Procedure of development of thick steep pitched ore bodies
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry and can be implemented at underground development of steep pitched deposits represented with unstable ore, under thickness of water-flooded sediments, excavation of which is connected with hazard of underground water inrush into mine workings. The procedure of development of thick steep pitched ore bodies consists in division of ore body into layers mined in descending order, in mining layers with cuts and in filling mined space with a solidifying material. Sections of location of cavities above filled massif and sizes of these cavities are determined by visual or instrument survey from cuts mined adjoined to the filled massif. Solidifying materials are supplied to places of after-filling in adjoined cuts using, for example a concrete pump equipped with the system of control over filling mixture supply. Cavities are after-filled in a divergent order in the direction off their boundaries, from uttermost adjoined cuts to adjoined cuts.
EFFECT: increased completeness of filling mined space, decreased space of mining auxiliary entries and increased safety of mining at development of deposits.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in underground mining steeply dipping deposits, presents unstable ores, under a layer of waterlogged deposits, jobs which involve danger of breaking the groundwater in the excavation of the mine.
The known method development steeply dipping ore bodies (RF Patent No. 2209972, publ. 10.08.2003, AS 41/22). This method involves separation of the ore body on the layers together in descending order, the recess layer treatment benches and the mined-out space hardening materials.
The disadvantage of this method when developing powerful fields, presents unstable ores, is that its implementation is not provided fully mined-out space, resulting spontaneous collapse of the roof in the benches, the dangerous degree of destruction repeatedly undermined array and a high probability of breakthroughs groundwater in the excavation.
There is a method of development of steeply dipping ore deposits (Chesnokov NI, Petrosov A.A., Shevchenko B.F. System development of uranium deposits with hardening bookmark. Atomizdat, 1975, p.142-144)adopted for the prototype. The method involves separation of the ore body in layers, working in research Institute for agriculture which administers the order, the excavation of the layers of the benches and the mined-out space hardening materials.
For the production of filling operations above the first layer by ore body or an empty rocks are filling the roadway, and in filling the array choose to unpin it itself, designed to bypass backfill material backfill drifts to the benches.
The disadvantages of this method when developing powerful fields with unstable easily collapsing ores are the difficulty of ensuring complete laying-out space without leaving cavities (voids) between filling the array and the roof of the working layer; the large extent of the special backfill excavations (stowing itself, backfill drifts and others), which are held and maintained repeatedly undermined array; increased risk of mining operations associated with the collapse of the roof in the benches and breakthroughs groundwater in the excavation of the mine.
When carrying out the known method (prototype) between the roof faces and filling the array created in the benches usually have a cavity, the height of which is measured in tens of centimeters. The presence of these cavities due to technical difficulties filling benches backfill material, and "shrinkage" zakladochnoj the array to its hardening (carburizing) under the action of gravity. The magnitude of the shrinkage reaches 3.5% or more the height of the backfill array.
The presence of cavities between the roof faces and filling the array when using the known method results:
- repeated lowerings undermined backfill and upstream of the rock mass, the increase in the degree of its destruction and, as a consequence, increasing the probability of breakouts water in the underground workings of the upstream aquifers;
- to the emergence of zones of high rock pressure over the boundary parts of the ore mass, resulting collapse of the roof and sides of the benches.
The technical result of the proposed method is to increase the fullness of the laying-out space, reducing sinking auxiliary preparatory workings and improving the safety of mining operations in the mining fields unstable easily collapsing ores under the aquifers.
The technical result is achieved that the way to develop powerful steeply dipping ore bodies produce separation of the ore body on the layers together in descending order, seizure layers carry benches, stope lay hardening materials.
According to the invention of the benches, a passable presecco to backfill array (priceon the e Zachodni), visual and instrumental observations define the regions (places) the location of the cavities above the backfill array and the sizes of these cavities produce feed hardening materials to DataBlade on Pasechnik the benches using, for example, concrete pumps, equipped with a flow regulating system of filling mixture, while DataBlade cavities are retreating in order in the direction from the boundaries of the cavities, the most remote from Pasechnik benches, Pasechnik the benches.
How to develop powerful steeply dipping ore bodies is illustrated by drawings, figures 1 and 2.
Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of DataBlade filling cavities between the array and the roof of the working layer feed hardening materials to DataBlade on Pasechnik the benches using, for example, of concrete pumps.
Figure 2 is a diagram explaining the sequence of hardening filling material cavity located between filling the array and the roof of the working layer.
Figures 1 and 2 are marked: 1 - ore array; 2 - filling the array; 3 - roof bar frame lining pricecell Zachodni; 4 - rack frame supports pricecell Zachodni; 5 - concrete pump; 6 - filling pipe; 7 - the border of the cavity above the backfill array; h is the layer thickness; and1and2, the 3and a4accordingly, the width of the first, second, third and fourth zagadki.
