Paper and paper products and method of their production

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: paper material and method of its production are designed for the production of paper products such as file folders and can be used in pulp and paper industry. The paper material contains cellulose fibers and expanded microspheres in the amount of approximately 0.1-0.4 wt % and 5.1-6.0 wt % of the web total dry weight; the paper web has the density equal to or exceeding about 6.0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil. Method of manufacturing this material involves preparing composition for paper production containing cellulose fibers and expanded microspheres in the above amount, forming a fibrous web from this composition, web drying and calendering up to the above thickness.

EFFECT: preventing skin cuts, improving flexibility and stiffness of paper material.

29 cl, 25 dwg, 14 tbl, 8 ex

 

Related applications

This application is a partial continuation jointly pending application serial number 10/121,301, filed April 11, 2002, which is a partial continuation jointly pending application serial number 09/770,340, filed January 26, 2001, which is a partial continuation of provisional application serial number 60/178,214, filed January 26, 2000. This application also contains claims the benefits of provisional application serial number 60/282,983, filed on April 11, 2000.

The technical field

The invention relates to the manufacture of paper and, in particular, to the production of paper and cardboard bases. The present invention also relates to products produced from the bases according to the present invention, such as printing paper, paper forms, and folders for files.

The level of technology

In a modern office uses a variety of paper products, including, but not limited to, paper for writing, printing paper, paper for copying, paper for letterheads, notepads, folders, and dust jackets for organizing and storing documents, etc. unfortunately, such paper products has one or more disadvantages. For example, some of such products which have a relatively small base mass, insufficient is a rule strong and resistant to to protect the contents of the dossier, to stand upright or to remain relatively flat and self-sufficient. Other products that have a bend line for opening and closing products, such as folder or jacket, do not have sufficient rigidity to the bend line in order to withstand repeated opening and closing. Some products usually have edges that tend to cause the so-called "paper cuts" workers of the dossier. Although rarely causing serious injury, these paper cuts nevertheless represent a certain inconvenience and can cause serious discomfort, as they often have an irregular shape and pass through the sensitive nerve endings in his fingers.

Accordingly there is a need to develop improved paper products that reduce or eliminate one or more of these disadvantages.

Brief description of the invention

Taking into account the foregoing and other objectives and advantages, the present invention provides a method of manufacturing paper or cardboard base, having one or more improved properties such as improved shibamoto GM Fold, improved rigidity to the GM Taber and/or reduced ability to inflict cuts on people the human skin and tissue. The method includes: (i) providing a composition for the manufacture of paper containing cellulose fibers, expanded or expandable microspheres (preferably from about 0.1 to 6 wt.% by dry weight) and, optionally, conventional additives to the composition, including the fillers, means of restraint and the like, (ii) formation of a fiber fabric of the composition for the manufacture of paper and (iii) drying cloth for the formation of a dried leaf. In preferred embodiments of the invention the method also includes calendering the fabric, as, for example, to a thickness of from about 3 to 25 mils, preferably by use of reduced pressure calendering, comprising less than approximately 350 pounds per linear inch.

According to another aspect of the invention relates to a paper or a cardboard base for use in the manufacture of paper products, such as folders, paper envelopes, paper for printing and publications and cardboard bases for the production of cardboard boxes. Paper or cardboard base contains paper or cardboard fabric containing cellulose fibers and expanded microspheres (preferably from about 0.1 to 5 wt.% by dry weight)dispersed in the fibers, and, optionally, conventional additives to paper pulp, including one or more voltage is nitely and starches. Surprisingly, it was found that such bases have one or more improved properties compared to the basis, which is the same except that it does not contain expanded microspheres. For example, applicants have found that in some embodiments of the invention the base has improved smoothness in Sheffield (TAPPI 538om-88) or Parker Print Surf (TAPPI 555om-99) as on the back (net) side and on the top side of the base compared to the same basis, which does not contain microspheres. Applicants also found that the basis has improved shibamoto GM Fold compared to the same basis, which does not contain microspheres. It was also revealed that this improvement flexion artificial increases with increasing density, and that embodiments of the invention, in which the density is equal to or greater than about 6 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil, preferably equal to or greater than approximately 7 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil, more preferably from about 7 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to about 13 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil, and most preferably from about 8,5 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to about 11 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil are preferred. Embodiments of the invention with improved shibamoto GM Fold applicable in the manufacture of products based on paper and cardboard where such properties are useful and desirable, as, for example, in the manufacture of products having a fold line or rents, for which they may be bent or folded, for example folders and cardboard packaging for juice.

Surprisingly, applicants have also found that the basis has improved rigidity to the GM Taber, if she kalandrovoy in malandragem device having one or more contact areas, for example, steel to steel, steel with soft material, soft material with a soft material, an inclined zone of contact, tape and other calender, in which the pressure calendering in any area of contact does not exceed approximately 350 pounds per linear inch.

Improved rigidity to the GM Taber make paper or cardboard base of the present invention is particularly useful in the production of paper and cardboard bases, where the increased rigidity is particularly desirable, as, for example, in the manufacture of products with a small base weight, such as less than about 300 pounds per 3000 square feet, preferably less than about 200 pounds per 3000 square feet, more preferably less than about 180 pounds per 3000 square feet and most preferably from about 20 pounds to 150 pounds per 3000 square feet, such as printing paper, paper stationery, paper for publications and paper envelopes.

So the e was identified, some embodiments of the present invention, having a density of from about 6 to 13 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil and a thickness of about 3 to 25 mils, a higher resistance to the application of cuts on human skin. These options exercise useful in the manufacture of articles of paper and cardboard, which preferably increased resistance to the application of cuts on human skin.

According to another aspect of the present invention relates to articles made from paper or cardboard bases according to the present invention, which is designed to have the advantages of the favorable properties of paper and cardboard bases of the present invention. Such products include paper and cardboard products having at least two essentially flat parts connected by fold lines where they should be bent along the line, such as a folder for file or dust jacket. The folder for the file or the dust jacket contains the paper web consisting of wood fibers and expanded microspheres, dispersed in the fibers. The paper web has a density of from about 6 to 18 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil and a thickness of about 3 to 25 mils. The paper web is cut by punching machine to ensure the availability of the open edges on the folder or jacket that the possession is t increased resistance to inflicting cuts on human skin. These products also have improved shibamoto GM Fold and rigidity to the GM Taber after calendering at a pressure equal to or less than approximately 350 pounds per linear inch. Such products also include products with a reduced base weight, which is equal to or less than 200 pounds per 3000 square feet, such as printing paper, paper for copying, paper for writing, paper envelopes and paper for the blank as cut and rolled, with improved rigidity to the GM Taber even with its relatively small base weight.

In accordance with one preferred embodiment of the invention the paper web has a density of approximately 6 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to 11 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil, more preferably from about 6 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to about 9 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil, and most preferably from about 6 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to about 8 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil. Also preferably, the paper web has a thickness from about 14,0 to approximately 16,0 mil. Basis weight of the fabric is usually approximately 80 pounds per 3000 square feet to about 300 pounds per 3000 square feet, more preferably from about 120 pounds per 3000 square feet to about 150 pounds per 3000 square is outow.

Usually microspheres in the paper consist of synthetic polymeric microspheres and approximately from 0.1 to 6.0 wt.% of the total weight of dry fabric. The fabric preferably contains from about 0.25 to 5.0 wt.%, more preferably approximately from 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% and most preferably from about 0.5 to 3.0 wt.% on the above basis. Particularly preferably, the microspheres contained microspheres made of a polymeric material selected from the group consisting of methyl methacrylate, orthochlorotoluene, paleontological, polyvinylidenechloride, Acrylonitrile, vinylidenechloride, parentbuilder, vinyl acetate, butyl acrylate, styrene, methacrylic acid, vinylbenzoic and combinations of two or more substances mentioned. The microspheres preferably after the extensions have a diameter of approximately from 30 to 60 μm. Additionally, in some cases, may be the preferred initial dispersion of the microspheres in the basis of the unexpanded state and the subsequent expansion of the microspheres during drying of the paper web.

Cellulose fibers contained in the fabric, can be obtained from softwood, hardwood or mixtures thereof. Preferably, the fiber content in paper cloth is approximately from 30% to 100% by dry weight of the fibers XB is Inoi wood and from about 70% to 0% by dry weight of the fibers of hardwood.

One aspect of the invention, the fibers in the paper cloth contain from about 30 to 100 wt.% dry mass of the softwood fibers, from about 70 to 0 wt.% dry mass of hardwood fibers and from about 0 to 50 wt.% dry mass consumer waste.

One aspect of the invention, the painting was kalantzopoulos in the calender, having one or more contact areas and pressure in any area of contact does not exceed approximately 350 pounds per linear inch.

