Hybrid power unit of vehicle

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hybrid power units of vehicles and may be used in city transport, for instance bus. Hybrid power unit of vehicle comprises primary power supply source (1), energy accumulator in the form of, for instance flywheel (18) or accumulator, and also drive comprising planetary disc variator (4), mechanism (12) for forced variation of gear ratio of planetary disc variator (4), which is arranged, for instance in the form of screw-nut gear, system (14) for control of mechanism for variation of gear ratio of planetary disc variator (4), periodically switched unit, for instance demultiplicator (29) comprising one or several gear switched drives, which transmits rotation from planetary disc variator (4) to drive of traction wheels (35) of vehicle. Range of gear ratios variation of periodically switched unit is arranged as lower than range of planetary disc variator variation.

EFFECT: saving of fuel and improved ecological compatibility of vehicle.

18 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to power units of vehicles and can be used as a hybrid powertrain, in particular, city bus, city trams and other vehicles operating in the city.

A known design of a hybrid vehicle power unit including an internal combustion engine as the primary source of energy, continuously variable transmission, in this case, the hydrostatic type, and energy storage in the form of a flywheel. The transmission connects the engine with the wheels and the flywheel, and the flywheel to the wheels (see Nwhole, energy Storage, M: Nauka, 1980, p.143-146 and schemes with 143 and 144). This same pattern is arranged in a hybrid powertrain with an electric drivetrain, described in the same source. The disadvantages of these structures, taken counterparts, are much design complexity and low efficiency of conversion of mechanical energy of the engine into other forms of energy in transmission.

A known design of a hybrid powertrain bus with a mechanical continuously variable transmission as the transmission, the internal combustion engine as the primary power source and a flywheel as an energy storage device (see "the road" №11 (50), November 2004, article "Hybrid is silt units for buses", p.58-59, figure 3). This design, with the greatest number of characteristics in common with the proposal, adopted for the prototype.

The main drawback of the prototype is a low range of variation of the mechanical continuously variable transmission - superwriter, having, according to the tests of the prototype, this range is about 8, while for the hybrid powertrain of the type described requires a range of not less than 3 times, otherwise strongly decreases its efficiency. In addition, the device prototype is no possibility of additions to the mechanical continuously variable transmission with electric machines, and use as the primary energy source of electrical devices; no use of electrical energy, such as capacitors and accumulators.

The objective of the invention was to create a hybrid powertrain of a vehicle, which includes economical mechanical stepless transmission with a wide range of variation, it can be used both independently and with additional electric machines, for efficient transfer of energy from one or more of the primary sources of energy to the drive wheels and the drive energy, as well as from the drive energy to the drive wheels,both independently and in conjunction with the primary energy source, and in addition, to transfer energy from the wheels of the car in drive, both independently and together with the primary energy source.

This task is solved in that a hybrid powertrain of a vehicle, including a primary energy source, the energy accumulator and the actuator, having in its composition mechanical stepless and gears, and the drive is made with the possibility of kinematic connection with each other in any combination of primary energy source, the energy storage device and the drive wheels of the vehicle in which the continuously variable transmission comprises a planetary disk of the variator, the mechanism of forced change its gear ratio and the management of this mechanism and the gear comprises periodically switching unit that contains one or more teeth, switchable gear that transmits rotation from the continuously variable transmission to the drive wheels of the vehicle, with the range change gear ratios periodically switching unit is made smaller than the range of variation of the planetary disk of the variator.

One of the variants is that the continuously variable transmission containing the planetary disk variator includes in the first part of the differential mechanism, containing planetary and differential gear, comprising a Central gear and drove kinematically connecting the driving and driven shafts of the planetary disk of the variator drive wheels of the vehicle, and kinematically connected with each other in two modes, the first of which the planetary carrier connected to one of the Central gears of the differential transmission and the driving wheels through the transmission gear is connected with the planet carrier of the differential gear, and the second planetary carrier connected to the planet carrier of the differential transmission and the driving wheels through the transmission gear connected to another Central toothed wheel differential transmission, while in both modes, one of the Central gears of the planetary transmission is connected with the input shaft of the planetary disk of the variator, and the other is stationary.

Another distinctive feature of the invention is that the driven shaft of the planetary disk of the variator is made with the possibility of periodic connection periodically through a switching unit with the drive wheels of the vehicle with the simultaneous termination of the transmission of torque from the shaft through the differential mechanism.

Another advantage of the invention is that lane is adicheskii switching unit, the transmitting rotation from the continuously variable transmission to the drive wheels, contains both lower and direct transmission and is designed as a planetary demultiplier.

A further difference of the invention is that the gear kinematically connecting the continuously variable transmission and periodically switching unit comprises at least one neutral.

A further difference of the invention is that periodically switching unit consists of the direct transmission.

A further difference of the invention is that the gear kinematically connecting the continuously variable transmission and the drive wheels, comprises the reverse.

A further difference of the invention is that the output shaft periodically switching unit is made with the possibility of kinematic connection with the drive wheels, and with an additional flywheel drive drive, as separately and jointly, by means of a switchable coupling is enabled.

A further difference of the invention is that the auxiliary drive from the flywheel of the drive is made with a ratio approximately equal to the transmission ratio of the whole drive from its input to the output shaft at the time of switching demultiplier.

A further difference of the invention t is aetsa, what in the planetary transmission of external Central gear wheel is connected with the drive shaft of the variator, and the interior is stationary.

A further difference of the invention is that the actuator is introduced at least one electromachine, the rotor of which is connected with the input shaft of the variator.

A further difference of the invention is that the drive energy is made in the form of a flywheel with a mechanical power takeoff from its rotating shaft.

A further difference of the invention is that the energy storage in the form of flywheel power takeoff in the form of electrical energy from the rotating flywheel electrical machinery.

A further difference of the invention is that the energy storage in the form of capacitor.

A further difference of the invention is that the drive energy is made in the form of electrochemical battery.

A further difference of the invention is that the hybrid powertrain includes several primary energy sources and at least one of which is executed in the form of heat engine.

A further difference of the invention is that at least one primary energy source made in the form of electrochemical energy source.

A further difference of the invention is that at least one primary energy source is outside the outermost contact network, with which the vehicle is connected through a current collector.

Due to the above, the invention achieves the technical result consists in the fact that the proposed hybrid power unit of the vehicle will effectively redistribute energy between the primary energy sources, the leading wheels of the vehicle and energy storage that will provide significant fuel savings as due to the work of primary energy sources in the optimal mode, and due to the recuperation of braking energy of the vehicle, as well as environmentally friendly vehicles by reducing toxic emissions for these reasons.

The invention is illustrated by drawings. Figure 1 shows the most simple scheme of a hybrid powertrain with one type of primary energy source - engine and one type of energy storage device is a flywheel. Figure 2 - scheme of the planetary disk variator and a differential mechanism (superwriter) mode reduction. Figure 3 and 4 shows the same pattern as in figure 2, but with a differential mechanism, respectively, in the mode of multiplication of superwriter and in position when the output shaft of the variator is directly connected to the output of the drive. Figure 5 - diagram with three types of primary energy sources and the two types of energy storage.

