Flash memory element for electrically programmable read-only memory

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: flash memory element for electrically programmable read-only memory is meant for data storage when power is off. On a semiconductor base with a source and drain between the latter, there is a tunnelling layer, an auxiliary tunnelling layer, a memory layer, blocking layer and a switch. The auxiliary tunnelling and blocking layers are made from material with high dielectric permeability, from 5 to 2000, exceeding the dielectric permeability of the material of the tunnelling layer made from SiO2.

EFFECT: as a result there is reduction of voltage (4 V) and time (10-7 s) for recording/erasing information and increase in data storage time (up to 12 years).

7 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to computing, and in particular to an electrically programmable permanent memory devices (EEPROM), retaining the information when the power is off (flash memory), and can be used in memory devices of computers, microprocessors, flash memory, portable electronic devices such as digital cameras, iPods, electronic card (smart card).

Known flash memory element electrically reprogrammable permanent storage device (J.Bu, V.Y.White "Design consideration in scaled SONOS nonvolatile memory devices," Solid State Electronics, v.45, p.113-120, 2001), containing semiconductor substrate with made it from source to drain, between which latter consistently performed tunneling layer, a storage layer, a blocking layer and a gate. Used silicon substrate is p-type, tunnel layer is made of silicon oxide with a thickness of 2.0 nm, the storage layer is made of silicon nitride with a thickness of 4.0 nm, the blocking layer is made of silicon oxide with a thickness of 5.0 nm.

Time reprogramming in the flash memory element is 10-3C, and the voltage reprogramming from 9 to 10 C.

The disadvantages of the known technical solutions is a great time to reprogram and high amount of tension is placed reprogramming and for a limited time information storage at a temperature of 300 K. the Latter is caused by a phenomenon draining charge through a relatively thin (about 2.0 nm) tunnel SiO2. The increase in the thickness of the tunnel SiO2reduces the memory window (the difference of the threshold voltages in the States "0" and "1"). The first of these shortcomings are due to the presence of a relatively thin (on the order of 5.0 nm) of the blocking layer, the thickness of which contributes tunnel injection of carriers from the conductive gate, which leads to the reduction of accumulated due to the injection of the substrate, the charge storage layer.

Known flash memory element electrically reprogrammable permanent storage device (V.A.Gritsenko, .A.Nasyrov, D.V.Gritsenko, Yu.N.Novikov, J.H.Lee, J.-W.Lee, C.W.Kirn, H.Wong "Modeling of a EEPROM device based on silicon quantum dots embedded in high-k dielectrics" Microelectronic engineering, v.81, p.530-534, 2005), containing the semiconductor substrate with made it from source to drain, between which latter consistently performed tunneling layer, a blocking layer and a gate. At the same time as the blocking layer used a layer with a high dielectric constant - ZrO2. Active role in memory functions perform silicon nanoclusters embedded in the blocking layer ZrO2and are located on the surface of the tunneling layer. In the operation of the substrate material used is silicon. A blocking layer of ZrO2made with a thickness of 8.0 nm, the size of the silicon nanocluster - 5,0 nm, the thickness of the tunnel SiO2to 5.0 nm.

The disadvantages of the known technical solutions applies the high voltage reprogramming, a relatively large time reprogramming limited time information storage at a temperature of 300 K. This flash memory element has a sufficiently thick tunneling layer of SiO2around 5 nm. As a result, it causes a great time reprogramming of the order of 10-3with, and the voltage reprogramming. Due to the large energy barrier for holes at the boundary of Si/SiO2this structure does not allow to inject and accumulate in the medium positive charge. Thick tunneling layer reduces the difference of the threshold voltages in the States "0" and "1", resulting in reduction of the memory window.

The closest technical solution to the claimed is a flash memory element electrically reprogrammable permanent storage device (RF patent for the invention №2310929, IPC 8 G11C 14/00)containing semiconductor substrate with made it from source to drain, between a source and a drain consistently performed tunneling layer, a storage layer, a blocking layer and a conductive gate. As the substrate material COI is used silicon. The tunneling layer is made of silicon oxide, of a thickness of from 3.5 to 8.0 nm. The storage layer is designed as a floating gate of polysilicon, with a thickness from 4.0 to 300 nm. The blocking layer is made of a dielectric with a high dielectric constant (ε from 5 to 2000), thickness from 7.0 to 100 nm.