The said pressure may be equal to or less than approximately 280 pounds per linear inch.

The said pressure may be equal to or less than about 250 pounds per linear inch.

The said pressure may be equal to or less than approximately 100 pounds per linear inch.

The said pressure may be equal to or less than about 50 pounds per linear inch.

One variant of the invention, the paper material has a coefficient of cuts is less than approximately 40, determined by analysis according to the test rate cuts 30.

Paper material can be set by the GM Fold, equal to or greater than approximately 200.

Paper material can be set by the GM Fold, equal to or greater than about 350.

Paper material, can have GM Fold equal to or greater than about 450.

Crataerina drawings

The above and other aspects and advantages of the present invention will now be described in more detail together with the attached drawings, on which:

Figure 1 is a micrograph showing the edge of the plain paper after cutting in a variety of ways of cutting the paper.

Figure 2 is another micrograph comparing carved plain paper and cut the paper according to one variant of implementation of the present invention.

Figure 3 is a side elevation, schematically illustrating a device for die-cutting paper for use in a reverse cutting the paper samples.

Figure 4 is a side elevation, schematically illustrating a device for testing the possibility of cuts paper fingers.

Figure 5 is a perspective view illustrating certain aspects of the device for testing, shown in Figure 4.

6 is a graph of flexion artificial GM Fold against density for bases with a base weight of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

7 is a graph of flexion artificial GM Fold against density for bases with a base weight of 100 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph of flexion artificial GM Fold against density for bases with a base weight of 118 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres and without them

Fig.9 is a graph of stiffness on GM Taber against the pressure of calendering to basics, having a basic weight of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Figure 10 is a graph of stiffness on GM Taber against the pressure of calendering to basics, having a basic weight of 100 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

11 is a graph of stiffness on GM Taber against the pressure of calendering to basics, having a basic weight of 118 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph of stiffness on GM Taber against the base weight for the basics, celandroni at different pressure microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph of smoothness in Sheffield working capital (net) side against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph of smoothness in Sheffield working capital (net) side against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 100 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph of smoothness in Sheffield working capital (net) side against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 118 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph Parker Print Surf back (net) side against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet with microsphere without them.

Fig is a graph Parker Print Surf back (net) side against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 100 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph Parker Print Surf back (net) side against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 118 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph of smoothness in Sheffield the upper hand against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph of smoothness in Sheffield the upper hand against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 100 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph of smoothness in Sheffield the upper hand against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 118 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph Parker Print Surf the upper hand against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph Parker Print Surf the upper hand against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 100 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig is a graph Parker Print Surf the upper hand against density for the basics, having a basic weight of 118 pounds per 3000 square feet with microspheres without them.

Fig ableitstrom flexion artificial GM Fold against the base weight for foundations with microspheres without them.

Detailed description of the invention

One aspect of the present invention is a paper material with improved resistance to shear, i.e. the edges of the paper have a reduced tendency to cut, to tear off or damage of human skin. The present invention also relates to a paper material having improved rigidity to the GM Tader and improved shibamoto GM Fold. In the same sense as the word "paper" is used herein, it includes paper and cardboard, unless otherwise noted.

The paper is available in the form of a fabric containing cellulose fibers, for example fibers derived from hardwood trees, softwood trees, or a combination of deciduous and coniferous trees, prepared for use in combination for the manufacture of paper by any known method of cooking, refining and bleaching. In one preferred embodiment, the cellulose fibres in the paper contain softwood fibers from about 30% to 100% by dry weight and leaf fibers from about 70% to 0% by dry weight. In some embodiments, the implementation of at least part of the fibers may be derived from non-woody herbaceous plants, including, but not limited to, kenaf, hemp, jute, flax, sisal or abaku, although legal restrictions or other considerations may make the use of eople and other sources of fibers impractical or impossible.

In addition to the cellulose fibers of paper material also contains dispersed in the fibers of expanded or unexpanded microspheres in the amount of approximately from 0.1 to 6 wt.% by dry weight, more preferably paper contains from about 0.25 to 5.0 wt.% expanded or unexpanded microspheres and most preferably paper contains from about 0.5 to 3.0 wt.% expanded or unexpanded microspheres.

Advanced and expandable microspheres are well known in the prior art. For example, suitable expandable microspheres described in co-pending application, serial number 09/770,340, filed January 26, 2001 and the application serial number 10/121,301, filed April 11, 2002; U.S. patent№№3,556,934, 5,514,429, 5,125,996, 3,533,908, 3,293,114, 4,483,889 and 4,133,688; in a patent application in the UK 2307487, the contents of which are incorporated by reference. When implementing the present invention in practice can be any known microspheres. Suitable microspheres include particles of synthetic resin, having a common spherical center containing liquid. The resin particles may be made of methyl methacrylate, orthochlorotoluene, paleontological, polyvinylidenechloride, Acrylonitrile, vinylidenechloride, parentbuilder, vinyl acetate, butyl acrylate, styrene, methacrylic acid, vinyl is ancillarity and combinations of two or more substances mentioned. The preferred resin particles contain a polymer containing from about 65 to 90 wt.% vinylidenechloride, preferably from about 65 to 75 wt.% vinylidenechloride, and from about 35 to 10 wt.% Acrylonitrile, preferably from about 25 to 35 wt.% Acrylonitrile.

The microspheres preferably are in paper canvas in the "extended" state after expansion to a diameter of approximately 300-600% of the "unexpanded" condition in the original composition for the manufacture of paper from which the fabric. In their original unexpanded condition in the center of the expandable microspheres may be foaming agent in the form of a volatile liquid, which promotes the desired volumetric expansion and supports it. Preferably, the agent is not a solvent of the polymer resins. A particularly preferred foaming agent is isobutane, which can be present in an amount of from about 10 to 25 wt.% from the total mass of the resin particles. After heating to a temperature of approximately 80-190°C, as for example in a drying machine for making paper, resin particles increase in diameter of approximately 60 μm, preferably from 30 to 60 μm. Suitable expandable microspheres are supplied to the market by the company Akzo Nobel, Marietta, GA., under the brand the name EXPANCEL. Expandable microspheres and their use in paper materials are described in more detail in co-pending application, serial number 09/770,340, filed January 26, 2001, and co pending application, serial number 10/121,301, filed April 11, 2002, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

The fabric may also contain other conventional additives, such as, for example, starch, fillers, adhesives, means for retaining and reinforcing polymers. Fillers that can be used include organic and inorganic pigments, such as, for example, polymer particles, such as latexes of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate, and minerals, such as calcium carbonate, barium sulfate, mica, kaolin and talc. Other conventional additives include, but are not limited to, resin, durable in wet conditions, internal adhesives, resin, durable in dry condition, alum, fillers, pigments and dyes. To get the highest levels of the bonding surfaces in the methods of the present invention it is preferable that the canvas was glued inside, so that the adhesive agents were added to a suspension of pulp to manufacture paper web or base. Internal bonding helps to prevent the surface of the adhesive into the fabric, allows the him to remain on the surface, where it has maximum efficiency. Internal adhesive agents include any such substance, usually used on the wet side of the machine for making paper. They include rosin adhesives, ketonovye dimers and multicamera and alkenylamine anhydrides. Internal adhesives are typically used in concentrations known from the prior art, as, for example, from about 0.05 to 0.25 wt.% from the dry weight of the paper web. The methods and materials used for internal bonding, discussed Astrazenca (.Strazdins) in the publication "Bonding paper", second edition, edited by Uranalysis (W.F.Reynolds), ed. TAPPI, 1989, p.1-33. Suitable ketonovye dimers for internal bonding are disclosed in U.S. patent No. 4,279,794, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety, and in the patent of great Britain No. 786,543, 903,416, 1,373,788 and 1,533,434, and in published European patent application No. AZ. Ketonovye dimers are commercially available, for example, adhesive agents "Aquarel.RTM" and "Precis.RTM" from Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, Delaware. Ketonovye multimer for internal bonding is described in published European patent application No. 0629741 A1, corresponding to patent application U.S. serial number 08/254,813, filed June 6, 1994, in published European patent application No. 0666368 A3, the relevant patent request the e U.S. serial number 08/192,570, filed February 7, 1994, and in the patent application U.S. serial number 08/601,113, filed on 16 February 1996. Alkenylamine anhydrides for internal bonding are disclosed in U.S. patent No. 4,040,900, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and in the publication Kearly and Rbhalera (..Farley and R.B.Wasser) "Bonding paper", second edition, edited by Uranalysis (W.F.Reynolds), ed. TAPPI, 1989, p.51-62. Various alkenylamine anhydrides offered by the company Albermarle Corporation, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

The thickness of the paper according to the present invention may vary over a wide range. The paper obtained according to the present invention, preferably has a final thickness after calendering about 3 to 25 mils, depending on the purpose of the paper material, at any pressure calendering, which may correspond to the subsequent coating. Applicants have found that the paper material of the present invention, which has resistance to the application of the cuts on the human skin has a thickness from about 7 to 18.0 mils, preferably approximately from 8.0 to 14.0 mils, more preferably from about 9 to 12 mils and most preferably about 10.0 to 11.5 mils.