Depicted in figure 1 embodiment of the unit contains the primary source of energy - the engine 1, through which coupling clutch 2 is connected with the input shaft 3 of the planetary disk of the variator 4 (outlined with dashed line), including the housing 5 defined therein the outer Central friction discs 6, playing the role of epicycle planetary gear, pressed, for example, due to its own axial elasticity of the intermediate friction discs 7, playing the role of satellite planetary gear. In turn, the disc 7 is pressed inner Central friction discs 8, kinematically connected with the shaft 3 and playing the role of the sun gear planetary gear set.

The disk 7, in the amount of usually from three to eight in each planetary row, evenly distributed around the circumference between the discs 6 and 8 and mounted in the bearings 9, mounted with the possibility of radial movement in the drive rod 10, which represents a rigid structure, the sides of which are connected by the links 11, spaced around the circumference between the disks 7. Radial movement of the disks 7 in bearings 9 carried by the mechanism of forced change of gear ratio, for example, by passing the screw-and-nut 12, the screws which are connected with the shafts, for example, electric motors 13, mounted on the drive rod and nut connections is Ana with at least one row of bearings 9. Number of gears "screw-nut" 12 and motor 13 is equal to the number of disks 7 in one planetary series. 14 control mechanism of forced change of gear ratio is performed, for example, in the form of a counter of revolutions of the motor 13, the determining gear ratio, and servo shutters and these motors on specific values of the ratio.

Led 10 is connected with the shaft 15, which is the output shaft of the variator 4, in this case, tubular, inside of which is an input shaft 3 of the CVT 4. The shaft 3 through the coupling sleeve 16 and to increase the reduction gear 17 is kinematically connected to the flywheel 18 is energy storage, which together with gear in a sealed enclosure 19, evacuated or filled with a light gas such as hydrogen or helium, to reduce the aerodynamic losses during the rotation of the flywheel. The seal 20 provides safety protection in the case 19.

The tubular shaft 15 carries a block 21 gears, kinematically associated with the wheel 22 through the parasitic gear 23 and wheel 24 is directly. The wheels 22 and 24 are planted freely on the shaft 25, on which is able to transmit torque, but with the free axial movement (e.g., slots) is fixed to the coupling sleeve 26. At the ends of the wheels 22 and 24 on the sides, prima is surrounding to the coupling 26, made teeth mating with one or the other end surface of the clutch 26 in its axial movement. For example, during the course of the coupling 26 to the right it engages with the wheel 24 and transmits rotation from it on the shaft 25. When the coupling to the left, it engages with the wheel 22, having due gears 23 reverse the direction of rotation of the wheel 24, and passes the shaft 25 rotate in the opposite direction, i.e. reverses. In the Central position of the coupling 26 it is neutral, i.e. it does not transmit the rotation of the wheels 22 and 24 on the shaft 25. Moving the clutch 26 is, for example, the fork 27. A similar device has a coupling sleeve 28 periodically switching unit, for example demultiplier 29, controlled by a plug 30. Dual high 29 (outlined with dashed line) contains a planetary gear, the sun wheel 31 which is connected with the shaft 25, and apical 32 through clutch 28 may be connected with the housing 5, i.e. to become stationary when the course of the couplings to the left and to the shaft 33 of the planetary gear demultiplier 29 during the coupling 28 to the right. During the course of the coupling 28 to the left and the braking epicycle 32 planetary gear demultiplier 29 is activated and lowers the frequency of rotation of the shaft 25, passing from the led 33 to the output shaft 34, reduced speed and, consequently, increased torque. During the course of the coupling 28 to the right is bicikl 32 is connected by a coupling 28 with the planet carrier 33 and the planetary gear demultiplier 29 is blocked - the rotation of the shaft 25 is transmitted unchanged to the shaft 34. In this case, there is a "direct transfer" without energy losses in the gears. Dual high 29 may have one or more gears, but figure 1 shows the most simple design, with one lower and direct transmission. The demultiplier are widely used in gear boxes of trucks and described in detail in the literature. Maximum lowering the gear ratio of the demultiplier 29 is less than the range of variation of the variator 4, as a small gear ratio periodically switching unit, in this case demultiplier 29, allows you to use a variable in its low gear relations, in which the planetary variator 4 has a high efficiency. The shaft 34 is associated with organ - driven vehicle, such as driving wheels 35, for example, via the propeller 36 and 37 main transmission.

The paper describes a hybrid powertrain is as follows.

Before you begin (for example, before the departure of the bus for a change) flywheel 18 of the drive energy accelerates to operating angular velocity of connecting couplings 2 and 16 through the gear 17 and the shaft 3 to the engine 1.

The movement of the vehicle it is best to start IP is by using the energy of the flywheel 18. This enables the clutch 16 and the neutral position of the clutch 26 variator 4 with a rotating friction wheels 8 and 7 satellites placed in a position of maximum gear ratio by moving the 7 satellites in peripheral position. Then, the clutch 16 is switched off, the clutch 26 becomes with a fork 27 in position run forward - coupling it with the wheel 24, or turn back - coupling it with the wheel 22, the demultiplier 29 is translated in the downshift position, and the clutch 16 is switched on. Rotation of the handwheel 18 through the gear 17, the clutch 16, the shaft 3, the variator 4, block 24 (for direct) or wheel 22 (in back), demultiplier 29, the shaft 34, drive transmission 36, the main transmission 37 is transmitted to the driving wheels 35 with a maximum gear ratio. In the future, it will be assumed mode run forward. If the maximum vehicle speed set at 70 km/h, which is achieved when the minimum transmission ratio of the drive, in this position, the gear ratio is above about 20 times (this is the product of the range of variation of the CVT 4 and the reduction gear ratio of the demultiplier 29), and the minimum speed of the vehicle will be only 3.5 km/h, which meets the conditions of urban vehicle.

The acceleration of the vehicle is postopen the m reduction gear ratio of the variator 4 as described above. With a transmission ratio of 1.3 speed of the vehicle will be about 23 km/h, after which you switch demultiplier 29 to the direct transmission. For this purpose, the clutch 16 is turned off and simultaneously produces two steps: the demultiplier 29 is transferred to the direct transmission in the manner described above, and the variator is put on its final drive ratio is approximately 3 times greater than 1.3 to about a value of four, which is achieved in the manner described above, and when the rotation of the frictional wheel variator 4 and disconnected the load - coupling 16, this action can be produced in a fraction of a second. The control gear ratio can be made by the operator on the performance of the particular device for registering the gear ratio of the CVT 4, for example by the number of revolutions of the electric motor 13, is read by the Rev counter, or the position of the screw-and-nut 12, determining the gear ratio of the CVT 4. After these steps, the clutch 16 is switched on again and makes a further acceleration of the vehicle by the reduction gear ratio of the variator 4 from four to necessary to achieve the desired operator speed.

Reducing a rotational speed of the flywheel 18 below the permissible values recorded, for example, any tachometer (not shown), activates the clutch 2, the motor is tel 1 is launched and starts acceleration of the flywheel 18 simultaneously with the movement of the vehicle, and without it, for example at bus stops. The shaft speed of the engine 1 is equal to the frequency of rotation of the shaft 3 and the output shaft of the reduction gear 17, and is this frequency in the range optimal for the engine 1 engine speeds on profitability, which is determined by the engine type and configuration of its fuel system for optimal efficiency operation.

