ease of installation and operation.

Proposed in the invention of the umbrella structure allows to provide spatial adjustment of the position of the mounting studs and install the panels of the umbrella in the design position, regardless of configuration errors arch underground structures, and also provides efficient, more reliable and simple suspension of the umbrella to the carrier lining regardless of the aspect ratio of the width of the panels of the umbrella and the width of the elements of the delky while ensuring overflow penetrating into the tunnel through the lining of the water.

As can be seen from the above, the introduction of significant distinguishing features have allowed us to achieve a technical result and to create an umbrella structure with compensation and adjustment of the spatial position of its elements and all of the umbrella as a whole and designed to create overlapping set as inclined underground structures, and horizontal, that is, the proposed water-decorative ceiling vault underground structures, the construction of which is easily feasible, reduces the complexity and the complexity of installation and repair work. Thus the problem is solved.

Conducted full-scale tests confirmed these opportunities offer water resistance and decorative ceilings arch underground structures.

In the analysis of technical solutions to meet the criterion of "novelty" revealed that some of the features of the declared total is new, therefore, the invention conforms to the criterion "novelty". In the analysis of the invention in accordance with the criterion of "inventive step" revealed that the technical solution of the analyzed object is new and the signs correspond to the criterion of "inventive step"because it represents a new set of features and new technical features, but also represents a new location, quantity is STV and communication elements. In addition, through the proposed technical solution achieved a result that meets existing needs that arise during construction, finishes, installation and operation of the curved surfaces, in particular in the construction and operation of stations and underground tunnels deep under the surface.

The invention can be replicated and, therefore, meets the criterion of "industrial applicability".

Industrial applicability

Developed technical documentation, prototypes, conducted a successful full-scale tests.

Sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 128483, CL E01G 5/04, 1969.

2. Tunnels and subways. Edited Vpopov. M:, "Transport", 1975, S. 436.

3. USSR author's certificate No. 787666, CL E21D 11/38, E02D 29/04, 1980.

4. USSR author's certificate No. 1761878, CL E21D 11/38, E02D 29/04, 1980.

5. USSR author's certificate No. 1671877, CL E21D 11/38, E02D 29/04, 1980, the prototype.

6. Panel fiberglass waterproof fire-resistant umbrella metro stations. Technical conditions TU 2296-056-00204961, 2005.

1. Waterproof decorative overlay (umbrella) arch underground structures (tunnels), including panels, supports and collecting trays, in which the panel-shaped cross-section made by flanging (shelves along the sides) in the form of a code carried the soup of the tunnel lining and attached to it with the desired step on the supports, and each bearing is made in the form of a mounting stud with two attachment points - the top node of securing the support to the arch of the bearing lining and the bottom attachment of the panels, wherein the side and collar panels on respective sides of the trough-shaped cross-section made of different accordingly to the required width and height, the top node of securing the support to the arch of the bearing lining and the lower attachment of the panels to the support spatially separated and performed by maintaining the spatial adjustment of the position of the panels of the umbrella and the effective suspension of the umbrella to the carrier lining of the tunnel regardless of the aspect ratio of the width of the panels of the umbrella and the width of the lining elements, with the top node the attachment has a support element for mounting studs, such as turning the bar, one end of which is fixed on the arch of the bearing lining using a fastener, such as bolts and/or threaded pin, and/or anchor with thread, and the other end is connected with a mounting stud, for example, by using a pair of nuts with a spherical surface and conical washers, the lower attachment of the panels to a support made of a support element for panels installed on the mounting stud and clamping fixing element for panels, the panels are installed and secured with collateral required is eometrie architectural forms arch and conditions of overflow penetrating the lining of the water in the lower unit mounting panels to a support, the position is also regulated by the upper attachment point.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that panel for sloping tunnel is made with provision of the terms of the overlap of the respective flanging with adjacent panels and thus providing favourable conditions overflow penetrating the lining of the water and have the flange on the sides of the trough-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in the cross section of the tunnel, different-sized in height and width.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the lower attachment of the panels to the support in an inclined tunnel supporting element for panels made of narashima attached to the mounting stud bracket with welded onto the thrust plate, the bracket comprises upper and lower plates and the upper plate to the lower surface of which is fastened one of the panels of the umbrella, above axis inclined tunnel, made with limb-car safety, and the bottom plate to the bottom surface of which there is another panel that is below the axis of an inclined tunnel, and welded thereto resistant strap is provided with a threaded the hole, which has a clamping fixing element for panels consisting of a clamping stud and clamp, for example, in the form of elastic koromislovnaa strap, spring washers and nuts.

4. The device according to claim 1, Otley is aldeasa fact, that panel for horizontal tunnel made of the same height and width of the flanging on the sides of the trough-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in the cross section of the tunnel.

5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the lower attachment of the panels to the support in a horizontal tunnel entered the chute, a basic element for panels made of movably attached to the mounting stud plate nut against the lower surfaces of which are attached to the flanging of the sides of the trough-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in the cross section of the tunnel, the pressure fixing element is designed, for example, in the form of elastic koromislovnaa strap, spring washers, and nuts securing the panel at the bottom, and the presser plate with spacers securing the top chute mounted above plate-nut on the mounting stud, and the chute made in the form of long, the entire length of the junction of the inverted trough, made in cross-section in the form of a code carrier lining horizontal underground structures.

6. Device according to any one of claim 2 to 4, characterized in that the flange sides of the trough-shaped profile of the panels adjacent to each other in longitudinal section, inclined and horizontal tunnel made to ensure overlap with adjacent panels and thus providing favourable conditions PE is alive penetrating the lining of water, while the corresponding Board-shaped profile of one of the adjacent panels is equipped with a visor, and the corresponding Board-shaped profile of the other adjacent panel executed with minimal flared.