The base weight of the paper of the present invention also can the t to vary in a wide range depending on the use of paper material. Paper material preferably has a base weight of approximately 20 pounds per 3000 square feet to 300 pounds to 3000 pounds, more preferably from about 20 pounds per 3000 square feet to 200 pounds to 3000 pounds, and most preferably from about 30 pounds per 3000 square feet to 180 pounds to 3000 pounds. Applicants have found that the difference in flexion artificial GM Fold between the paper material of the present invention and similar paper material which does not contain microspheres, increases base weight. In those versions of the implementation, where desired increased shibamoto GM Fold, to achieve the maximum difference in flexion artificial base weight should be 90 pounds per 3,000 square feet or more. In these embodiments, the base weight is preferably equal to or greater than approximately 100 pounds per 3000 square feet and more preferably equal to or more than 105 pounds per 3000 square feet.

Rigidity to the GM Taber paper material of the present invention may vary over a wide range. Applicants have found that the rigidity of the GM Taber paper material of the present invention is higher than that of similar paper material not containing microspheres, if the basis of the present invention calandrella at a pressure equal to or less than approximately 350 pounds per linear inch. Because of increased the Oh rigidity GM Taber paper material of the present invention, containing expanded microspheres, it can be used in those applications that use similar materials with a higher base weight, which do not contain microspheres. For example, a paper material of the present invention has the rigidity to the GM Taber, comparable to the rigidity of similar material, which has a base weight of 5-10% more and not calandrella under reduced pressure.

Shibamoto GM Fold the paper material of the present invention may vary within a wide range, but it is also higher than that of a paper material, which does not contain microspheres. In General, the experiments showed that in the present invention shibamoto GM Fold increases with increasing density. The value for GM Fold is preferably 200, and more preferably not less than about 350.

The density of the paper material is at least about 6 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil. As the experiments showed, the applicants were able to achieve improved flexion artificial GM Fold the paper material of the present invention in comparison with a similar material which does not contain microspheres increases with increase in density. Accordingly desirable higher density value, preferably equal to 7.0 pounds per 3000 square feet. In these preferred variant is ntah the final weight of the paper i.e. basis weight divided by the thickness, is typically about 7.0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to 12.0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil, preferably from about 7.5 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to 9.0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil, more preferably from about 7.5 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to 9.0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil, and most preferably from about 7.5 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil to 9.0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil. Thus, the paper has a relatively large thickness in relation to its weight, than conventional types of paper. We believe that the decrease of the ratio of the base mass to the thickness of at least partially caused by the large number of tiny voids in the paper, formed by the expanded microspheres, dispergirovannykh between the fibers, because the microspheres lead, especially in the process of expanding to a significant increase in the volume of voids in the material. In addition, the paper after drying calandrella sufficiently to achieve the final desired thickness, as specified herein, together with the formation of any desired surface when celandroni. The greatly increased volume of voids with a relatively large thickness also leads to reduction of the weight of the paper while maintaining sufficient rigidity and other properties, important for use as source material for folders, etc.

Methods and devices for the preparation of paper or cardboard bases are well known from the prior art in the manufacture of paper and cardboard. See, for example, "Handbook of pulp and paper technology", 2nd edition, Geisman (G.A.Smook), ed. Angus Wilde Publications (1992) and the references therein. Can be used any known method and device.

Preferably, the method comprises: a) preparing a water suspension of cellulose; (b) shaping and drying of the fabric from an aqueous suspension of cellulose to obtain a dried paper or cardboard canvases; (C) drying the paper to obtain the dried paper or cardboard canvases and (d) calendering the dried paper or cardboard web. In addition to these steps of the method can be applied and additional steps known to experts in the art, as, for example, the step of coating containing a binder with a pigment containing a dispersant additive, one or more surfaces of the canvas.

At the stage of (a) the preferred alternative implementation of the present invention is prepared aqueous suspension of cellulose. Methods and devices for the preparation of aqueous suspensions of cellulose is well known from the prior art in the manufacture of paper and cardboard and not Bud is t be presented in detail in this document. See, for example, the publication Geisai mentioned above, and it contains links to other materials. Can be used any known method of preparing the aqueous suspension of cellulose. Component of the pulp fibers in the base may be a chemical pulp cooking, for example, bleached Kraft pulp, although the present invention is not considered limited Kraft pulp and can also be used with good effect with other chemical types of pulp such as sulfite, mechanical, such as ground wood pulp, and other types and mixtures thereof, such as chemical-mechanical and thermo-mechanical pulp. Although it is not essential to the present invention, the cellulose should preferably be otmelivatsja to remove lignins and achieve the desired degree of whiteness according to one or more methods known from the prior art, including, for example, the sequence of bleaching with the use of elemental chlorine, chlorine dioxide, consistency bleaching without chlorine bleaching sequences without elemental chlorine and combinations or combinations of steps, consisting of the above-mentioned sequences and other sequences and stages of bleaching. After bleaching, washing and separation of the Sith CE is lulose usually subjected to improvement in one or several stages. After that refined pulp is passed into the mixing tank where it is mixed with conventional additives, such as, for example, starches, fillers, bonding agents, means of retaining and reinforcing polymers. Fillers that can be used include organic and inorganic pigments, such as, for example, polymer particles of the latex of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate, and minerals, such as calcium carbonate, kaolin and talc. Other conventional additives include, but are not limited to, resin, durable in wet conditions, internal adhesives, resin, durable in dry condition, alum, fillers, pigments and dyes are usually added to the basis for the manufacture of paper, as well as other types of cellulose, such as unbleached pulp and/or recycled pulp. Other conventional additives may also be so-called agents for "inner bonding", used mainly to increase the contact angle of polar liquids in contact with the surface of the paper, for example alchemistry anhydride, alkylcatechols dimer and resin adhesives. At this stage, can also be added means to hold. Preferred are cationic tools for retention, but can be used anionic means to hold.

At stage (b) of the method of the present invention, the pulp suspension from step (a) is divided into sieves and dried to obtain a dried paper or cardboard web. Methods and devices for separation by sieves and drying of a suspension of cellulose is well known from the prior art in the manufacture of paper and cardboard. See, for example, the publication Geisai, mentioned the th above and it contains links to other materials. Can be used any known method of separation by sieves and drying. Because of this, such methods will not be presented in detail. For example, the aqueous composition for the manufacture of paper containing cellulose and other additives out of the boot of the tank a suitable machine for making paper in a single layer or multi-layer paper web in the machine for the manufacture of paper, such as machine Furdrine or any other papermaking machine known in the prior art, as well as machines that may become known in the future. For example, the so-called "slice" of a composition consisting of an aqueous slurry of cellulose fibers relatively low consistency together with microspheres and various additives and fillers, dispergirovannykh it extruded from a bootable tank on a porous belt moving sheet or wire, where the water is removed by gradual flow through the small holes in the wire under vacuum section forming up until the fabric of cellulose fibers and other materials will not be formed on the wire. Dehydrated wet cloth skipped out section forming section pressing on specially made tape through a sequence of rolls for pressing, which removes water and strengthen the IOC is the second canvas paper. At the stage (C) the preferred alternative implementation of the present invention is paper or cardboard and the fabric is dried after treatment with the adhesive composition. The cloth is then passed in the source section of the drying to remove most of the retained moisture and further compaction of the fibers in the paper. The heat in the drying section also contributes to the expansion of unexpanded microspheres, which may be contained in the canvas. Methods and devices for drying paper or cardboard cloths treated with the adhesive composition, well known from the prior art in the manufacture of paper and cardboard. See, for example, the publication Geisai mentioned above, and it contains links to other materials. Can be used any known method and device for drying. Because of this, such methods and devices will not be presented in detail in this document.