Routine (non-emergency) braking of the vehicle is carried out with the recuperation of its kinetic energy by gradually defined by the operator, increasing the gear ratio of the CVT 4, and then, if necessary, and switch dual high 29 low gear and further increase of the gear ratio of the CVT 4. This is done in the reverse order to that described above for lowering the gear ratio. The vehicle slowed down, and the flywheel 18 accelerates, gaining some of the kinetic energy of the vehicle. The same action can recover the potential energy of the vehicle on the slopes.

Presented in figure 2, 3 and 4 scheme differs from the one described above (figure 1) the fact that the device of figure 1 adds two node - differential mechanism 38 (outlined with dashed line) to separate the flow of power from the engine 1, which forms together with the variator 4 so n is called superwriter, and an additional actuator 40, which can be used to accelerate the flywheel 18 of the drive. The actuator 40 (outlined with dashed line) consists of a coupling 41, which is connected with the shaft 34, and periodically connected with immovable in the axial direction of the coupling halves 42 and 43, the first of which is connected to the link of the actuator, for example a sprocket 44 seated on the shaft 34 with the possibility of free rotation thereon, and the second driving wheels 35 through the drive 36 and 37 main transmission. The second link of the sprocket 45, United with the link 44, for example, a chain fixed to the input (low-speed) shaft 17.

The differential mechanism 38 includes a planetary gear with a stationary Central inner wheel 46, the Central outer wheel 47, which is connected with the input shaft 3 of the CVT 4, and the carrier 48 is connected to a holder 49, bearing on himself crown gear 50 with internal toothing, with the possibility of axial movement and transmission of torque. The yoke 49 is connected rigidly in the axial direction, but with the free rotation of the yoke 51, bearing on himself crown gear 52 with internal gearing, and has for axial movement together with the driven yoke 51 using, for example, the plug 53 manually or by an actuator. Figure 2 presents the engagement of the crown 52 crown 54 and crown 50 - crown 55, and figure 3 - mesh crown 52 with the vents the m-55 and crown 50 - crown 56. The rims 54 and 56 are located on the drive rod 57 of the differential transmission, the outer Central wheel 58 which is connected with the output shaft 15 of the CVT 4, and the crown of 55 on the inner Central wheel 59 of the differential transmission. The yoke 51 is connected with the block 21 gears, an output link of superwriter, with the transmission of torque, but with the free axial movement. Thus, in the position of the clamps 51 and 49, shown in figure 2, the block 21 (the output link of superwriter) connected with the planet carrier 57 of the differential transmission and the shaft 3 with the inner Central wheel 59 of the differential transmission. This connection provides a so-called mode reduction superwriter, when the gear ratio of superwriter are maximum values, for example for one of the samples from 2.67 to 1.3, respectively, with a transmission relationship of the variator 8 and 1.3. The efficiency of the variator 4 respectively of 0.75 and 0.95, and superwriter to 0.9 and 0.94. When the position of the clamps 51 and 49, are presented in figure 3, the block 21 is connected to the inner Central wheel 59 of the differential transmission and the shaft 3 with the planet carrier 57. This connection provides a so-called mode multiplier superwriter with minimum values of ratios, for example, for the above sample is from 1.3 to 0.53, i.e. the rotation frequency increases than the s with the speed not only of the output shaft 15, but the input shaft 3 of the CVT 4. The gear ratio of the variator 4 is not decreasing but increasing from 1.3 to 8, ie 7 satellites move radially in the direction opposite to the one that was in the mode of reduction, and the motor 13, respectively, rotate in the opposite direction. Efficiency superwriter in this mode varies from 0.88 to 0.96 during the previous efficiency of the CVT 4. Through the variator 4 in these modes superwriter flows from 5 to 60% of the input power, which reduces the overall mass of the performance of the CVT 4, and significantly increase its durability. The above data follow from theory of variable-speed drives with closed kinematic scheme (see, e.g., Pronin, B.A., Revkov GA "Progressive", M: mechanical engineering, 1980, s-307), and tests of prototypes of superwriter. In addition, the outer Central wheel 58 is equipped with a ring gear 60, which in the position of the clamps 51 and 49 in figure 4 the crown 52 on the yoke 51 is engaged, connecting, thus, the block 21 to the output link of superwriter directly with the output shaft 15 of the CVT 4. The crown 50 is connected with the crown 54, but this connection is purely auxiliary, as the wheel 59 freely and differential mechanism 38, having an extra degree of freedom, time does not pass.

The operation of the hybrid power unit (figure 2 and 3) begins with the acceleration max is Vika 18 after long Parking of the vehicle, when the flywheel 18 is stopped. For schemes with supervarieties and a special drive acceleration of the flywheel 18 from the output shaft 34 superwriter (2) the acceleration of the flywheel 18 is connected through the reduction gear 17, stars or in the General case, the links 45 and 44 included clutch 41 with the coupling 42 and disconnected the clutch 41 and the coupling 43, the shaft 34, the demultiplier 29, coupled gears 24 and the block 21 with the connection of the coupling 26 to the wheel 24 when superwriter mode reduction with the connection block of gear wheels 21 with the planet carrier 57, the shaft 3 with the wheel 59, the crown 52 crown 54 and crown 50 - 55 crown, which is achieved by moving the clamps 51 and 49 of the plug 53. Ratio of superwriter maximum, and when the clutch 2 and the engine 1 and the CVT 4 with the peripheral position of satellites 7 and when to downshift the demultiplier 29 connection with his clutch 28 and plug 30 with a fixed housing, and a stop epicycle 32. Drove 33 demultiplier 29 thus transmits rotation from the shaft 25 with the lowering speed for a given sample is about 5 times (lowering the gear ratio of the demultiplier in the scheme of figure 2, 3 and 4)on the shaft 34. The flywheel 18 starts to accelerate from minimum speed, then the gear ratio of the variator 4 is reduced by the inclusion of an electric motor is the oil 13 in the respective direction, that working the "screw-nut" 12 moved satellites 7, which is in frictional contact with the friction wheels 6 and 8 to the center to lower the gear ratio of the variator 4 with a maximum of about 8 to minimum - 1,3 and, accordingly, superwriter - from 2.67 to 1.3. Then mode multiplier superwriter connection crowns 52 to 55, and 50 to 56, which is a fork 53 moving the clamps 51 and 49 to the right, manually or by any servo.

After turning on the electric motor 13 in the reverse direction and transmit operation "screw-nut" 12 satellites 7 are moved to the periphery, which increases the gear ratio of the variator 4 with a minimum of 1.3 to a maximum of 8, and, accordingly, the reduction gear ratio of superwriter from 1.3 to 0.53. The flywheel 18 when it accelerates to a higher speed at a given position demultiplier with decreasing speed. For further acceleration of the flywheel 18 and the sleeve 26 is translated in the neutral (Central) position, and then the variator 4 is translated in the position of the minimum ratio of 1.3 (when rotating the wheels 8 and 7 satellites can be done for a fraction of a second), and dual high 29 in the position of direct transmission, which is achieved by moving the fork 30 of the coupling 28 to the right to its connection with the coupling, led the soup on the shaft 34, that locks the carrier 33 with epicycles 32 and provides a gear ratio demultiplier equal to one, i.e. direct transmission. Then the variator 4 is again translated to the desired intensity determined by the capabilities of the engine 4 (power, torque), in the position of maximum gear ratio, which further increases the rotational speed of the flywheel 18 is still about 5 times. The acceleration of the flywheel over and drive his acceleration is turned off by moving the clutch 41 to the neutral position. If the vehicle is not performed immediately, the engine 1 is stopped and the clutch 2 is turned off. During acceleration of the flywheel 18 directly from the speed of the motor without a gear reducer and variator 4 with a differential mechanism 38, the actuator 40 is not used.