The method is as follows. The ore body is divided into layers with a capacity of h, which work in descending order (figure 1). The extraction of ore within the layers produced by the benches. Stope lay hardening materials. From benches, a passable presecco to backfill array 2, visual or instrumental observations define the regions the location of the cavities above the backfill array and the sizes of these cavities. So, during pricecell Zachodni width and2(1) determine the location of the cavities and the size of these cavities over filling the array created in the section width and1. When conducting pricecell Zachodni width and3determine the location of the cavities and the size of these cavities over filling the array created in the previous benches width of a1and a2. When conducting pricecell Zachodni width and4determine the location of the cavities and the size of these cavities over filling the array created in the previous benches width and2and a3.
Information about the locations of cavities over filling the array and the size obtained by visual or instrumental observations of the benches,a passable presecco to filling the array is the most reliable. This information allows to significantly increase (in comparison with known methods) completeness laying-out space, which is achieved by the correct definition for each cavity of the necessary amounts of filling mixture and knowledge of the locations of the highest points laying voids. When implementing the proposed method also provides for the possibility of Pasechnik benches constant visual monitoring of the process of DataBlade, which also increases its completeness.
Produce feed hardening materials to DataBlade on Pasechnik the benches using, for example, concrete pumps 5, equipped with a flow regulating system of filling mixture. The use of these pumps allows you to completely lay cavity of almost any size and configuration. Concrete pumps can be installed both in Pasechnik the benches and beyond.
DataBlade cavities are retreating in order (figure 2) in the direction of the borders of these cavities, the most remote from Pasechnik benches, Pasechnik the benches. In this example, at the beginning of dsaklad cavity is produced when the outlet backfilling pipe in position "b", then "C" and "e". This sequence of filling operations poses which enables you to improve the completeness bookmarks cavities due to the exclusion of occurrence in filling array of air pockets, as well as the possibility of visual control over the process of DataBlade taking into account the actual angles of spreading backfill material.
Taking into account the fact that by the time you start DataBlade is almost complete shrinkage of the main filling mass under the action of its own weight, the use of the proposed method eliminates the possibility of further filling of voids between the array and the roof layers associated with shrinkage backfill array.
The inventive method is useful for the development of steeply dipping deposits, with unstable ores and host rocks. The greatest effect from the use of the proposed method is achieved by the development of steeply dipping deposits, presents a powerful unstable deposits of ores beneath the flooded sediments rocks, jobs which involve danger of breaking the groundwater in the excavation of the mine. These fields include, for example, Yakovlevsky mine rich iron ore.
Using the proposed method allows to produce almost complete the mined-out space, which eliminates the threat of destruction undermined the mountain massif and breakthroughs water from aquifers underground mining is robotki; to reduce the frequency of wood thrown of the roof and sides of the benches; to use the benches lining cheaper and simple designs.
How to develop powerful steeply dipping ore bodies, including the separation of the ore body on the layers together in descending order, the recess of the layers of the benches and the mined-out space hardening materials, characterized in that from the benches, a passable presecco to filling the array, visual or instrumental observations define the regions the location of the cavities above the backfill array and the sizes of these cavities produce feed hardening materials to DataBlade on Pasechnik the benches using, for example, concrete pumps, equipped with a flow regulating system of filling mixture, while DataBlade cavities are retreating in order in the direction from their borders, the most remote from Pasechnik benches, Pasechnik the benches.
FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.
EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in excavation of mineral along strike with inclined layers, in forming hauling and filling-airway entries, in blast-hole drilling breakage of ore and layer-by-layer backfilling of worked-out space. Breakage of ore is performed with inclined oriented boreholes which are bored from an airway entry, where their inclined bores are arranged at an angle equal to the angle of a natural slope of loose backfilling, which is bigger, than the angle of natural slope of broken ore. Bore charging is performed to the point of cut of the inclined bore, while backfilling of the block is carried out along an up-hole; an elastic continuous shell is installed in it at the level of a backfilled layer. The elastic continuous shell is arranged at the level of the backfilling layer in a neighbour up-hole. After laying loose backfilling fast hardening solution is poured over it; after that the cycles are repeated. A shape of elastic continuous shells is accepted as close to cross-section of up-holes. The elastic continuous shells are made out of rubber-cord.