The disadvantages of this technical solution applies the high voltage reprogramming, a relatively large time reprogramming limited time information storage at a temperature of 300 K. the time Limit for storage of information occurs due to the leaking of the charge through a relatively thin (about 2.0 nm) tunnel SiO2. The increase in the thickness of the tunnel SiO2reduces the memory window (the difference of the threshold voltages in the States "0" and "1"). For low voltage reprogramming is necessary to reduce the thickness of the tunneling layer, but this will result in the draining of the charge, that is, to reduce storage time. To reduce the time reprogramming is also required to decrease the thickness of the tunneling layer, but it will also lead to the draining of the charge, i.e. the reduction of the retention time.

Reprogramming these types of flash EEPROM memory elements based on the effect of Fowler-Nordheim or hot electrons.

The technical result of the invention is:

on iunie voltage erase/write information (up to 4÷7);

- reducing the time of recording/erasing of information (up to 10-6-10-7C);

- increase in the time information storage (up to 10-12 years) at a temperature of 300 K with the memory window after 12 years about 3V.

The technical result is reached by the fact that in the flash memory element electrically reprogrammable permanent storage device containing a semiconductor substrate with made it from source to drain, between a source and a drain made of a tunneling layer, a storage layer, a blocking layer and a gate between the tunneling layer and storage layer is made of additional tunneling layer of a material with a high dielectric constant greater than the dielectric constant of the material of the tunneling layer.

In a flash memory element, the tunneling layer is made of silicon oxide with a thickness of 1.5 to 4.0 nm.

In the flash memory element additional tunneling layer is made of a material with a dielectric constant of 5 to 2000, of a thickness of from 7.0 to 100 nm.

In a flash memory element as a material for additional tunneling layer used dielectric of the following list of materials: Wool2O6, BaxSr1-xTiO3BAxSr1-xNbO6, PbZnxNb1-xAbout3, PbZrxTi1-xO3, LiNbO3Bi1x LaxTi3O12Bi2Sr2CuOxBi4Ti3O12, SrBi2TA2O9, SrBi2TaxV1-xO9, SrTi1-xNbxO3, Sr2Nb2O7, SrTa2O6, SrZrO3, PbTiO3, LaAlO3CTO3, TiO2Ta2O5, AlTayOz, TaOxNy, HfO2, HfSiOxNy, HfOxNyEr2O3La2O3, ZrO2, ZrOxNy, ZrSiOx, Gd2O3, Y2O3, SiOxNy, Al2About3, AlOxNy.

In a flash memory element, a blocking layer is made of a material with a dielectric constant of 5 to 2000, of a thickness of from 7.0 to 100 nm.

In a flash memory element as the material for the blocking layer is used, the dielectric of the following list of materials: Wool2O6BAxSr1-xTiO3, BaxSr1-xNbO6, PbZnxNb1-xO3, PbZrxTi1-xO3, LiNbO3Bi1-xLaxTi3O12Bi2Sr2CuOxBi4Ti3O12, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2TaxV1-xO9, SrTi1-xNbxO3, Sr2Nb2O7, SrTa2O6, SrZrO3, PbTiO3, LaAlO3CTO3, TiO2Ta2O3, AlxTayOz , TaOxNy, HfO2, HfSiOxNy, HfOxNyEr2About3La2About3, ZrO2, ZrOxNy, ZrSiOx, Gd2O3, Y2O3, SiOxNy, Al2About3, AlOxNy.

In the flash memory element storage layer is made of polysilicon, or silicon nitride, or oxynitride silicon, a thickness of from 4.0 to 300,0 nm.

The invention is illustrated in the following description and drawing, which shows schematically the flash EEPROM memory element, where 1 is a semiconductor substrate, 2 - source 3 - drain 4 - first tunneling layer, a 5 - second (additional) tunneling layer, 6 - storage layer, 7 - blocking layer, 8 - gate.

The achievement of the specified technical result is as follows.