When using schema supervarieties (figure 2, 3, and 4) the process of acceleration of the vehicle in its most complete form, since the minimum initial velocity, as follows. The output unit 21 superwriter connected with the yoke 51, using the rims 52 and 60, is connected by a plug 53 directly with the output shaft 15 of the variator 4, as shown in figure 4, and the gear ratio of the drive from the input shaft 3 to the shaft 34 as possible. It is proportional to the product of maximum reduction gear ratio vari the Torah 4 (about 8) and demultiplier (about 5); minimum gear ratio of the actuator is proportional to the product of the minimum of the reduction gear ratio of the variator 4 (about 1.3) to increase the ratio superwriter (0,53), which corresponds to 0.69 as the demultiplier 29 is a straight transfer. Thus, the speed of the vehicle, such as bus when starting, will be only about 1/58 part of the maximum speed of its movement, i.e. about 1 km/h, which is quite acceptable, considering that the maximum allowed in the city the speed of the bus is 60 km/h Then the rims 52 and 50 can be transferred to a reduction superwriter connect them, respectively, with rims 54 and 55, as shown in figure 2, and the translation of this is unstressed, as all the crowns with both external and internal gearing rotate with the same frequency rotation defined by the same decreasing gear ratio from the shaft 3, is approximately 1.3. Due to the range of variation of the transmission ratio of superwriter in this mode, the vehicle speed may vary from about 3 to 6.1 km/h with very high efficiency superwriter about 0,95. A further increase in vehicle speed is also achieved bumpless transfer crowns 52 and 50 on the clamps 51 and 49 with a fork 53 in connection,respectively, with rims 55 and 56, which are presented in figure 3. On the mode of multiplication of superwriter, and it does so at the same time, the speed of the vehicle can be enhanced even in a 2.45 times, that will be 15 km/h with an efficiency of superwriter average of 0.92. To further increase the speed of the vehicle is translation demultiplier 29 in the position of direct transmission, as has been described above for the case of acceleration of the flywheel through superwriter. After that superwriter again switched to the reduction of switching crowns, described above, and in this mode the speed of the vehicle can be enhanced still 2.1 times, i.e. up to 31.5 km/h Then the above bumpless switching crowns superwriter again switched to the animation and the speed of the vehicle can be enhanced even in a 2.45 times, i.e. increased up to 77 km/h, if the bus is out of town, or is limited to 60 km/h if the bus is in town. The drive of the vehicle is from the flywheel 18 through the gear 17, the clutch 16, the shaft 3, superwriter with additional gears and dual high 29. The flywheel 18 podrazhanets engine 1, as described above. It should be noted that all switching is not associated with the switching demultiplier, can be unstressed and without RA is the gap of power flow in a tenth of a second, as speed switchable units (crowns) are the same. Complexity is represented only by switching crowns mode multiplier mode reduction superwriter during acceleration of the vehicle and back with slow, including regenerative mode when the demultiplier switches, respectively, with low gear on a straight line and back. The necessary synchronization of the speeds of the rims 52 and 50 crowns, respectively, 55 and 56, and 54 and 55, which is achieved by the known methods used in the gearboxes of cars, such as clutch switching, synchronizers, etc. described in the literature for gear boxes. The second option mentioned translation of superwriter from one mode to another may be described above for the case of acceleration of the flywheel 18 by using superwriter, the translation of the variator 4 is first in the position of the minimum gear ratio when the rotation frequency of all switchable crowns are the same, then back to the position of maximum gear ratio when in neutral the synchronizer 29.

However, on both switches takes time, commensurate with the gearing in the synchronizer gearbox of the vehicle, i.e. from 1 to 2 seconds. When the vehicle speed may vary, especially the on on the climbs and descents, elevated road resistance, etc. To prevent breaking the flow of power from the shaft 3 to the main transmission 37 in these cases, you can use the actuator 40, as described above for the case of acceleration of the flywheel 18. For this to be achieved it with a gear ratio equal to the ratio of the drive from shaft 3 to shaft 34, i.e., from input to output shafts of the entire drive at the end of the mode multiplier superwriter, when the frequency of rotation of the shaft 25 maximum immediately before switching demultiplier 29 to the direct transmission. The same ratio has this drive when the deceleration of the car at the beginning of mode reduction superwriter, but when the direct transmission in the demultiplier 29, when further lowering the speed of the vehicle is required translation demultiplier 29 to a lower gear with the transfer of superwriter at the end of the regime animation. If necessary, switch demultiplier 29 and are required when this mode of superwriter, for example in the above example, at a speed of 15 km/h, the clutch 41 is connected to the coupling 42 and 43, and the flywheel 18 through the gear 17 and the transmission 40 is connected to the main gear 37 and the driven wheels 35 by the second thread, in addition to the main through the clutch 16, superwriter, gears and demultiplier 29, but with the same gear ratio. After switching demultiplier 29 and modes of superwriter gear ratio of the entire drive from the input shaft 3 to the output shaft 34 remains the same. After the process of switching demultiplier 29 and modes of superwriter actuator 40 is deactivated transfer coupling 42 in a state disconnected from the coupling 41, with which the coupling 43 remains in the United status.

The process of regenerative braking of the vehicle, such as a bus, is carried out in the reverse order to that described for acceleration, with the difference that in most cases, regenerative braking or deceleration only on the modes of superwriter, without connecting the variator 4 to the output shaft 34 just drive around superwriter, as when starting the vehicle with the minimum speed. This is because with decreasing vehicle speed approximately 25 times by changing gear ratios of superwriter and demultiplier 29, in the vehicle remain only thousandths initial kinetic energy, and save them impractical. Moreover, in some cases it is advisable to carry out regenerative deceleration only in live mode in dual high 29 without switching. Then in the vehicle, which reduced its soon the be about 5 times, only 4% of the initial kinetic energy, and recover it ineffective. Braking action to stop the post process regenerative deceleration is carried out as in emergency braking, the regular brakes when the actuator, at least a disengagement of the clutch 16, and possibly 2, if the idle of the engine 1.

Figure 5 presents a diagram of a hybrid powertrain of a vehicle with an Electromechanical drive, the three types of primary energy sources - thermal engine and electrochemical source (e.g., fuel cells), grid (for example, the contact wires) and energy storage, and able to accumulate and allocate energy in the form of a manual or electric.