EFFECT: reduction of backfilling material cost, increased efficiency of block during stoping and safety of operations performed in block.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of development of buried water-flooded placers includes preliminary concentration of useful component of sands in lower portion of placer by means of excitation of elastic oscillations in placer sands and successive stoped excavation. A tubular shell is inserted into the placer; the height of the shell exceeds the distance from the surface to the float of the spacer. Excitation of elastic oscillations in spacer sands is performed by means of their transmitting from the surface via the tubular shell. After compressive force has been formed from interior surface of the shell onto contacting surface of covering volume of barren material and after completion of vibratory processing the hydraulic stoped excavation of lower part of the placer is carried out; washing water is supplied via sprayers assembled at walls of the tubular shell and pulp is withdrawn via soil intake openings located at walls of the tubular shell between the sprayers. Also after completion of stoped excavation of lower part of the placer the stoped space is backfilled by supplied backfilling pulp and water withdrawal. Further backfilling pulp is formed from mixture of water with barren rock, for instance, with tailings of sand concentration. After backfilling of excavated space pressure onto surface of covering volume of waste material contacting with interior surface of the shell is dropped to zero and the shell is extracted.
EFFECT: increased selectivity of excavation.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, particularly to development of steep ore bodies by underground method. After driving workings of discharge along the center of the block there is arranged a recess on thickness of the ore body transversely to the strike of deposit. Descending complexes of boreholes are drilled from the recess with symmetrically arranged horizontal bores in a hanging layer of the ore body parallel to the plane of ore body occurring. Drilling, charging and blasting of bores is performed stage-by-stage in the upward direction leaving a temporary massif of height h; further descending fan-like complexes of bores are drilled in the temporary massif, then they are charged and blasted. After each cycle of drilling, charging and blasting partial discharge of muck is performed. Then a canopy is formed in a hanging wall of the ore body by means of filling the produced space with hardening backfilling material through the recess; when the material has hardened, under protection of the formed canopy there is performed working of the block store; also height h of the temporary massif is accepted as minimal radius Rmin of a boring rod curve.
EFFECT: reduced impoverishment at working chamber stores; increased efficiency of block during mining excavation and reduced general labour intensiveness at working of chamber stores.
SUBSTANCE: method includes development of blind ore deposit under guarded object located on earth surface. Before commencement of works there are defined parameters of developed area which facilitates a uniform stress field. Ore body is divided into stories; preparing-cutting, drilling and under-cutting mine workings are performed on the stories; then there is performed excavation of stores of an upper story within the boundaries of the defined contour by system with open developed area. A preventing cushion is left in funnels of outlet. Stores of a lower story are worked out with chambers where temporary stoops are left. Stores of the chamber are destroyed onto compensation slot worked out in the central part of the chamber. The chamber is undercut with a high trench undercutting the tilt angles of borders of which are equal to not less, than natural ore slope value. Ore massif is drilled around with rows of boreholes arranged in a fan shape. By explosion of not charged upper parts of boreholes the upper part of the chamber is arc shaped.
EFFECT: facilitating more complete ore excavation at development and facilitating safety of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to underground development of ore edge seams, particularly of thick and medium deposits. The method includes underground development of deposits 8 with excavation of ore in stope blocks and complete dressing of excavated ores at a concentration plant located underground, transportation and lifting of ore to a receiving hopper of the plant. Rejects of underground dressing are placed in open areas as fill, while produced concentrate is surfaced. To provide construction and operational conditions of underground concentration plant there is performed driving of mine shafts 1 for ventilation, lifting (lowering) of service personnel, of dressing equipment, materials, rejects, concentrates, transport, ventilation and auxiliary mine excavations for relocation of mineral raw material along the process stages of concentrating, for fresh air supply to work places and for withdrawal of polluted air. Process chambers 2, 3 are erected wherein dressing equipment is installed; also there are constructed storage chambers 9 for intermediate storage of current rejects. Location of the underground concentration plant is chosen from the side of the bottom layer of the deposit beyond influence area of seismic loads caused by blasting at ore excavation, along the directions of strike of deposit, transversely the strike and on specified depth after detailed geo-mechanic prospecting and considering minimum of costs. Depending on the output, rejects of concentration are placed in open areas in form of fills, the rest part is lifted to the surface. In order to significantly reduce volumes of the storage chambers, treatment of stope blocks is performed in layers with stowing of each processed layer with concentration rejects. The rational sphere of this invention implementation is underground development of ore deposits, particularly in mountainous areas, in densely populated areas, in regions with adverse climate, and also for deposits occurring at a considerable depth.
EFFECT: upgraded efficiency of underground development of edge seam thick and medium ore deposits and safe operation of underground concentration plant within long period.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to mining in particular, to underground mining of steep mineral deposits. The method includes penetrating of development workings and temporary workings, working off in limits of mine section of a mineral stocks from primordial chambers and chamberlets using drilling-and-blasting technique, infilling of the fulfilled room of primordial chambers and chamberlets with lagging. Breakage of stocks of 4 primordial and 3 secondary chambers is performed using general series of hole fans. Breakage of stocks of 4 primordial chambers is performed using a method of holes undercharge with water soluble gel tamping. Then partial discharge of ore from 4 primordial chambers in the conduit is performed followed by lagging of 4 primordial chambers with a hardening mixture. After reaching standard hardness by lagging, washover of the remained holes and/or their parts with water is performed followed by discharge of the remained ore from the conduit of discharge 5, and chambers 3 of the second sequential queue are worked off. Width b of primary 4 chambers is defined from the formula: b = hva 2×ρd ×sinα/1800×σt, where hbl - vertical altitude of the block, m; ρd - density of the filling material of primordial chamber, kg/m3; σt - tension strength of the filling material of the primordial chamber, MPa; a - degree of dip of an ore body, grades.