The dried paper or cardboard canvas optimally and preferably processed by coating on at least one surface of an adhesive composition containing one or more additives. Methods and devices for processing the dried leaf of paper or paperboard, pressure-sensitive adhesive well known in the prior art in the manufacture of paper and cardboard. See, for example, the publication Geisai mentioned above, and contained in the it links to other materials. Suitable adhesive additives include pigments and bonding agents, such as starches. Can be used starch of any type, including, but not limited to, oxidized, leaded, cationic and starch grains, and preferably used in aqueous solution. Examples of suitable starches for the implementation of this preferred variant embodiment of the invention are naturally occurring hydrocarbons synthesized in corn, tapioca, potato and other plants by polymerization of dextrose units. All such starches and their modified forms, such as starch acetates, esters starches, phosphate starches, xanthate starches, anionic starches, cationic starches, etc. that can be obtained by reaction of starch with a suitable chemical or enzymatic reagent, can be used to implement the present invention in practice. The preferred cationic starches are modified or non-ionic starches, such as CatoSize 270 and KoFilm 280 (from the company National Starch and chemically modified starches, such as leaded starches PG-280 and starch grains AR Pearl. The preferred starches for use in the implementation of the present invention are cationic starches and chemically modified romaly.

At stage (d) is preferred variant of the method of the present invention the dried paper or cardboard web is one or more stages after drying, such as those described in the publication Geisai mentioned above, and it contains references to other materials. For example, on a paper or cardboard sheet can be coated, and/or it may be calandrino to achieve the desired final thickness, as mentioned above, to improve the smoothness and other properties of such cloth. Calendering can be carried out on malandragem equipment "steel on steel" with rollers in one or more levels, each of which has one or more contact areas, at a pressure sufficient to obtain the desired thickness. Should be understood that the final thickness of the paper layer will be largely determined by the choice of pressure rolls. Applicants have found that the pressure calendering affects the rigidity of the framework, and that framework has acceptable characteristics of rigidity can be obtained at a relatively low base weight by reducing the level of calendering. Reduce the base weight of the paper and cardboard is advantageous because it increases the yield of the finished product (in square feet or tons of paper or cardboard). The use of expandable microspheres in combination the with a reduced level of calendering can further reduce the base weight, known from the prior art, at the same time providing acceptable characteristics of rigidity.

In General, in those embodiments, the implementation of a paper material, where desirable superior rigidity to the GM Taber, the material is subjected to maximum pressure calendering, equal to or less than approximately 350 pounds per square inch (PKD). Pressure calendering is preferably equal to or less than approximately 250 pounds on PKD, more preferably equal to or less than approximately 100 pounds on PKD and most preferably equal to or less than approximately 50 pounds on PKD.

As mentioned above, the paper material of the present invention possess one or more advantageous properties. They include improved rigidity to the GM Taber, improved shibamoto GM Fold and/or improved resistance to cut. As a result of these properties of paper materials produced by the present invention can be used in various office purposes. In particular, the paper of the present invention has advantages when used for making folders for the files out of Bristol Board or book jackets for storing and ordering materials for jobs in the office. The manufacture of such folders of their paper paintings are well known in the manufacture of paper products and is about the future, in cutting blanks of the appropriate size and shape of the paper web, is usually the way to "reverse" the strike, and the subsequent folding of the blanks to get the folder of the appropriate form, followed by their selection and packaging. Blanks can also be pre-perforated to facilitate folding. The operation of punching, cutting, folding, selection and packaging is usually done using automated equipment, well known to experts in the art of essentially continuous rolls of cloth supplied in the equipment by unwinding from the rack.

A typical device for "reverse" strike schematically shown in Figure 3. Such cutting is used instead of the so-called "guillotine" paper cutting. When the guillotine cutting paper cutting is based on a flat stationary surface under the paper and cut by lowering the movable cutting knife, passing through the entire thickness of the paper into the slot in the stationary surface having dimensions corresponding to the dimensions of the blade. Guillotine cutting usually gives a relatively smooth edge of the paper, but it is usually not practical at high cutting speeds and large volumes of material. When reverse cutting cutting knife fixed in a vertical position, speaking of the building is a, located under the paper to be cut. When the fixed knife and the paper in position for cutting above the knife contact plate is lowered onto the upper surface of the paper and presses the paper to the cutting edge of the knife, providing cutting paper.

Paper, folders and other products, obtained by die-cutting according to the present invention, having open edges, have, according to the observations of the applicants, a significantly reduced tendency to inflict cuts on the skin of persons working with folders, compared with paper, known from the prior art, and paper products, such as folders. That is, it is less likely that the edges of the paper will cause cuts or other skin injuries, if the fingers and other parts of the body unintentionally touches the open edges of the material.

Without being bound by theory we believe that this improvement in resistance to cuts obtained through a combination of increased thickness and reduced density compared with paper, known from the prior art, and the influence of these properties on reaction paper during cutting operations. As mentioned above, blank for folders is usually made. When cutting pieces for traditional folders, known from the prior art and having a relatively small thickness and a relatively high density, it is considered that the cutting knife initially creates a clean cut, passing che the ez part of the paper thickness. However, before cutting knife will complete a clean cut through the entire thickness of the paper, the rest of the paper thickness "bursts" or breaks down relatively rough and uneven. As a consequence, the resulting edge folder uneven and contains a large number of very small and sharp paper particles. It is believed that contact with these small and sharp particles and is the main cause cuts. Although edges, obtained by die-cutting, rougher and more uneven than, for example, obtained by guillotine cutting, methods of cutting down more easily implemented in large-scale high-speed production and therefore are widely used in modern practice. Figure 1 shows four sample plain paper, cut in a variety of ways. The first sample on the micrograph represents a paper obtained by guillotine cutting. Two samples in the center of the micrograph carved laboratory punching machine, described in more detail below. The last sample in the background micrograph carved on traditional industrial punching machine. As you can see, traditional carved paper has significant roughness on the edges of the samples.

However, it was found that the paper according to the present invention, having a relatively large thickness and a relatively low raft is awn, has a significantly reduced tendency to premature rupture or fracture when cutting. Obviously, the cutting knife can perform a clean cut through the entire thickness of the paper, and, consequently, the resulting edge has significantly fewer irregularities and sharp particles that cause cuts. Therefore, folders, for example made in accordance with the present invention have a significantly reduced tendency to inflict cuts when working with them.

Differences in obtained by cutting the edges shown in figure 2, where the right shows the cut edge of the paper obtained according to the present invention, and shown on the left cut edge is known from the prior art paper with essentially the same basic mass. Paper of the present invention contains about 2 wt.% expanded microspheres and has a thickness of approximately 15 mils and a density of about 8.7 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil. Plain paper does not contain microspheres and has a thickness of about 11 mils and a density of 11.3 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil. You can see that the edge of the paper of the present invention is much more smooth in appearance and has a more conical angular profile. It is believed that these differences lead to a decrease in the tendency to apply the cuts.

The following non-limiting examples illustrated irout various additional aspects of the invention. Unless otherwise indicated, temperatures are in degrees Celsius, the percentages are mass and the percentage of any additives to the cellulose or moisture based on the dry weight of the total material.

Example 1

A series of batches of the paper was obtained from a mixture containing approximately 40% softwood pulp and 60% hardwood pulp with a canadian standard of the degree of grinding approximately 450, which contained some amount of expandable microspheres and kalandrakis different thicknesses. Received the paper containing microspheres were then tested to determine whether cutting edges of the fingers of the person when working with this paper. Instead of the human skin when the trials used a rubber finger, covered with a latex glove material, serving as "artificial skin".

Samples for testing were cut using laboratory punching machine 20, shown in Figure 3. The machine has a lower housing 22 with the notch 24. The cutting knife 26 is mounted on support block 28, and the block is fixed in the recess 24 so that the cutting knife pointing upwards.

Punching machine 20 also includes upper housing 30, which is maintained coaxially to the lower housing some of the bolts or rods 32, which are included in a corresponding number of holes in the top housing 30. Above the cutting knife 26 in the upper housing has a contact surface 34. A sample of 36 paper cutting is placed in the gap between the cutting knife 26 and the contact surface 34. The contact surface 34 is then pressed downward by a hydraulic plunger 38 or other suitable moving means in order to press the sample 36 to the cutting knife and cut it into two parts.

The trend for the application of the cut edges of the paper samples was measured in the test procedure, called below "Rate cuts 30" (where "30" indicates the number of times to repeat the test). In the test on the coefficient of cuts 30 uses a device similar to the one shown schematically in figure 4 and Figure 5. The testing device 50 includes a frame 52 which supports the device 54 clamping paper sample, which is hanging up on the frame 52. Clamping device 54 is suspended from the hinge 56 that allows you to adjust the angle of the device 54 relative to the horizontal. In this way the paper can contact the finger at different angles. Test sample 60 paper clamping device is held essentially in a vertical position. The testing device 50 also includes an artificial finger 62, which can be stretched along the edge of the sample 60 of paper. For example, the finger 62 may be secured the possibility of withdrawal on a mobile base 64, that slides along the rail or guide 66 under the influence of the hydraulic actuator, so that the finger 62 extends in contact with the edge of the sample 60 of the paper. After contact of the finger with a sample of the latex is investigated to determine whether caused the cut, and then the cuts are classified by size.