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper mount support to the arch lining carrier supporting element for mounting stud is mounted a rotary plate in the form of a plate with a groove, one end of which is fixed on the arch lining carrier by means of a hook and fastener, such as bolt and the other end is connected with a mounting stud with a pair of nuts with a spherical surface and conical washers.

8. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper mount support to the arch lining carrier supporting element for mounting stud is mounted a rotary plate in a corner with a groove attached to the elements of the bearing lining arch using fasteners, such as bolts, and United with mounting stud with a pair of nuts with a spherical surface and conical washers.

9. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the lower attachment of the panels to the support provided by the element of the architectural design of the interface panels.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the element of the architectural design of the interface panels are made in the form of flashings, fixed the CSOs latch, installed in the lower unit mounting panels to a support.

11. The device according to claim 1, wherein the panel is made of fiberglass, for example, on the basis of unsaturated polyester resins with low Flammability and other modifying additives and glass fiber reinforcement materials.

12. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the flange-shaped panels made in the form of a code carrier tunnel lining with a given desired deviation from it, and the front surface of the panel has a circular shape, polygonal or other shape depending on the architectural design.

13. The device according to item 12, wherein the panel is made with flanging and cross-section feeder, for example, on the type of the "lamb" with the approximation of the code carrier lining of underground structures.

14. The device according to item 12, wherein the front surface feeder panels are made visible, for example with bas-reliefs and/or relief.

15. The device according to item 12, wherein the panels are made with three-dimensional boards and/or flanging and provided additional niches for installation of fixtures.



 

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FIELD: construction.

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2 ex

FIELD: mining, particularly mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.

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EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.

FIELD: mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.

SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and from pit bottom; performing explosions in wells surrounding kimberlite pipe perimeter and carrying-out hydraulic fracturing from wells drilled from pit bottom to create jointed subvertical and subhorizontal rock fissured zones, which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.

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FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises leaving of massifs of minerals 14 between chambers 7-13, driven at extraction of potassium salt bed 1, and filling chambers with backfill material. Bores 6 are drilled from ground surface 5 to chambers; the bores are cased with tubes. Not soluble in water backfill material is supplied into chambers via bores 6 till chambers are filled for their complete height at a point of backfill material supply. The first to be filled are chambers 7 located at proximity to the underground water inrush zone 4 from the side of the bed rise 1 of potassium salt; thereafter filling of chambers 8-10 located below underground water inrush 4 is carried out. Not solved in water, hardening, backfill materials are supplied into chambers 7-13 via bores 6. If filed chambers driven along the course of bed chambers have considerable length, the distance between bores is determined from a calculated expression.

EFFECT: invention facilitates prevention of flooding of potassium mine and hazardous deformation of the earth surface at breaks of water protective strata and underground water inrushes into mine through water permeable cracks generated in water protective strata in areas of geological disturbances.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to strengthening of the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel and may be employed for strengthening of bases of buildings and constructions. Method includes feeding of mortar with filling agents. A shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel above the detected emptiness for feeding of filling material and a second shaft for feeding of consolidating mortar. Feeding device is installed and filling material is supplied through it in the form of balls of waterproof material, density whereof equals or is greater than water density. Balls are compressed by means of a vibrations generator; entrained water is pressed out from the emptiness by balls either through holes in the rock or through the consolidating mortar feeding shaft. Having filled the emptiness with balls, feeding device is taken away and the shaft is sealed, consolidating mortar is supplied into the second shaft and having filled all the emptiness the shaft is sealed. Should there be no water in the emptiness one shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel; where through emptiness are filled with balls compressed by a vibration generator, after that feeding device is taken away and consolidating mortar is supplied through the shaft. Emptiness been filled the shaft is sealed.

EFFECT: cost reduction of elimination of emptiness.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and is designed for elimination of hazardous situation at instantaneous inrush of water. Massif of rock is bored around with bore holes and outpost blast holes in vicinity of a groove head. Clay material is stacked inside the contour. Explosive substances are inserted in bore and blast holes; and explosion is initiated.

EFFECT: reduced time and material costs for preparation of non-combustible material to simultaneous discharge.

1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of panels, supports and water intake chute. The panels have U-shaped flanged cross sections. The flanges and ribs of panels are different with regard to the required width and height along the corresponding sides of U-shaped cross section. The upper support to the bearing lining fastener assembly and lower panels to support fastener assembly are spatially distanced and implemented so that canopy panels and effective canopy hanger can be remotely adjusted to the bearing tunnel lining regardless canopy panels width and lining elements width dimensions. The upper fastener assembly is provided with supporting element for assembling pin, for example, pivot block, with one end being fixed to the bearing lining by means of fastening element, for example, bolt and/or threaded pin and/or anchor. The other end is coupled with the assembling pin, by means of, for example, a pair of nuts with spherical surface and beveled washers. The lower panel to support fastener assembly is made from the supporting element and clamping element for panels and installed on the assembling pin. The panels are installed and fastened to ensure the required architectural geometry of arch and overflow conditions in the lower panel fastener assembly for water penetrating through the lining. The position of the lower fastener assembly is adjusted by the upper fastener assembly. The invention provides for different structural implementation of the upper fastener assembly and specific features of U-shaped panel profiles and lower fastener assembly for the includes tunnel and horizontal tunnel.

EFFECT: possibility of spatial assembling pin position adjustment and installation of canopy panels in designed position regardless arch configuration inaccuracies in underground structure; more effective, reliable and simplified hanger for canopy to be attached to bearing lining notwithstanding canopy panel width and lining width ensuring conditions of penetrating through lining water.

15 cl, 20 dwg

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