EFFECT: increased range of application on steep and high-dipping fields, in ores of mean and small stability, higher performance of working off of the operational block during clearing excavation of chambers of the second sequential queue.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and can be used in mining ore bodies under protection of flexible covering. The method involves creating niches in the ore body, making down holes at the level of ore occurrence up to the lowest mark of a block, placing guideways and lag ropes, fastening them in the upper part. The method further involves boring a fan in the top wall of the ore body, in a parallel plane to occurrence of an ore body. On one charged fan of holes located in the centre against other fans, two single fans After loading the holes with explosive and detonations release of muck pile is performed. Further on, winches are mounted in the top niches, attaching lag cables, then the directing cables in the conduit are pull and used together with lag cables for stretching flexible cover in an upward direction. After stretching the covering is fixed in the top part of the block performing workout of stocks of the block.
EFFECT: increased productivity of the block during second mining, decreased labour iousness of flexible covering installation and decreased impoverishment while mining chamber stocks.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to the field mining using thermal fragmentation for the extraction of ore from narrow veins. The method of ore extraction from a vein with opposite side walls involves drilling of pilot holes in the vein directly, with certain pitch along the vein, reaming of the pilot holes by thermal fragmentation until the vein is fragmented, and removal of fragmented ore along the vein. The pitch is determined by the vein width. Along a part of the vein, the pilot holes are reamed gradually according to the given configuration, each second pilot hole is reamed in a greater degree, for its connection to the opposite adjacent pilot holes reamed earlier. The pilot holes are drilled and reamed in a given sequence, starting from drilling of the first group of three pilot holes, the first and third holes from the first group are reamed before reaming the second hole from this group. After the first group of holes, a group of two holes is drilled, the second hole from the second group being reamed before reaming the first hole from the second group. Fragmented ore is removed by suction.
EFFECT: profitable mining of narrow ore veins.
7 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes the subterranean development of field with use of the chamber systems with the solid stowing and following refinement of the ore mass at the ore mill in the following stages. At the beginning, the ore recovering from the first-stage chamber (4) is performed. The ore pickings from the first-stage chamber (4) are processed to concentrate and final tailings. The tailings are processed to pellets. From the pellets, two workflows are formed, the first pellet flow is exposed to the heap leaching, and the second pellet flow is conditioned until the required mechanical characteristics. On completion of the leaching process, the pellets of the first workflow are mixed with binding agent and water, to receive the fill mixture, the fill mixture is sent to the first-stage chambers (4) until filling; after the fill mixture is solidified, the ore recovering from the second-stage chamber (5) is performed, the chamber's bottom is strengthened and prepared with the solidifying mixture which is prepared using the waste from the heap leaching; pellets of the second workflow are sent to the chamber with their following subterranean leaching.
EFFECT: comprehensive and complex development of minerals and ecologic-economic effects are provided.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: working method includes drifting of preparatory breakoffs, slicing of stope inclined strips, inclined according to sloping angle of ore body, beginning with hanging layer directed to bottom wall, ore breaking with explosive holes. Breakage, transportation and formation releasing from rocky bands in ore body are carried out separately through the flanking debris chute. Previous slice after corresponding preparation is filled with weak solid stowing, which provides hardiness of its walls, at that interblock pillars are eliminated with leaving of free technological space between ore mining face roof and horizontal surface of previous slice filling mass. At first one excavates low layer of the block with entry ways at whole its length, fills worked entry ways with hard solidifying mixture in particular order with preliminary armature setting up, so that after the complete excavation of the layer in-situ concrete slab is appeared. It performs the functions of ceiling while debugging of underlying block reservoir.
EFFECT: effectiveness improvement of ore excavation and safety of stopes working.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes conditional separation of levels on chambers, which are made in form of stretched upwards hexahedron and placed in staggered order, at each lower level with displacement for half of chamber width in comparison to upper one. Preparation of each lower level is performed by driving field drift of main level, from which entries to ore deposit and orts to hanging side of deposit are driven, from orts ascending drifts are made and cut with cutting slits. For extraction of field resources a field sub-level drift is driven, entries and ore sub-level drift near lying side, from where orts are driven, from drift well fans are drilled and main resources of level are exploded through cutting slit. Outlet of ore from each chamber is performed through ends of outlet mines in main and intermediate levels. After removing main resources inter-level block is destroyed and ore from it is removed through entries of main level.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.