Artificial finger preferably is performed from the inner metal or hard plastic core, which is covered with an elastic material such as neoprene rubber, and a layer of neoprene preferably covered with a layer of latex, such as a finger from a latex glove. Thus, the artificial finger partly simulates bone, muscle and skin of the human finger. Although this design is made of latex and neoprene and has no tendency to cause cuts on the human finger, it is believed that the relatively high frequency of cuts this design will in General be correlated with a relatively large number of cuts of the human finger, and the relatively low frequency cut this design will in General be correlated with a relatively low number of cuts of the human finger.

In the above experiments used a layer of neoprene rubber had a shore a hardness And approximately 50, latex "skin" had a thickness of approximately 0.004 inches and was priciple is on to the neoprene with double-sided adhesive tape. For better modeling of the skin latex before the test was also subjected to heating at 125°C for 6 hours. Because latex is a natural substance, latexes and their products have some degree of change certain properties depending on the party, for example with different moisture content. It was found that by keeping the latex at an elevated temperature for about 6 hours obtained latex "skin" had a more uniform set of properties and therefore provides improved reproducibility of test results.

Used samples of paper were up into fragments of approximately 1 inch × 6 inches, and cut edge centropolis in the lower part of the clamping device for contact with the finger. Then the artificial finger stretched along the edge of the paper and after stopping investigated to determine, whether caused the cut, and if Yes, what is the magnitude of the cut.

For each paper sample, the experiment was repeated 30 times. The following results were obtained.

Table I
The sample number (WMCF)The number of substances Expancel (wt.%)Basic weight (pounds per 3,000 square feet)To the final thickness (mil) The density (pounds per 3000 square feet per mil)The number of cutsRate cuts
1A012711,910,71945
22108to 12.09,01534
33108a 12.78,51729
6A014812,112,32256
6B018214,512,61830
6S020016,2 12,41316
124213115,88,3715
1432143of 17.08,435

In addition to determining the number of cuts (30 repetitions), the size of each cut was classified on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 was treated "very shallow" and 5 "deep." Using these data was determined by the "rate cuts" by summing the works of the number of cuts in each category on the seriousness of this category on a scale from 1 to 5. The results are shown in table II.

Table II
Sample numberJust cutsDeep (5)Average + (4)Average (3)Shallow (2)Very shallow (1) Rate cuts
1A190357445
21501310134
31700110629
6A220486456
6B1800601230
6S1300 031016
12470032215
1433000215

As can be seen for samples 1-3 and 6A, the density of the paper was changed by adding different quantities of expanded microspheres, although the thickness of the paper was kept approximately constant at about 12 mils. These samples showed that the decrease in density due to the addition of the microspheres has led to a corresponding reduction in the number and severity of the cuts caused by the paper.

Samples 6A-6P paper weight was maintained approximately constant about 12.5 pounds per 3000 square feet per mils, although the thickness of the paper was changed. These results showed a clear correlation between the increase in thickness and decrease the amount and severity of cuts for paper containing microspheres.

In conclusion, in samples 124 and 143 produced paper contains the Ala microspheres and had a reduced density and thick at the same time. The results are quite impressive, as the number of cuts and the weighted average of the cuts fell to exceptionally low levels. Thus, it appears that although the increase in thickness and decrease in density due to the addition of the microspheres can individually reduce the number of cuts to some extent, the combination of these two factors results in a synergistic effect in reducing the number of cuts, surprisingly and quite unexpectedly.

Example 2

A similar set of tests was conducted on a series of batches of the paper produced from the second paper composition, which was obtained by mixing approximately 40% softwood pulp and 60% deciduous mass and had a canadian standard degree of grinding approximately 450. For these tests were made two batches of paper, and paper in each of the party had approximately the same basic mass. For one batch of paper basis weight was about 130 pounds per 3000 square feet and for the second batch of approximately 150 pounds per 3000 square feet. In each batch was added a certain amount of microspheres, and the thickness of the obtained paper was different. As in Example 1, tests were carried out on 30 instances of each sample. The results are shown in tables III and IV.

The sample number (WMCF)The number of substances Expancel (wt.%)Basic weight (pounds per 3,000 square feet)The final thickness (mil)The density (pounds per 3000 square feet per mil)The number of cutsRate cuts
1012912,110,72177
3213315,58,581534
4312817,27,461016
5015313,811,12580
7214 14,610,21636
8315018,48,15712

These results show a clear tendency to decrease in the total number of cuts, as well as in the average value of the cuts when the number of the microspheres, when the basic weight is maintained approximately at the same level. It is seen that increasing the number of microspheres, while keeping the basic mass at one level leads to an increase in thickness, the decrease of the density and reduce the amount and severity of the cuts.

td align="center"> 5
Table IV
Sample numberJust cutsDeep (5)Average + (4)Average (3)Shallow (2)Very shallow (1)Rate cuts
121753177
3150218334
4100006416
5252968080
71600412036
870005212

Example 3

A similar set of tests was conducted on a series of PA is Tille paper, produced from the third paper composition containing approximately 35% softwood pulp and 65% hardwood pulp. As before, tests were carried out on 30 instances of each sample. The results are shown in table V.

Table V
Sample numberThe number of substances Expancel (wt.%)Basic weight (pounds per 3,000 square feet)The final thickness (mil)The density (pounds per 3000 square feet per mil)The number of cutsRate cuts
124 lbs, the control0129is 11.3911,3428116
143 lbs, the control014811,5712,763095
4212814,838,61 1521
6212515,21by 8.2279
7212414,948,2855
8212515,088,271515
9212514,568,6289

For these tests were made of the party paper, containing expanded microspheres, with a base weight of about 124 pounds per 3000 square feet, which were compared with two control batches produced without microspheres and having a basic weight of 124 and 143 pounds per 3000 square feet, respectively. Samples with expanded microspheres again showed a sharp decline in the trend of applying cuts compared to the control samples. Total if estvo cuts decreased by 50% or more in each case, and weighted average cuts also decreased.

Example 4

A series of batches of the paper was produced from a mixture containing approximately 50% softwood pulp, 20% hardwood pulp and 30% post-consumer waste, and having a canadian standard degree of grinding approximately 450. The pulp mixture was glued by adding 0.09 wt.% alkenylamine anhydride. Also in the mix was added to 7 wt.% ground calcium carbonate. Were made of the samples of paper with the expandable microspheres without them. For samples with expandable microspheres, the latter was added to the pulp mixture. Samples that contained expandable microspheres was approximately 1 wt.% in the canvas. The pulp mixture is then molded into the fabric on the experimental machine for making paper. Received a few basic mass: 90, 100 and 118 pounds per 3000 square feet. Paper when placed on a machine for the manufacture of paper glued 11%starch solution. The paper is not kalantzopoulos on a machine for the manufacture of paper, and were formulas in leaves and kalantzopoulos using laboratory calender feeding sheets. The sheets were kalandrakis at a pressure of 0, 30, 110, 170, 230 and 310 pounds on PKD to get the paper samples with different density. The density was determined as the basis weight in pounds per 3,000 square feet, divided by Natalino in mils.

Received the basics of paper and cardboard was tested on the MD and CD MIT Fold using test method TAPPI T511-88, which is a measure of the resistance to bending of paper used to assess the ability of paper to withstand repeated bending, folding and dilevko. This is an important criterion, if bases are used in the manufacture of paper or paperboard product having a fold or line notching, along which part of the products can be added, such as folders for files. The results are shown in tables IV, V and VI and figure 6, 7 and 8.

In tables IV, V and VI below shows pressure calendering, the percentage of expandable microspheres, the basic mass, density, MD MIT Fold, CD MIT Fold and geometric mean value of the flexion artificial for samples with a density of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet, 100 pounds per 3000 square feet and 118 pounds per 3000 square feet, respectively.

The geometric mean flexion artificial at MIT Fold and stiffness in Taber calculated from the properties of MD and CD using the following equation:

Figure 6, 7 and 8 show graphs of geometric average MIT Fold against density for samples with a density of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet, 100 pounds per 3000 square feet and 118 pounds per 3000 square feet, respectively. Cf is the ranking data GM Fold, shown in Fig.6, 7 and 8, clearly shows that the addition of 1 wt.% expandable microspheres had a favourable impact on shibamoto. This beneficial effect increases with increasing density, which the applicants had not expected.