First consider the case with a hybrid powertrain includes, as in the diagram of figure 2, as the primary energy source of the heat engine 1 connected to the input shaft 3 mechanical continuously variable drive coupling sleeve 2 and the output shaft 34, respectively, is kinematically connected to the drive wheels 35. Stepless mechanical drive has the same device, the same principle and the same sequence as in figure 1, figure 2, figure 3 and figure 4 with the difference that removed the actuator 40 of the acceleration of the flywheel 18 from the shaft 34 and the drive from Vale to the flywheel 18 in the housing 19 by using a reduction gear 17, installed in this case between the motor 63 and the shaft 3, as directly using periodically include coupling of the coupling 61, and through the actuator, consisting of two reversible electric machines (motor generators) 62 and 63, the rotor of which is connected with, respectively, the shaft of the flywheel 18 and with the gear 17 of the input shaft 3. Electrical machinery 62 and 63, for example, synchronous with the rotor permanent magnet is connected windings of the stators through the power converters 64 both with one another and with other primary energy source, an electrochemical generator 65. Unit converters 64, including inverters with an element of direct current, converts the request of the operator, the frequency of the electrical current between 62 and 63 for frequency of rotation of the shaft of the flywheel 18 and the input shaft 3, which is, in fact, is the control of the hybrid powertrain. During execution of the energy storage device 66 in the form of a pure electric, for example a capacitor (ioniser) or electrochemical battery, the unit converters 64 converts the electric power supplied from the electrical machinery 63, in the form convenient for the energy accumulator 66.

Now consider the case when the primary energy source is a source of electrical energy, such as electrochemical source (fuel cell) 65 or grid 67, to the second electric power enters the vehicle through the current collector 68. Talk with the appropriate parameters comes from these sources in the Converter 64, and from there, for example, in the form of alternating current of suitable frequency in the electromachine 62, driving the flywheel 18. When powered vehicle from the external power grid 66 current enters the Converter 64 via the current collector 68 and the inverter 64 current corresponding parameters is electromachine 63 for driving the vehicle. If you need a small power required for driving the vehicle, the current from source 65 through the inverter 64 is fed partly or completely in the electromachine 63 for driving the vehicle. If necessary, the energy for driving the vehicle can do this from the engine 1 through the clutch 2 and the gear 17 on the shaft 3, and also through the shaft 3 and included the coupling 61 on the flywheel 18 to acceleration and to start the engine 1 from the flywheel 18. Through the included clutch 61, the rotation of the handwheel 18 through the gear 17 may be received on the shaft 3 and the mechanical continuously variable drive for driving and regenerative braking of the vehicle. Electrical machinery 62 and 63 or disconnected from each other or are parallel to the mechanical continuously variable transmission, helping her. Source 65 nourishes the electromachine 62 and transmits energy in the flywheel 18 regardless of the use IU ancescao or electric actuators, depending on the need of supplying energy in the flywheel. The energy storage in the form of a flywheel 18, which shaft is seated, the rotor electrical machinery 62 and the sleeve 61 can be without changing the rest of the hybrid powertrain replaced by any other energy storage unit 66, such as a capacitor or an electrochemical battery. In this case, all functions of the drive are stored - energy comes in the form of electrical, charging the drive is like from a source 65, and electrical machinery 63, the rotor of which rotates the shaft 3 through the clutch 2 from the engine 1 through the inverter 64. The energy for the movement of the machine comes from the storage 66 (condenser, electroacoustic etc) through the inverter 64 in the electromachine 63, which rotates the rotor and through the reduction gear 17 and the shaft 3 from this energy.

Due to the fact that the hybrid power unit 5 can be used mechanical stepless drive as with the variator of figure 1, and supervaluation of figure 2, with demultiplier 29, and without it, as with reverse and neutral, and without them, the mechanical actuator 69 away from the coupling 2 and the input shaft 3 to the output shaft 34 are presented without interpretation - in the form of a closed housing. Drive acceleration of the flywheel 18 from the shaft 34, as mentioned above, is eliminated as unnecessary when the drive for this is uncle. The clutch 16 is changed the place of its location - it is placed between electromachine 63, the rotor through which the gear 17 is connected to the shaft 3, and electromachine 62, the rotor of which is connected to the flywheel 18, and therefore the numbering replaced it with 16 (figures 1 and 2) 61, although its function has not practically changed - it connects the shaft 3 and the flywheel 18 through the gear 17. The seal 20 of the housing 19 of the flywheel 18 is left as electromachine 62 may be placed in the environment of rotation of the flywheel 18 (e.g., helium)that is different from atmospheric.

When using the hybrid powertrain according to scheme 5 its capabilities increase, but increases the complexity when a drop in efficiency due to additional losses in electrical machines 62 and 63, and the Converter 64. When the clutch 61 and switched off the electric machines 62 and 63 of the scheme and the operation of the device is no different from the one described above for figure 1, figure 2, figure 3 and figure 4.

If necessary, use the second primary source of energy, such as electrochemical 65 (e.g., fuel cells), the source 65 is connected via the inverter 64 (e.g., DC to AC adjustable frequency) to the electromachine 63 of the rotating shaft 3 through the reduction gear 17. Next, the process of movement of the machine is the same as in the case of rotation of the shaft 3 from the flywheel 18 or the engine 1, with the difference that is astato rotating electrical machinery 63 can be adjusted by inverter 64. This makes it possible to increase the range of changes in machine speed compared to the previous, for example, to increase the maximum speed that will allow you to use a hybrid powerplant not only on city vehicles, but also on other machines, where the speed is higher. Connecting electrical machinery 62 to the source 65 through the inverter 64 allows the acceleration of the flywheel 18 directly from the source 65. If it is fuel cells, their efficiency is higher than that of the engine 1, and the efficiency of the machine drive from the flywheel 18 is increased. Fuel cells typically have low specific power, so the energy from them, it is advisable to translate the flywheel 18 or the drive 66 on the low capacity operation of electrical machinery 62, and then use the accumulated in the flywheel 18 energy when the electrical machinery 62 on high power with energy transfer to the electromachine 63 and forth on the shaft 3 for driving the machine. Particularly effective from the standpoint of the efficiency of accumulation of energy in the flywheel 18 from the fuel elements 65 at a low power, and then return it at the maximum capacity of the machine (for example, for emergency acceleration) through the inclusion of the coupling 61 and the only mechanical part of the infinitely variable drive (as in schemes 1, figure 2, figure 3 and figure 4).

When used as Pervy the aqueous source energy network 67 energy is supplied through the current collector 64, and then in the electromachine 63, and through a mechanical actuator 69 to the drive wheels 35.

Regenerative braking of the machine can be made with the inclusion of electric machines 63 and 62, for example, when the rate of vehicle deceleration from high speeds, is not available for this mechanical drive (over 70 km/h), and mechanically turning the coupling 61 and the disconnection of electric machines 62 and 63, which is more economical. The use of the engine 1 can be produced through the same steps as described above for schemes figure 1, figure 2, figure 3 and figure 4. In addition, regenerative braking when the electromachine 63 can be made with the accumulation of energy in the flywheel 18 by overclocking it from electrical machinery 62, powered by electrical machinery 63 through an inverter 64, and with the accumulation of energy in the storage device 66, for example capacitors or electrochemical batteries, conversion of electricity generated electromachine 63, the rotor through which the gear 17 is kinematically connected with the input shaft 3, the Converter 64 (for example, converts an alternating current generated electromachine 62 to DC for charging the drive 66).

