Method of 3d-sea electrical exploration of oil and gas deposits

FIELD: physics, measurements.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to exploration geophysics. In compliance with this invention, bottom stations are installed on sea bottom along the line, i.e. profile, covering the area to be explored to form the observation profile (OP), the said station are spaced 1000 m apart. A ship incorporating a generating dipole is directed through the centre of one of electrode separations, close to the centre of explored area area, perpendicular to OP, to form an excitation profile (EP). The electric field magnitudes picked off the bottom station receiving electrodes are referenced to the centre of distance between the appropriate separations of aforesaid bottom station to form an area system of measurement profiles (MO). A one-dimensional inversion is performed for every MO. Proceeding from the data obtained, a 3D geoelectric model of the medium is constructed in units of specific resistance, or specific resistance and parametres of polarisability. Now, proceeding from their abnormalities it is possible to judge upon the presence of a deposit, its position in plan and depth. The ship can carry out researches both with horizontal generating dipole towed on sea surface, and with vertical or horizontal dipole towed on over sea bottom.

EFFECT: reliable forecasting at depths from 0 to 2000 m and deeper.

9 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of exploration Geophysics, and is intended for forecasting of hydrocarbon deposits on the continental shelf at depths from 0 to 2000 meters and more.

Now for Maritime exploration of hydrocarbon deposits are widely used various methods associated with the impact on the seabed of the pulses of electromagnetic fields, registration of changes of electromagnetic parameters of benthic species and the analysis of the received data to detect existing anomalies and determine their nature (EN 2236028, 2004; SU 1122998, 1984; SU 1798666, 1996; SU 1434385, 1988; US 4298840, 1981; US 4617518, 1986), which are using different research complexes instruments and equipment (IR).

For example, the famous SU 1434385, 1988, which proposed IR, consisting of a spread on the bottom of the supply line, the length of which is 5 to 10 times greater than the specified depth research, it is connected to the generator and sensor measurements, connected to the measuring equipment. After setting up the equipment and compensation signals of the natural field and own the polarization of the electrodes of the sensors in line excite an electric field by passing current pulses, and at the end of each pulse interval time is measured corresponding signals induced polarization and on the basis of the obtained results make the modeling section. Under taccom method is the low performance.

Previously the authors have developed a technology implementation survey method (EN 0048645, 2005), namely that on Board posted by the generator and block the formation of the exciting field (FFT)to generate the pulses in discrete mode and measuring equipment and auxiliary devices, and FFT is associated with submerged vertical dipole with the feed electrode, the lower end of which is at a distance of not more than 100 m from the seabed. For reception of signals using the set of bottom stations (DS), which uses standard electric or magnetic bottom station with flexible rods serving to accommodate receiving electrodes. Such bottom station, in particular, is described in US 5770945, 1998 or in GB 2402745, 2003. Stations have under the traditional scheme, so that at least three stations were located in areas of potential fields, and some stations were outside.

The disadvantage of this solution is its universalist, namely the inability to carry out exploration at small depths, since the used vertical dipole should have a length not less than a few hundred meters.

Closest to the claimed previously developed by the authors of complex electro-based vessel with a horizontal dipole and ground stations, the United States is x "spits" (EN 53460, 2005). The complex operates as follows. Before setting plants on the bottom synchronize the clocks installed on the generator device and ground stations, then the generator line towed behind the vessel on the sea surface, the excitation of the field exercise alternating rectangular pulses with software asked by duration and duty cycle, with a Suite of multi-channel sediment stations with a uniform pitch along the whole study profile register scan signals in time, recording the potential difference and the spatial derivatives of the electromagnetic field, as in the time of the pulses, and in his absence, and the analysis of signals reflect not only primary but also secondary fields in time and in particular, the features of change of recession, and is defined as the resistance of the medium, and its polarization characteristics upon which to build profiles of the examined area, the anomalies are judged on the presence of hydrocarbon deposits.

However, this solution is not possible to obtain three-dimensional shooting deposits, which reduces the accuracy of the results.