Example 5

Received the basics of paper and cardboard from Example 4 was also tested on a Taber stiffness with using test method TAPPI T 489 om-92. The order of testing was used to measure the stiffness of paper and paperboard by determining the bending moment in g/cm required for bending the free end of the sample width 38 mm, bend vertical to 15 degrees from the Central line, with the application of load at 50 mm from the clamp. The stiffness of paper and paperboard is closely linked to the economic value basis and the number of fibers in paper or cardboard. In this application we were able to remove the fiber and replace it with a small amount of expandable microspheres and still achieve desirable properties for the preservation of the economic value of paper and paperboard. Increased stiffness is an important criterion, if bases are used in the production of paper or cardboard items, such as folders for files, hanging folders, dust jacket for x-rays and paper envelopes. The results are shown in tables VII, VIII and IX and figure 9, 10 and 11. In table is Zach VII, VIII and IX below shows pressure calendering, percentage expandable microspheres, the basic mass, density, stiffness in MD Taber, rigidity CD Taber and geometric mean value of the stiffness in Taber for samples with a density of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet, 100 pounds per 3000 square feet and 118 pounds per 3000 square feet, respectively.

Figure 9, 10 and 11 shows graphs of geometric averages Taber rigidity against the pressure of calendering for samples with a density of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet, 100 pounds per 3000 square feet and 118 pounds per 3000 square feet, respectively. Data comparison of stiffness along Taber, shown in Figures 9, 10 and 11, clearly shows that the addition of 1 wt.% expandable microspheres had a favourable effect on the rigidity. This is particularly evident at low pressures calendering, when the difference in hardness is greater between samples with the expandable microspheres and samples without expandable microspheres than at higher pressure calendering. This beneficial effect increases with decreasing pressure calendering, which the applicants had not expected.

Example 6

The data shown in Examples 4 and 5 were evaluated to determine the effects of calendering on the stiffness of paper and cardboard base. R. the results are shown in table X and Fig.

Table X and Fig clearly show that the addition of expandable microspheres in paper or cardboard can reduce the base weight of the paper or paperboard and at the same time maintain comparable stiffness of paper or cardboard with a larger mass. On Fig displays a graph rigidity GM Taber against the base weight of the paper with the expandable microspheres without them and at different pressures calendering. On Fig is clear that when any of the specified base weight paper with 1 wt.% expandable microspheres in combination with low pressure calendering has a significantly higher stiffness than paper with 1 wt.% expandable microspheres or without under normal conditions of calendering. This makes it possible to reduce the base weight while maintaining rigidity. Thus, by reducing the pressure of calendering can be achieved even less of the underlying stock at a comparable stiffness. Reduce the base weight of the paper and cardboard is beneficial as it increases output in square feet per ton of paper or paperboard). The use of expandable microspheres in combination with a reduced pressure calendering can further reduce the base weight compared with the prior art when using expandable microspheres in paper or cardboard. This was an unexpected result.

Example 7

Received the s fundamentals of paper and cardboard from Examples 4, 5 and 6 were also tested for smoothness by Taber using the test methods, TAPPI T 538 om-88 (Smoothness of paper and paperboard (method of Sheffield)and T 555 om-99 (Roughness of paper and paperboard (method a Parker Print test surface). The results are shown in tables XI, XII, XIII and Fig, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24. In tables XI, XII and XIII of the data on density, smoothness in Sheffield back side of the surface roughness according to the method of Parker Print smoothness of the upper side of the Sheffield and surface roughness of the upper side according to the method of Parker Print for samples with a density of 90 pounds per 3000 square feet, 100 pounds per 3000 square feet and 118 pounds per 3000 square feet, respectively. The surface roughness of paper and paperboard plays a significant role in determining the suitability of the paper for printing. Smoothness also affects other properties such as coefficient of friction, gloss and absorption coating. Test Sheffield measured air flow between the base and the surface of the glass. Surface smoothness refers to the magnitude of air flow, measured between two concentric annular areas, pressed in a sample pressure. The method of Parker Print is used to check the surface roughness of paper and paperboard in conditions simulating the process of letterpress printing, offset printing and gravure printing. The average is e roughness value, expressed in microns, may in some cases be best correlated with the suitability of the paper for printing than other comparative methods such as a method of Sheffield.

Table XI
Room basicsDensity, pounds per 3000 square feet per milSmoothness in Sheffield back in units of SheffieldThe quality of the printed surface of the back μm to 10 kg/cm2Smoothness in Sheffield the upper hand, in units of SheffieldThe quality of the printed surface of the upper side μm to 10 kg/cm2
90-0-20-0
90-0-20-6
90-0-20-10
90-0-20-13
90-0-20-16
90-0-20-20
90-1.0-20-0
90-1.0-20-6
90-1.0-20-10
90-1.0-20-13
90-1.0-20-16
90-1.0-20-20
9,18
9,89
or 10.60
11,19
11,70
11,59
8,16
9,02
9,78
10,27
a 10.74
11,65
478
369
246
223
160
123
402
353
239
164
145
107
12,25
11,18
9,04
7,88
7,25
between 6.08
11,83
10,35
8,18
6.73 x
6,39
5,58
448
380
316
277
237
164
396
361
282
227
195
156
12,57
a 12.03
10,71
to 9.91
9,37
8,07
11,43
10,95
9,38
8,19
7,4
6,85

Table XII
Room basicsDensity, pounds per 3000 square feet per milSmoothness in Sheffield back in units of SheffieldThe quality of the printed surface of the back μm to 10 kg/cm2Smoothness in Sheffield the upper hand, in units of SheffieldThe quality of the printed surface of the upper side μm to 10 kg/cm2
100-0-20-0
100-0-20-6
100-0-20-10
100-0-20-13
100-0-20-16
100-0-20-20
100-1.0-20-0
100-1.0-20-6
100-1.0-20-10
100-1.0-20-13
100-1.0-20-16
100-1.0-20-20
which 9.22
to 9.91
10,67
11,20
11,42
12,40
to 8.41
8,99
9,94
10,48
10,46
br11.01
449
371
281
213
162
142
405
353
240
171
135
122
12,58
of 11.26
to 9.32
8
7,25
6,27
11,65
of 10.25
7,88
6.73 x
between 6.08
5,72
449
409
345
273
245
220
394
373
284
230
195
175
12,76
12,13
10,88
10,27
which 9.22
8,65
11,64
10,63
9,24
charged 8.52
7,92
6,98

Table XIII
Room basicsDensity, pounds per 3000 square feet per milSmoothness in Sheffield back in units of SheffieldThe quality of the printed surface of the back μm to 10 kg/cm2Smoothness in Sheffield the upper hand, in units of SheffieldThe quality of the printed surface of the upper side μm to 10 kg/cm2
90-0-20-0
90-0-20-6
90-0-20-10
90-0-20-13
90-0-20-16
90-0-20-20
90-1.0-20-0
90-1.0-20-6
90-1.0-20-10
90-1.0-20-13
90-1.0-20-16
90-1.0-20-20
9,60
10,10
10,69
11,03
11,84
11,60
8,62
9,04
9,74
10,17
10,50
11,17
463
367
286
243
181
141
403
350
268
192
149
138
12,76
11,8
9,1
8,08
7,6
6,98
11,95
accounted for 10.39
8,66
7,43
6,75
6,05
432
379
334
315
253
193
392
359
305
248
206
198
12,67
to 12.28
of 11.15
10,31
9,52
8,84
of 11.45
11,13
9,54
8,79
8,15
7,53

The results clearly show that, at any given density paper or cardboard with the expandable microspheres have a greater smoothness than paper or cardboard without expandable microspheres. This was demonstrated during the tests according to the method of Sheffield and testing is arnosti according to the method of Parker Print. Increased smoothness of paper containing microspheres, at any given density was an unexpected result and improve grades of paper and cardboard for printing.

Example 8

The basics of paper and cardboard from Example 4 was used to determine the influence of the base mass shibamoto GM Fold. The values of the average baseline weight and GM Fold was calculated based on six samples, celandroni at different pressure. The data obtained are given in table XIV and in the form of schedule Fig.

597
Table XIV
The percentage of expandable microspheresThe average baseline weight, pounds per 3000 square feetThe geometric mean of the flexion artificial, MIT Double
092347
0101391
0121413
192422
1103465
1121

These data clearly show that paper and cardboard with the expandable microspheres have a high shibamoto GM Fold at any given base weight. These data show that differences in the values of GM Fold between paper and cardboard with the expandable microspheres and paper and cardboard without microspheres increased with the increase in the basic mass. This was an unexpected result and shows that to achieve the greatest difference in flexion artificial GM Fold the base weight is 100 pounds per 3000 square feet and more.

After this description of the various aspects of the invention and the preferred variants of its implementation specialist in the art will understand that the scope of the attached claims may be many modifications, changes and replacement.