The described invention allows to obtain a high economic and environmental effects, primarily on the machines of urban public transport.

1. Hybrid power Agra is at the vehicle, includes primary source of energy, the energy accumulator and the actuator, having in its composition mechanical stepless and gears, and the drive is made with the possibility of kinematic connection with each other in any combination of primary energy source, the energy storage device and the drive wheels of the vehicle, characterized in that the continuously variable transmission comprises a planetary disk of the variator, the mechanism of forced change its gear ratio and the management of this mechanism and the gear comprises periodically switching unit that contains one or more switchable gear transmission, the transmitting rotation from the continuously variable transmission to drive the leading wheels of the vehicle, with the range change gear ratios periodically switching unit is made smaller than the range of variation of the planetary disk of the variator.

2. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the continuously variable transmission containing the planetary disk variator includes a differential mechanism containing planetary and differential gear, comprising a Central gear and drove kinematically connecting the driving and driven shafts of the planetary disk is of aryatara with the drive wheels of the vehicle, and kinematically connected with each other in two modes, the first of which the planetary carrier connected to one of the Central gears of the differential transmission and the driving wheels through the transmission gear is connected with the planet carrier of the differential gear, and the second planetary carrier connected to the planet carrier of the differential transmission and the driving wheels through the transmission gear connected to another Central toothed wheel differential gear, in both modes, one of the Central gears of the planetary transmission is connected with the input shaft of the planetary disk of the variator, and the other is stationary.

3. Hybrid power unit according to claim 2, characterized in that the driven shaft of the planetary disk of the variator is made with the possibility of periodic connection periodically through a switching unit with the drive wheels of the vehicle with the simultaneous termination of the transmission of torque from the shaft through the differential mechanism.

4. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the periodically switching unit that transmits rotation from the continuously variable transmission to the drive wheels, contains both lower and direct transmission and is designed as a planetary demultiplier.

5. Hybrid silo is the second unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the gear kinematically connecting the continuously variable transmission and periodically switching unit comprises at least one neutral.

6. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the periodically switching unit consists of the direct transmission.

7. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the gear kinematically connecting the continuously variable transmission and the drive wheels, comprises the reverse.

8. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the output shaft periodically switching unit is made with the possibility of kinematic connection with the drive wheels, and with an additional flywheel drive drive, as separately and jointly, by means of a switchable coupling is enabled.

9. Hybrid power unit according to claim 4 or 8, characterized in that the auxiliary drive from the flywheel of the drive is made with a ratio approximately equal to the transmission ratio of the whole drive from its input to the output shaft at the time of switching demultiplier.

10. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the planetary transmission external Central gear wheel is connected with the drive shaft of the variator, and the interior is stationary.

11. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the actuator is introduced at least one electromachine, the rotor of which is connected with the input shaft of the variator.

12. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the energy accumulator is made in the form of a flywheel with a mechanical power takeoff from its rotating shaft.

13. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the energy accumulator in the form of flywheel power takeoff in the form of electrical energy from the rotating flywheel electrical machinery.

14. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the energy accumulator is designed as a capacitor.

15. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the energy accumulator is made in the form of electrochemical battery.

16. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes several primary energy sources, and at least one of which is executed in the form of heat engine.

17. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one primary energy source made in the form of electrochemical energy source.

18. Hybrid power unit according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one primary energy source is external contact network, with which the vehicle is connected through a current collector.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: engineering industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to transport engineering industry, and namely to through drive axles. Through hypoid final drive consists of reduction gear case (1), driving flange (2) installed on drive shaft (3) whereon there pressed is cylindrical drive pinion (4). In case (1), on tapered bearings (5) and (6) there located is drive hypoid pinion (7) provided with a shank. In case (1) there located is a centre differential containing carriers (10) and (11). Carrier (10) is installed on tapered bearing (12) located in the case (1) and that is an integral part of driven pinion (13) engaged with cylindrical drive pinion (4). Carrier (11) is installed on radial thrust bearing (14) located in case (1). Axle shaft pinion (17) of centre differential is connected by means of splines to through shaft (19) of main reverse gear drive the horizontal axis of which is located below axis of cross-axle differential (20). Axle shaft pinion (18) is installed on splines of pinion-shaft (24) coaxially relative to shaft (19) of main reverse gear drive on bearings (25) and (26) located in case (1) and carrier (10) of centre differential respectively. Pinion-shaft (24) is engaged with driven pinion (27) fixed on the splined end of shank of drive hypoid pinion (7).

EFFECT: improving durability of cardan shaft and hypoid gear.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: stepless gear ratio variation transmission incorporates an input shat (I), output shat (O) and gear ratio variator coupled with the aforesaid output shaft and furnished with its own output shaft. The 1st gear of the planetary reduction gear with input shafts coupled with the variator (V) output shaft and the transmission input shaft via the first coupling (H) and gear of the second planetary reduction gear with input shafts coupled with the variator output shafts and transmission input shaft come in mesh with the third planetary reduction that comes into mesh with the transmission output shaft via the first braking element (L). The second braking element (B) is arranged to lock the output shaft of the second planetary reduction gear in static state.

EFFECT: reduced rpm of parts and number of gearings.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to motor industry. The rpm controller represents a device incorporating a planetary differential gear with driving spider (2) and two various-diameter gear wheels (5, 12). Central gear wheel (5) runs opposite to the running spider (2) to transmit engine power to output shaft (6) via the reduction gear that changes the direction of rotation. Central gear wheel (12) runs in the same direction with spider (2) to transmit rotary motion to output shaft (6) via friction clutch (13). Adjusting actuator with a controlled signal, a function of the engine shaft rpm, varies the rotary motion transmission ratio and allows accelerating or decelerating output shaft (6) along with changing the transmission ratio from its maximum to zero.

EFFECT: automatic adjustment of the engine rpm with variation of transmission ratio in transient behavior.

1 dwg

Gearbox // 2313709

FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gearbox contains constant-mesh gear cluster as main speed unit and planetary mechanism for additional reduction with multiplication of main low speed. All driven gears of cluster and planetary mechanism are fitted on gearbox output shaft, and driving member of planetary mechanism-sun or ring gear - is nondetachably rigidly connected with driven gear of main low speed.

EFFECT: simplified kinematic of transmission, reduced mechanical losses.

5 cl, 4 dwg

Combination drive // 2312794

FIELD: aircraft manufacture; control of high-lift devices of wing (flaps, slats).

SUBSTANCE: electric motor (1) is mounted in one kinematic channel and is mechanically connected with sun gear wheel of planetary differential mechanism (6) provided at gearbox input; it is connected with electromechanical brake clutch (3) electrically connected in series with electric motor. Hydraulic motor (2) is mounted in other kinematic channel and is mechanically and hydraulically connected with hydromechanical brake (4) by means of control head; it is also linked with epicycle of planetary differential mechanism (6) via matching in-line gear train.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability; reduced mass of drive.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, automobile construction, in particular, rotational speed changing technique.