The main factor influencing the duration and magnitude preprogramming pulse, is the magnitude of the injection current through the tunneling layer. The higher the current, the less the time of recording/erasing of information. Thus the value of the injection current depends on the thickness of the tunneling layer, and preferably, to perform the layer of lesser thickness. Reducing the thickness of the tunneling layer reduces the voltage reprogramming. However, the decrease of its thickness causes the draining of charge from remember what its layer mode to "storage". The injection current through the tunneling layer depends on the magnitude of the electric field. Increasing the magnitude of the electric field in the tunneling layer may, in particular, by performing a blocking layer of material with a higher dielectric constant than the material of the tunneling layer.

A blocking layer made of a material with a dielectric constant that is large compared with the value of the dielectric constant of the material of the tunneling layer leads to an increased electric field in the tunneling layer when applying preprogramming pulse voltage. Significant electric field in the tunneling layer leads to an increase in the injection current of electrons and holes from the semiconductor substrate. This injection current allows to accumulate a charge storage layer using preprogramming pulse less power and shorter duration.

The second, additional tunneling layer (5)made of a material with a dielectric constant greater than the dielectric constant of the material of the first tunneling layer (4), allows to reduce the thickness of the first tunneling layer, thereby further strengthen the electric field in it. Amplification of the electric field in the tunneling layer (4) contributes to the increase of V.N.Karazin the ion current of a semiconductor substrate (1), that allows to reduce the magnitude and duration of the pulse reprogramming.

The time information storage, the charge storage layer is determined by the thickness of the second tunneling and blocking layers and dielectric constant, the higher their values, the greater the retention time. For reliable and long-term storage of these layers should be made of a dielectric with a high dielectric constant and thick enough to provide the time information storage 10 years at 300 K.

Thus it is essential that the implementation of additional tunneling layer from a material with a dielectric constant exceeding in magnitude the dielectric constant of the material of the tunneling layer. It is this difference of these parameters leads to the achievement of the technical result. The implementation of the first tunneling layer (4) made of a material with a smaller dielectric constant than the second tunnel and blocking layers, leads to the high electric field in it and, therefore, a significant injection in the reprogramming mode.

The dielectric constant of silicon oxide, which is made from the first tunneling layer (4)is the magnitude of 3.9. The values of the dielectric constant of the material of the second tunnel and blocking layers which should be greater than this value. This condition is achieved by using as the dielectric for the second tunnel and a blocking layer material, for example: Wool2O6BAxSr1-xTiO3, BaxSr1-xNbO6, PbZnxNb1-xAbout3, PbZrxTi1-xO3, LiNbO3Bi1-xLaxTi3O12Bi2Sr2CuOxBi4Ti3O12, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2TaxV1-xO9, SrTi1-xNbxO3,

Sr2Nb2O7, SrTa2O6, SrZrO3, PbTiO3, LaAlO3CTO3, TiO2Ta2O5, AlxTayOz, TaOxNy, HfO2,

HfSiOxNy, HfOxNyEr2O3La2O3, ZrO2, ZrOxNy, ZrSiOx, Gd2O3, Y2O3, SiOxNy, Al2About3, AlOxNy. The values of dielectric permeability of these materials lie in the range from 5 to 2000.

Thus, the first tunneling layer can be made thin enough due to the presence of additional tunneling layer. This allows to reduce the magnitude of the voltage and time reprogramming. At the same time thick enough second tunneling layer provides long-time storage of information.

Flash EEPROM memory element includes a semiconductor substrate (1), source (2)drain (3), the first tunneling layer (4), second tunneling layer (5), the storage layer (6) and the bolt (8).

Flash EEPROM memory element has a transistor structure in which a semiconductor substrate (1) with the planar side made the source (2) and drain (3). Between the source (2) drain (3) on the same side of the substrate (1) consistently performed the first tunneling layer (4), the second tunneling layer (5), the storage layer (6), a blocking layer (7) and cover (8).

As a semiconductor substrate (1) can be used a silicon substrate of n - or p-type conductivity. Source (2) and drain (3) is made of material of opposite conductivity type.