1. Paper material for use in the manufacture of paper products, such as folders for files containing paper web containing cellulose fibers and expanded microspheres in the amount of approximately from 0.1 to 0.4% and from 5.1 to 6.0 % of the total dry weight of the fabric and the paper web has a density equal to or greater than approximately of 6.0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil.

2. Paper material of claim 1, wherein the paper web has a density of from about 6.0 to about 13,0 pounds is as 3000 sq. feet on the inte.

3. Paper material of claim 1, wherein the paper web has a thickness of approximately of 13.0 to 25.0 mils.

4. Paper material of claim 1, wherein the expanded microspheres in the paper cloth contain synthetic polymeric microspheres in an amount of from 0.25 to 5.0 % of the total mass of dry cloth.

5. Paper material according to claim 4, in which the expanded microspheres in the paper cloth contain synthetic polymeric microspheres in an amount of from 0.5 to 3.0 % of the total weight of dry fabric.

6. Paper material of claim 1, wherein the paper web has a base weight of approximately from 20 to 300 pounds per 3000 square feet.

7. Paper material according to claim 6, in which the paper web has a base weight of approximately from 20 to 200 pounds per 3000 square feet.

8. Paper material according to claim 7, in which the paper web has a base weight of approximately from 28 to 180 pounds per 3000 square feet.

9. Paper material of claim 1, wherein the expanded microspheres in the paper cloth contain microspheres, made of a polymeric material selected from the group including methyl methacrylate, orthocarolina, paleontological, polivinylishlorid, Acrylonitrile, vinylidenechloride, para-tert-butalbiral, winesett, butyl acrylate, styrene, methacrylic acid, vinylbenzoic and combinations of two or more substances from the provisions established by the s.

10. Paper material according to claim 1, in which fibers in paper canvas contain from about 30 to 100% of the dry weight softwood fibers, from about 70 to 0% of the dry weight of hardwood fibers and from about 0 to 50% of dry mass consumer waste.

11. Paper material according to claim 1 in which the microspheres have an expanded diameter of about 60 microns.

12. Paper material according to claim 1, in which the canvas was kalantzopoulos in the calender, having one or more contact areas and pressure in any area of contact does not exceed approximately 350 pounds per linear inch.

13. Paper material 12 in which the said pressure is equal to or less than approximately 280 pounds per linear inch.

14. Paper material according to item 13, in which the said pressure is equal to or less than about 250 pounds per linear inch.

15. Paper material 14 in which the said pressure is equal to or less than approximately 100 pounds per linear inch.

16. Paper material according to item 15, in which the said pressure is equal to or less than about 50 pounds per linear inch.

17. Paper material according to claim 3, in which this paper material has a coefficient of cuts is less than approximately 40, determined by analysis according to the test rate cuts 30.

18. Paper material according to claim 1, in which this paper mA is Arial is set to flexion artificial GM Fold, equal to or greater than approximately 200.

19. Paper material on p in which this paper has a value of flexion artificial GM Fold, equal to or greater than about 350.

20. Paper material according to claim 19, in which the value of flexion artificial GM Fold equal to or greater than about 450.

21. Paper material according to claim 1, in which the mentioned paper material has a higher value flexion artificial GM Fold than paper material, except that the latter does not contain an extended microspheres and has a density of not less than 6,0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil.

22. Paper material according to claim 1, in which the mentioned paper material has a value of flexion artificial GM Fold, essentially similar to those in the second paper material, which, in essence, similar to those mentioned paper material, with the exception that it does not contain extended microspheres and has a base weight, which is 5% more base weight referred to the paper material.

23. A method of manufacturing a paper material having a reduced tendency to cause cuts on the human skin, including the preparation of a composition for the manufacture of paper containing cellulose fibers and expanded or expandable microspheres in the amount of approximately from 0.1 to 0.4% and from 5.1 to 6.0% of the dry mass of the material forming volcanista on OTN from the composition for the manufacture of paper, the drying cloth and calendering the fabric to a thickness of approximately from 9.0 to 10.9 mils and a density of from about 6.0 to 6.9 and ranging from 12.1 to 12.9 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil.

24. Industrial product made of the basis of claim 1.

25. The product according to paragraph 24, in which it contains essentially flat first part and essentially flat in the second part, and the aforementioned first and second parts connected by a fold line and is able to bend along said line.

26. The product according to paragraph 24, wherein each item is a folder for files.

27. Paper material according to claim 1, characterized in that the paper web has a base weight equal to or greater than approximately 90 pounds per 3000 square feet.

28. Paper material according to item 27, wherein the paper web has a base weight equal to or greater than approximately 90 to 300 pounds per 3000 square feet.

29. Paper material on p, wherein the paper web has a base weight equal to or greater than approximately 100 to 300 pounds per 3000 square feet.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: pulp-and-paper industry, in particular, paper sheet having surface feeling hash to the finger, and method for applying coating onto paper sheet.

SUBSTANCE: paper sheet of such structure may be used for manufacture of paper or plastic medium for carrying of printed information, paper or plastic package, cover used in stitching and binding processes, or cardboard or plastic carton having surface feeling hash to the finger. At least one side of paper sheet is coated with layer containing non-compressible microscopic particles of non-gelatinized starch grains, or said particles are produced by grinding of plastic material. Method involves treating at least one side of paper sheet with water-based composition containing non-compressible microscopic particles which are made three-dimensional and rounded, binder, and filler; drying paper sheet after treatment. Particles are non-gelatinized starch grains, or particles are produced by grinding of plastic material. Method allows paper sheet to be produced, which has roughness coefficient Kd below 0.5.

EFFECT: simplified method and improved quality of paper sheet.

17 cl, 16 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: paper coated with composition for coating various kinds of paper, for offset printing of paper used for manufacture of books, magazines, annual reports, or packaging paper.

SUBSTANCE: composition comprises pigments and binder. Composition pigments are formed as microballs having sizes below 10 micrometers, preferably about 7 micrometers. Paper coated with such composition is silky by touch and has at least one surface coated with such composition, preferably both of its surfaces. This paper may be tracing paper.

EFFECT: improved quality of paper owing to preventing sliding thereof during separation of sheets in stacks, delamination of coating during printing process and, accordingly, elimination of paper dusting and formation of impure imprints.

7 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 13 ex

The invention relates to thermosensitive recording materials, in particular paper and taking into account the major area of application is the production of business and securities can be attributed to the means of their protection against forgery
The invention relates to the production of paper containing various means of protection against counterfeiting and unauthorized manufacture, and more particularly to securities with protective means, the action of which is based on the phenomenon of thermal sensitivity, t

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to papermaking technology, precisely to production of modified paper with higher gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and can be applied in constructions, aircraft and automobile constructions, shipbuilding. The method includes treatment of paper with the mixture of 5-7% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol with 5-7% aqueous solution of chitosan at their ratio 1:1 within 10-15 minutes, thereafter treatment with 15-20% aqueous solution of methyl phosphate borate and drying.

EFFECT: prepared modified paper has increased gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and resistance to thermal-oxidative degradation.

1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to papermaking technology, precisely to production of modified paper with higher gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and can be applied in constructions, aircraft and automobile constructions, shipbuilding. The method includes treatment of paper with the mixture of 5-7% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol with 5-7% aqueous solution of chitosan at their ratio 1:1 within 10-15 minutes, thereafter treatment with 15-20% aqueous solution of methyl phosphate borate and drying.

EFFECT: prepared modified paper has increased gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and resistance to thermal-oxidative degradation.

1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to papermaking technology, precisely to production of modified paper with higher gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and can be applied in constructions, aircraft and automobile constructions, shipbuilding. The method includes treatment of paper with the mixture of 5-7% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol with 5-7% aqueous solution of chitosan at their ratio 1:1 within 10-15 minutes, thereafter treatment with 15-20% aqueous solution of methyl phosphate borate and drying.

EFFECT: prepared modified paper has increased gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and resistance to thermal-oxidative degradation.

1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production technology of synthetic paper, precisely to production of modified paper with higher gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and can be applied in constructions, aircraft and automobile constructions, shipbuilding. The compound contains 5-7% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, 15-20% aqueous solution of methyl phosphate borate and 5-7% aqueous solution of chitosan at the following ratio, pts. wt. polyvinyl alcohol - 5-7; chitosan - 5-7; methyl phosphate borate - 15-20; water - 275-266.

EFFECT: increase of gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and resistance to thermal-oxidative degradation of modified paper.

2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production technology of synthetic paper, precisely to production of modified paper with higher gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and can be applied in constructions, aircraft and automobile constructions, shipbuilding. The compound contains 5-7% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, 15-20% aqueous solution of methyl phosphate borate and 5-7% aqueous solution of chitosan at the following ratio, pts. wt. polyvinyl alcohol - 5-7; chitosan - 5-7; methyl phosphate borate - 15-20; water - 275-266.