SUBSTANCE: variator has speed regulating mechanism made in the form of toothed differential mechanism, drive for speed regulation mechanism, planetary working frame 4 and planetary balancing frame 5, frame guide 11 and frame rotation casing 12. Frames 4, 5 are meshed with central toothed gear 3 and are placed, in conjunction with said gear, within frame guide 11. Two planetary working toothed gears 6, 10 are fixed within frame 4. Planetary working toothed gear 6 is fixed through cardan drive 8 and shaft 9 to variator housing 7 to rotate relative to frame 4. Planetary toothed gear 10 is connected through second cardan drive 8, intermediate toothed gears 21, 22 and toothed gear 23 to variator driven shaft 24 to run around first planetary working toothed gear 6. On increase of rotational speed or adjustment, frames 4, 5 are offset by centrifugal force relative to rotational center of drive shaft 1. On offsetting of frames, radii of rotation of planetary working gears 6, 10 relative to rotational center of drive shaft 1 are increased and transmission ratio is changed.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and provision for transmission of great powers by toothed transmission.

12 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system of transmission with constantly changing gear ratio has input and output shafts, 16 and 24, respectively, transfer unit V with constantly changing gear ratio connected to input shaft 16, mixed epicyclical transfer mechanism E1 and second epicyclical transfer mechanism E2. Mechanism E1 has input sun gear S1 connected to output shaft of variable speed drive 18, carrier C1 connected to input shaft 16 and planetary gear P1 installed on carrier C1. Planetary gear P1 drives first intermediate output shaft 32 selectively connected to output shaft 24 of system through first clutch H at high speed of system. Planetary gear P1 provides also input power for second epicyclical transfer mechanism E2. Mechanism E2 has output C2 which is selectively connected to output shaft 24 of system through brake member L at low speeds of system.

EFFECT: minimization of engagement of gears, thus minimizing transmission losses, no backlash in mechanism E1, increased range of selection of sizes of gears, thus reducing speed of gears.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in tractors, automobiles, road building machines, etc. Additional simple three-member planetary mechanism is installed in gearbox between off-axial two-shaft reduction gear and main three-member planetary mechanism. Gear rims 27, 28, 29 of tubular shaft 26 of epicyclic wheel 25 and output shaft of carrier 24 of main three-member planetary mechanism and output shaft 6 of set 1 are arranged close to each other. Shifter sleeve 35D is located on gear rim 29 of set output shaft 6. Shifter fork 36 is connected by slider 37 with gear rim 38 with internal and external gearing. Gear rim 38 connects gear rims 32, 30 of set housing and housing of epicyclic wheel 25.

EFFECT: increased range of gear ratios and number to forward speeds to sixteen and reverse speed to eight, contributes to transformation of high torques.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: planet friction variator comprises shaft (1), solar wheel (2), corona wheel (6), carrier (4) with satellites (3), and secondary shaft (5). Corona wheel (6) that is used as a control member is connected with variator housing (11) and primary shaft (1) through friction mechanisms. Secondary shaft (5) is made in block with carrier (4) for permitting control of velocity and direction of rotation of the corona wheel by means of friction mechanisms and control electric motor (9) connected with the corona wheel.

EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced sizes, and enhanced reliability.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: continuously variable transmission comprises housing, input and output shafts, reverse mechanism and multi-disk planet variator provided with planet reduction gear, which define a variator. The solar pinion of the reduction gear is fit on the output shaft with interference and its epicycle is secured to the housing of the transmission. The variator has epicycle mounted in the housing of the transmission and made of a stack of disks and solar pinion made of a disk stack mounted on the output shaft of the variator connected with the output shaft of the reverse mechanism. The carrier of the variator is connected with the carrier of the planet reduction gear and consists of two disks interconnected by means of tension bolts. The disks of the carrier have shaped slots the number of which is equal to the number of axles mounted in the shaped slots for permitting change of position and interaction with the disks of the solar pinion and epicycle. The gear ration controller is build in the carrier of the variator. The planet reduction gear, planet multi-disk variator, and reverse mechanism are axially aligned.

EFFECT: prolonged service life and expanded functional capabilities.

18 cl, 8 dwg

Gearbox // 2352476

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: gearbox crankcase represents housing with the main cover bolted to the housing mounting place to form a cavity there between designed to accommodate two primary shafts and one secondary shaft. The said primary shafts represent a hollow outer and an all-metal inner shafts fitted coaxially. A pair of driving gear wheels is fitted on the outer primary shaft and three gear wheels are mounted on the inner primary shaft. The said gear wheels are made integral with the primary shafts so that uneven gearings are driven from the inner primary shaft and even gearings are driven from the outer primary shaft via the clutches. The said clutches are fitted on the secondary shaft. The said gearshift clutches are fitted on the secondary shaft between appropriate gear wheels fitted on the shaft unfixed. The housing accommodates the reverse gears assembly with its primary gear wheel in mesh with the gear wheel made integral with the inner primary shaft, while its secondary gear wheel is in mesh with reverse gear wheel fitted on the secondary shaft. The aforesaid cover is bolted the gearbox housing and, depending upon the axle and engine arrangement, can have an outlet hole and flange sealing device.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of power plant and automatic gear shifting.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicle transmissions, particularly, to differentials with automatic wheels locking. The proposed differential comprises drive housing accommodating moving ball closed chains incorporating with half-axle components. The said components are fitted aligned on half-axles. The drive element represents a plate, the ball chains being fitted in the holders furnished with axles mounted in through slots of the drive housing at equal radial distance from the drive housing axis. The ball chains are arranged so as to allow the balls to pass along the variable-depth figurate paths arranged in symmetry on the flange opposite end faces. The said flanges seat on the aforesaid half-axle elements.

EFFECT: higher reliability, compact design.

6 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: gearshift clutch and toothed rim with internal and external gearing, controlled by one sliding bar, allow operating planetary mechanism in three operating conditions. The first operating condition is direct transmission, the second operating condition means reduction gear with maximum gear ratio and stopped epicyclical wheel and the third operating condition means reduction gear with output shaft reverse rotation and stopped pinion frame.

EFFECT: better operating performances due to increased number of forward speeds, increased efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gearbox incorporates an input and output shafts running in bearings and a lay shaft arranged parallel to the said input and output shafts. The output and lay shafts are furnished with the supports in the gearbox housing intermediate wall. The input shaft rear end is fitted in the output shaft end. The input shaft comprises a reverse drive gear and three forward running gears made integral with the aforesaid shaft. The input shaft supports also dual-direction gear free running thereon and accommodating a two-position coupling. One driven gear runs free on the output shaft end, while two other driven gears are fitted on the output shaft unfixed with a three-position coupling arranged there between. Three drive gears, dual-direction gear and three forward running driven gears in mesh with the input and output shaft gears run on the lay shaft. The reverse gear is fitted unfixed on the lay shaft to engage with the additional reverse gear. The said lay shaft supports two unfixed three-position coupling seating between the lay shaft gears. Similar coupling is fitted on the output shaft end.