The first tunneling layer (4) made of silicon oxide is made in the thickness of 1,5÷4,0 nm. Dielectric properties and the specified thickness shall provide appropriate injection properties for injection of electrons/holes in the storage layer (6) in the mode of recording/erasing. Performing tunneling layer (4) with a thickness of 4.0 nm causes an undesirable increase in the duration and amplitude preprogramming pulse due to the voltage drop on it. The second (additional) tunneling layer (5) of dielectric material with a high dielectric constant carry a thickness of 7.0÷100,0 nm as the most effective the approaches to enhance the electric field in the first tunnel layer (4), improving injection properties in the reprogramming mode and prevent the phenomena of draining charge from the storage layer (6) through the tunneling layer (4) and (5) in the substrate (1) in the "storage". For the layer (5) as a dielectric can be used materials with a high dielectric constant: Vata2O6,

BaxSr1-xTiO3, BaxSr1-xNbO6, PbZnxNb1-xAbout3, PbZrxTi1-xAbout3, LiNbO3Bi1-xLaxTi3O12Bi2Sr2CuOxBi4Ti3O12, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2TaxV1-xO9, SrTi1-xNbxO3, Sr2Nb2O7, SrTa2O6, SrZrO3, PbTiO3, LaAlO3CTO3, TiO2Ta2O5, AlxTayOz, TaOxNy, HfO2, HfSiOxNy, HfOxNyEr2O3La2About3, ZrO2, ZrOxNy, ZrSiOx, Gd2O3, Y2O3, SiOxNy, Al2About3, AlOxNy.

The storage layer (6) made of polysilicon, or silicon nitride, or oxynitride silicon. Materials provide a storage layer (6) ability to capture and accumulate charge. Its thickness is 4.0÷300,0 nm.

A blocking layer (7) vypolnyayuthij materials, possessing a high dielectric constant. For example: Wool2O6, BaxSr1-xTiO3, BaxSr1-xNbO6, PbZnxNb1-xAbout3, PbZrxTi1-xAbout3, LiNbO3Bi1-xLaxTi3O12Bi2Sr2CuOxBi4Ti3O12, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2TaxV1-xO9, SrTi1-xNbxO3, Sr2Nb2O7, SrTa2O6, SrZrO3, PbTiO3, LaAlO3CTO3, TiO2Ta2O5, AlxTayOz, TaOxNy, HfO2, HfSiOxNy, HfOxNyEr2O3La2O3, ZrO2, ZrOxNy, ZrSiOx,

Gd2O3, Y2O3, SiOxNy, Al2About3, AlOxNy.

The thickness of the blocking layer (7) is from 7.0 to 100 nm. The thickness of the blocking layer (7) less than 7.0 nm calls the "parasitic" tunnel injection of carriers from the conductive electrode (gate (8), which leads to the decrease of the charge accumulated in the storage layer (6) by injection of a semiconductor substrate (1). The thickness of the blocking layer (7) is more 100,0 nm causes an increase in the parasitic voltage drop in the blocking layer (7) and leads to a reduction of the electric field in the first tunnel layer (4) and, as sledstvie is, to reduce the charge accumulated in the storage layer (6).

For secure storage of charge, for example, for 10 years at a temperature of 300 To a thickness of the second tunneling layer (5) and a blocking layer (7) should be approximately equal.

The shutter 8 is made of polysilicon or refractory metal (e.g. tungsten), or silicide of the refractory metal (tungsten silicide).

Flash EEPROM memory element operates as follows.

The initial threshold voltage of the flash EEPROM memory element (transistor) has a small negative value, the transistor is in a conducting state (logical "1"). Account information (logical "0") carried out by applying to the gate 8 (see drawing) relative to the substrate (1), for example, p-type conductivity, a positive voltage with an amplitude of providing the electric field in the tunneling layer (4)is equal to (9÷14)×106In/see If this is the tunneling of electrons from the substrate (1) mainly through the first tunneling layer (4) in the storage layer (6) and the subsequent capture of electrons in the storage layer (6)made of polysilicon, or silicon nitride, or oxynitride silicon. The capture of electrons leads to the accumulation of negative charge and puts the flash memory element (a transistor) in a non-conductive state because the channel of the Tr is sistor is in non-conductive state) with a high positive threshold voltage, the appropriate logical "0".