EFFECT: increase of gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and resistance to thermal-oxidative degradation of modified paper.

2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production technology of synthetic paper, precisely to production of modified paper with higher gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and can be applied in constructions, aircraft and automobile constructions, shipbuilding. The compound contains 5-7% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, 15-20% aqueous solution of methyl phosphate borate and 5-7% aqueous solution of chitosan at the following ratio, pts. wt. polyvinyl alcohol - 5-7; chitosan - 5-7; methyl phosphate borate - 15-20; water - 275-266.

EFFECT: increase of gas-proof and heat-protective properties, and resistance to thermal-oxidative degradation of modified paper.

2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: textile; paper.

SUBSTANCE: described is product, which has Brookfield viscosity within from approximately 700 to approximately 2500 cps, measured in accordance with method CRA B-54 with 0.5% of hard phase using spindle No 21 at 20 rot/min and temperature 97°C and method of obtaining starch products. Also described is application of cationic transversally bound wax-like starch products, which have Brookfield viscosity within from approximately 700 to approximately 2500 cps, in production of paper products, characterised by productivity 1.9 rolls per hour and inner binding strength 19.5 kPa/cm2.

EFFECT: described is cationic transversally bound wax-like starch product.

32 cl, 14 ex

FIELD: chemistry; textiles; paper.

SUBSTANCE: preparation method of polysilicate containing aqueous composition representing homogeneous liquid at 25°C, includes stages as follows: I) preparation of aqueous liquid containing silicate, II) reducing pH of the liquid to 2-10.5, III) ensured polymerisation time to actual completion resulted in making product containing gelled substance, IV) processing gelled substance with sufficient shearing to produce homogeneous liquid. Aqueous composition is prepared by the presented method. Aqueous composition contains polysilicate. This composition represents homogeneous liquid at 25°C. The composition develops viscosity at least 200 mPa·s when evaluated at concentration 2 wt % and at 25°C with using Brookfield viscosimeter at 20 rpm with shaft №2, with polysilicate of specific surface area not exceeding 2000 m2/g and S-value below 5%. Paper or carton making process includes preparation of cellulose suspension, with aqueous composition added, water drainage from suspension thus shaping wet paper web thereafter dried. Paper or carton making process includes preparation of cellulose suspension, added with mineral filler and exposed to drainage and containment system procedure, followed with water drainage from suspension thus shaping wet paper web thereafter dried. Mineral filler is aqueous composition. Before drainage and containment system is enabled, the suspension is exposed to at least, one shearing. This system implies adding aqueous composition to cellulose suspension, while shearing stage is specified from stirring, clarification and pumping.

EFFECT: improved quality of paper and carton.

46 cl, 16 tbl, 6 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: textile fabrics, paper.

SUBSTANCE: method is related to suppression of resin and sticky materials deposits creation in fiber mass in process of paper production and may be used in pulp and paper industry. Method includes stage of multi-stitched cation-active polymer addition into paper liquid mass prior to formation of paper web. This polymer is produced in compliance with the method comprising the following stages: (1) polymerisation of monomer components by free radical initiation with preparation of main cation-active polymer solution, in which at least one of monomer components represents cation-active monomer component such as diallyl dialkyl ammonium monomer; and (11) contact of main cation-active polymer solution with additional initiator of free radical polymerisation with provision of mutually binding connections between main cation-active polymers with provision of multi-stitched cation-active polymer, where this multi-stitched cation-active polymer has higher molecular mass compared to main cation-active polymer.

EFFECT: elimination of anion garbage by fixation of colloidal particles in fiber and suppression of deposits creation by resin and sticky materials.

20 cl, 11 tbl, 13 ex

Composition // 2347030

FIELD: textiles; paper.

SUBSTANCE: composition is meant for improving the softness of paper products. Composition includes: (i) oil, fat or wax; (ii) at least one non-ionic surfactant; (iii) at least one anion compound, selected from anionic micro-particles and anionic surfactant; (iv) at least one polymer, which is a cation, non-ionic or amphoteric, where the non-ionic surfactant is added to the amount from about 60 to 1000 weight fractions for 100 weight fractions of the polymer. Composition is used in the method of manufacturing paper (versions). Method includes adding the mentioned composition to a cellulose suspension or to a moist or dry paper fabric.

EFFECT: increase in the quality of the paper products due to the increase in its softness, low resistance to tearing and high speed of getting wet and reduction in energy for pulping.

22 cl, 9 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemical and pulp-and-paper industry.

SUBSTANCE: aqueous suspension of at least one filler or mineral contains natural carbonate, polymeric dispersing agent as stabilizer of suspension viscosity, product of natural carbonate treatment with gaseous CO2, and product of natural carbonate reaction with at least one medium or strong H3O+-donors, has pH more than 7.5 at 200C. As natural carbonate suspension contains calcium carbonate (e.g., marble, calcite, carbonate-containing dolomite, chalk, ore mixtures thereof with talcum, and/or TiO2, MgO, or other minerals inert to H3O+-donors). As H3O+-donors suspension contains H2SO3, HSO

-4
, H3PO4, oxalic acid or mixtures thereof in molar ratio to carbonate of 0.1-2. Used carbon dioxide under pressure of 0.05-5 bar may be added from outside, recycled or obtained by continuous H3O+-donors addition. Treatment with H3O+-donors and gaseous CO2 may be carriedout simultaneously or separately, wherein in the last case temperature and time of respective stages are 5-900C and 1-5 h. Claimed suspension is dried to obtain colorant. Colorant has BET specific surface of 5-200 m2/g according to ISO 9277 and mean grain size measured by sedimentation method of 0.1-50 mum. Colorants are used in compositions, as agent for paper lamination, for paper pulp filling, coloration, and board production. Obtained paper is useful in numeric and ink-jet printing.

EFFECT: paper with decreased mass at constant surface.

33 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: polymer production.

SUBSTANCE: production of urea-formaldehyde filler, useful as synthetic white filler in manufacture of polymers, paper, and varnish-and-paint materials, is accomplished by interaction of urea with urea-formaldehyde concentrate modified in synthesis stage with 1 to 20% of uranium derivatives and containing 54.5-59.5% formaldehyde, 21.0-24.5% urea, the rest water. Synthesis is carried out in aqueous medium in presence of phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, after which reaction mixture is neutralized with chalk/aminoalcohol/aqueous ammonia mixture [(1-4):(1-4):(1-5)]. Aminoalcohol is a product composed of 30-70% monoethanolamine, 10-50% mixture of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)imidazol-2-ine and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, and water (no more than 20%).

EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency and lowered oil absorption.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: tobacco industry.

SUBSTANCE: wrapping paper for tobacco articles such as cigarette contains burning-controlling substance in amounts from 1 to 15 g/m2 and calcium phosphate-based compound in amounts from 1 to 30 g/m2. The former is, in particular, a salt of organic acid, e.g. citric acid, and the latter tricalcium phosphate.

EFFECT: reduced side jet of tobacco smoke.

5 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: process of manufacturing cellulose products such as paper articles is accomplished by simultaneously or continuously adding at least one aluminum compound and at least one water-soluble silicate, in particular at least one product of reaction of monovalent cation silicate with bivalent metal ions, to fluid cellulose pulp such as paper pulp. Compositions are also described comprising at least one aluminum compound and at least one water-soluble metal silicate and cellulose products including at least one water-soluble metal silicate complex.

EFFECT: improved retention and drainage allowing manufacture of high-quality cellulose products.

25 cl, 6 tbl, 27 ex

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: process of manufacturing cellulose products such as paper articles is accomplished by simultaneously or continuously adding at least one aluminum compound and at least one water-soluble silicate, in particular at least one product of reaction of monovalent cation silicate with bivalent metal ions, to fluid cellulose pulp such as paper pulp. Compositions are also described comprising at least one aluminum compound and at least one water-soluble metal silicate and cellulose products including at least one water-soluble metal silicate complex.

EFFECT: improved retention and drainage allowing manufacture of high-quality cellulose products.

25 cl, 6 tbl, 27 ex

FIELD: production of improved starch compositions and methods of use of improved starch compositions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes use of starch component containing cationized cross-linked starch at viscosity of from 10 to 3000 cps. Production of paper includes the following stages: boiling the starch component at temperature of 165°C, dehydration of paper composition (paper fibers, inorganic filler, starch) and control of rate of dehydration and/or holding the first pass in the course of dehydration through change in temperature (by at least 10°C) of starch composition boiling.

EFFECT: possibility of performing modifications in accordance with variants on wet end of paper machine.

21 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

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