EFFECT: reduced metal input, higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: automatic multiple speed transmission based on a stepped planetary gear train includes input and output shafts. The input shaft has a stepped planetary gear train and reverse planetary gear mounted thereon. The output shaft has driven gears and centrifugal governor mounted thereon. The stepped planetary gear train contains several sun gears fixedly connected to the input shaft and integrated into a train with several sets of pinions mounted on the common carrier block and rotating around the gears. The annulus gears of the stepped planetary gear train are installed so that they can freely rotate on the input shaft. There are two driving gears located on each end of the carrier block, out of which two are connected to the carrier block in a fixed manner and the other two are connected to the carrier block through forward friction clutches. The driving gears are engaged with respective forward driven gears on the output shaft. The outer collars of one-way clutches and the drive portion of the friction clutches have permanent magnets installed and lock slots provided thereon. The planetary gear casing and the driven portion of the friction clutches contain rotation speed sensors and locks; the outer collar of a one-way clutch is fixed by a lock that is controlled by the control unit based on speed sensor parameters transmitted to it.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and smaller size of a multiple speed transmission; reduced power losses as required to maintain pressure in the hydraulic system.

5 dwg

Planetary gearbox // 2324850

FIELD: transportation, trackless surface vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the field of motor transport engineering and relates to staggered planetary gear box. The automatic hydro mechanical gear box consists of casing (1), input link (3), output link (4) and planetary reduction gear. In the planetary reduction gear, there are three frictional clutches and four friction brakes. The first planetary gear set consists of central gear (5), drive (6) for satellites and crown gear (7). The second planetary gear set consists of central gear (8), drive (9) for satellites and crown gear (10). The third planetary gear set consists of central gear (11), drive (12) for satellites and crown gear (13). The input link (3) is joined to rigidly interconnected drive (6) and the central gear (8). The crown gear (13) is connected to the output link (4) of the gear box. Drive (9) is connected to the control frictional clutch (15) through drive (6), which is rigidly connected to the central gear (8). Crown gear (10) is connected through the control frictional clutch (16) to drive (12), which is rigidly fixed to the central gear (5). Frictional brakes (17) joins the crown gear (7) to the casing (1) of the gear box. Frictional brakes (18) connect interconnected drive (9) and central gear (11) to the casing (1) of the gear box. Frictional brakes (19) connects the crown gear (10) to the casing (1) of the gear box. Frictional brakes (20) connects interconnected drive (12) and the central gear (5) to the casing (1) of the gearbox. This allows for enhancement of dynamic properties and broadening of the range of transmission ratios.

EFFECT: enhancement of dynamic properties and broadening of the range of transmission ratios.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: input shaft 2 and primary shaft 3 are coaxially installed in supports of gearbox housing. Secondary shaft 4, carrier shaft 5 and output shaft 6 are arranged parallel to coaxial shafts 2 and 3. Gear 7 is fixed on primary shaft 3, gear 8 is freely fitted at one side and gear cluster consisting of two gears 9 and 10 is installed at other side. Gear cluster consisting of gears 11 and 12 engaging with gears 8 and 7 of primary shaft and gears 13 and 14 engaging with cluster of gears 9 and 10 on primary shaft are installed on secondary shaft 4. Sun gear 15a of planetary mechanism is secured at output of secondary shaft 4, said gear being engaged with planet pinions 16 arranged on axles of carrier 17H. Planet pinions 16 are in meshing with epicyclic wheel 18b. Gear 8 is connected by tubular shaft 19 with gear rim 20, gear rim 21 is secured on primary shaft 3, and three-position gear rim 22 is secured on input shaft 2, three-position shifter clutch 23A being fitted on gear rim 22. Two position twin clutch B consists of clutches 24 and 25 interconnected by shifter fork 26. Clutch 24 is installed on gear rim of gear 7 of primary shaft 3, and clutch 25, on gear rim of gear 13 of secondary shaft 4. Two-position clutch 27C is fitted on hub of secondary shaft 4 between gears 13 and 14. Gear rim 28 is secured on tubular shaft 29 of housing of epicyclic wheel 18. Two-position gear rim 30 is secured on carrier shaft 5. Three-position gear rim 31 is secured on output shaft 6 which carries shifter clutch 32 connected for sliding with slider 33. Gear rim 34 with internal and external meshing is secured on slider 33, external teeth being engaged with three-position gear rim 35 of housing 1, and gear rim 36 of carrier 17 and gear rim 37 of housing of epicyclic wheel 18 are arranged opposite to external gearing.

EFFECT: reduced metal usage, simplified design of gearbox.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gearbox contains coaxial input, primary and secondary shafts and countershaft parallel to them, two-position twin clutch consisting of two one-way clutch members intercoupled by shifter fork, shifter clutch installed on gear rim of input shaft and shifter clutch installed on gear rim of outer shaft. Simple three-link planetary mechanism is installed on secondary shaft of gearbox.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities of vehicle owing to increased number of speeds and range of gearbox.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in vehicles and in drives of mounted equipment of special vehicles. Shifter clutch of gearbox output shaft is brought out of reduction gear part. Cluster of two gears is freely fitted on secondary shaft and one gear is fixed. Shifter clutch is arranged in between, being coupled by slider with other clutch arranged between gears of primary shaft. Carrier shaft gear rim is two-position, and gear rim of output shaft is three-position one. Shifter clutch on said rim is provided with three internal gear rims. Gear rim with internal and external meshings is rigidly secured on slider of shifter clutch. External gearing of rim is engaged with three-position gear rim of housing.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities of vehicle, reduced metal usage of set.

2 dwg

Gearbox // 2319623

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: gearbox is designed for mounting onto all-wheel-drive trucks. Gearbox case 1 accommodates drive shaft 2, countershaft 3, driven shaft 4, reverse idler gear 5, planetary gear train 6 and interaxle differential 7 are installed on one axle and have common carrier 8. Sun gear of planetary gear train 10 is installed on driven shaft 4. Fitted on drive shaft 2 are double-acting clutches 11 and 12, four rotating gears 13, 14, 15 and 16 and two fixed gears 17 and 18. Fitted on countershaft 3 are double-acting clutch 19, two rotating gears 20 and 21, and four gears 22, 23, 24 and 25 which are fixed. Double-acting clutch 26 and two rotating gears 27 and 28 are installed on shaft 3. Planet pinions 29 of planetary gear train and planet pinions 30 of interaxle differential are arranged on one axle. Ring gear 9 of planetary gear train can alternately engage with toothed rim 31 secured on case 1 and toothed rim 32 on carrier 8. Ring gear 33 of planetary mechanism of interaxle differential is in constant meshing with toothed rim 34 which is secured on shaft 35 of axle drive and can be meshed with toothed rim 36 secured on carrier 8. Sun gear of planetary mechanism of interaxle differential is installed on axle drive shaft 38.

EFFECT: reduced power losses in transmission, noise level in operation, increased number of speeds with optimum kinematic parameters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering; tractors.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulically operated friction clutches. Proposed friction clutch contains hub secured on shaft of gearbox, hydraulic cylinder with radial projections made on hub, piston with pressure disk, thrust disk, inner drum made integral with driven gear and connected by gear joint with driving disks, driven disks connected with outer drum, ring groove made on inner surface of outer drum, and lockring. Novelty is that outer drum and thrust disk are made in form of common part, outer drum is provided with longitudinal projections, with outer projections of driven disks fitted in slots between longitudinal projections. Ends of projections of outer drum are installed between radial projections of hydraulic cylinder, and lockring is arranged in ring channel formed by ring grooves made on inner surface of outer drum and on outer surface of hydraulic cylinder.

EFFECT: reduced wear of disks, increased transmitted power and improved repairability of clutch.

2 dwg

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