Reprogramming flash EEPROM memory element (writing a logical "1") remit the application to the shutter (8) relative to the substrate (1) negative voltage. In a storage medium (storage layer 6) and the first tunneling layer (4) creates an electric field that stimulates the care of the captured electrons in the substrate (1) and the injection of holes from the substrate (1). In the injected holes are captured in the storage layer (6) and accumulate a positive charge. The presence of a positive charge in the storage layer (6) causes a shift of the threshold voltage towards negative potential, and the transistor channel (flash EEPROM memory element) enters a conductive state, which corresponds to a logical "1".

The presence of a high dielectric constant ε at blocking layer (7) and second, additional tunneling layer (5) leads to the fact that the voltage drop across them, compared to the voltage drop across the first tunnel layer (4), will be less in ε/εSiO2times, and the voltage drop across the first tunnel layer (4) made of silicon oxide, respectively. The current injection of electrons through the tunneling layer (4) in the memory element with additional tunneling layer (5) and a blocking layer (7), which is made of a dielectric with a high diele the electrical permeability, significantly (orders of magnitude) above. This reduces the voltage and duration preprogramming pulse. At the same time quite thick second tunneling and blocking layers prevent the draining of charge from the storage layer mode to "storage". Thus, there is the achievement of the technical result for flash EEPROM memory element in which reprogramming is carried out by tunnel injection of electrons and holes from the semiconductor substrate (1) in the storage layer (6).

The decrease in voltage and duration preprogramming pulse is also possible for flash EEPROM memory element in which reprogramming is carried out by injection of hot electrons from the channel of a semiconductor substrate in the memory layer.

1. Flash memory element electrically reprogrammable permanent storage device containing a semiconductor substrate with made it from source to drain, between a source and a drain made of a tunneling layer, a storage layer, a blocking layer and a gate, wherein between the tunneling layer and storage layer is made of additional tunneling layer of a material with a high dielectric constant greater than the dielectric constant of the material of the tunneling layer is.

2. Flash memory element according to claim 1, wherein the tunneling layer is made of silicon oxide with a thickness of 1.5 to 4.0 nm.

3. Flash memory element according to claim 1, characterized in that the additional tunneling layer is made of a material with a dielectric constant of 5 to 2000, of a thickness of from 7.0 to 100.0 nm.

4. Flash memory element according to claim 3, characterized in that as the material for the additional tunneling layer used dielectric of the following list of materials: Wool2About6, BaxSr1-xTiO3, BaxSr1-xNbO6, PbZnxNb1-xO3, PbZrxTi1-xO3, LiNbO3Bi1-xLaxTi3O12Bi2Sr2CuOxBi4Ti3O12, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2TaxV1-xO9, SrTi1-xNbxAbout3,
Sr2Nb2O7, SrTa2O6, SrZrO3, PbTiO3, LaAlO3, KTaO3, TiO2Ta2O5, AlxTayOz, TaOxNy, HfO2,
HfSiOxNy, HfOxNyEr2O3La2O2, ZrO2, ZrOxNy, ZrSiOx, Gd2About3, Y2O3, SiOxNy, Al2About3, AlOxNy.

5. Flash memory element according to claim 1, characterized in that the blocking layer is made of a material with a value of d is the electric permeability of from 5 to 2000, thickness from 7.0 to 100.0 nm.

6. Flash memory element according to claim 5, characterized in that as the material for the blocking layer is used, the dielectric of the following list of materials: Wool2About6, BaxSr1-xTiO3, BaxSr1-xNbO6, PbZnxNb1-xO3, PbZrxTi1-xO3, LiNbO3,
Bi1-xLaxTi3O12Bi2Sr2CuOxBi4Ti3O12, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2TaxV1-xO9, SrTi1-xNbxO3, Sr2Nb2O7, SrTa2O6, SrZrO3, PbTiO3, LaAlO3CTO3, TiO2TA2O5, AlxTayOz, TaOxNy, HfO2, HfSiOxNy, HfOxNyEr2O3La2O3, ZrO2, ZrOxNy, ZrSiOx, Gd2O3, Y2O3, SiOxNy, Al2About3, AlOxNy.

7. Flash memory element according to claim 1, characterized in that the storage layer is made of polysilicon, or silicon nitride, or oxynitride silicon thickness from 4.0 to 300,0 nm.



 

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