The technical challenge was to create a way marine survey method that can improve the reliability of GPR data by creating opportunities to get inthe works of three-dimensional image deposits in the values of resistivity and polarization characteristics of the environment.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that at the bottom of the sea line (profile)that overlap the study area, placed at a distance of 500-1000 m from each other benthic station, the position of which is firmly fixed with the help of instruments, resulting profile monitoring (MON). After forming the PN generator vessel is directed through the center of MO, moving perpendicular to the profile observations. In generating the dipole generated electromagnetic pulses, creating a profile of the excitation (PV). The obtained values of the electric field at the receiving electrodes benthic stations in the analysis of parameters related to the middle of the distance between the centers of the generator dipole and the corresponding spacing of the bottom station (point of entry), forming areal system profile measurement (PI), for each of the profiles measurements carried out one-dimensional inversion. On the basis of the received data receive, depending on the shape of the generated current, three-dimensional geoelectric model of the environment in terms of specific resistance or resistivity and polarizability parameters, the anomalies are judged on the availability of deposits, its position in plan and depth. The vessel may conduct studies with a horizontal electric dipole towed on the surface, and vertical or horizontal dipole, buck the dummy at the bottom.

During the formation of ROS are generated depending on the task bipolar rectangular current pulses with a pause between them or harmonic oscillations of current from one or more harmonics. The position of the receiving electrodes on the profile at shallow depths of the sea is controlled by the placement of the GPS system, and at great depths in the system of underwater acoustic binding is controlled by the position of multicomponent seabed stations. When driving the generator vessel on the profile of the excitation control position with respect to the center of the generator dipole according to the GPS end of the vessel and buoy when working with generator dipole towed on the surface, or according to the vessel's GPS system and underwater navigation when working with dipole towed at the bottom.

To increase the number of observations of the actions of the ship repeat repeatedly parallel courses, separated from the original distance, times the length of the spacing of the receiving line, creating several PV and forming several parallel MO.

The General scheme illustrating variants of formation of MO and RO, is shown in figure 1 "a-b", where "a" is work in shallow water in the transit zone, "b" and "C" - deep work with horizontal and vertical dipoles, respectively. It uses the following symbols: 1 - surface buoy 2 - Donne the E. of the station, 3 - receiving electrodes, 4 - generating electrodes, 5 - generator vessel, 6 - terminal buoy generator dipole with plementation GPS, 7 - deepwater apparatus lighthouse-responder system underwater navigation, 8 - marine GPS receiver equipment, o is the centre of the generator dipole.

Figure 2 shows the principle of the formation of profile measurements. For this purpose, the measured values of the electric field on pairs of receiving electrodes benthic stations belong to the middle of the distance between the centers of the generator dipole and the corresponding spacing of the receiving line or bottom station (period of record), forming areal system profile measurement (PI). Conducting one-dimensional inversion for profile measurements, receive, depending on the shape of the generated current picture of the environment in terms of specific resistance or resistivity and polarizability parameters, the anomalies are judged on the availability of deposits, its position in plan and depth.

For example, MO is formed 2N+1 deliveries of the receiver lines in length 2L or the same number of multi-stations located at a distance 2L from each other. Place the origin at the center MONDAY, giving the axis "y" of the profile and the axis "x" on the profile of the excitation. In this coordinate system the position of the centers receiving deliveries (position of bottom stations) on the axis "y" is about regulates values 0; +/-2L; +/-4L;... +/-2NL. If at the beginning of the PV center generator dipole "o" is located at the point with coordinates-2X0, and at the end of the PV at the point 2X1, classifying the entry point to the middle point between the centers of the generator dipole and the corresponding spacing of the receiving line, we get the following coordinates of the begin and end of the profile measurement:

For the 0-th spacing - [(-X0,0), (X1,0)].

For +/- 1 Overspeed - [(-X0,L), (X1,L)] and [(-X0,-L), (X1,-L)], respectively.

For +/-2N1-th spacing - [(-X0,NL), (X1,NL)] and [(-X0,-NL), (X1,-NL)], respectively.

As can be seen from figure 2, the PV offset along the axis of MO in an amount divisible by 2L, increases the number of observations in the Central region of the study area. A similar result can be obtained with the simultaneous formation of several MO.

The above-described technology, received the code name "method of the 3D marine survey method", is implemented as follows.

In shallow water before starting work, using auxiliary boats along the observation profile (MO) receiving lines are arranged so that the receiving electrodes 3 were placed in predefined points of the profile. The position of the electrodes 3 is controlled according to the GPS receiver-indicators. Indigenous all receiver lines are connected to a bottom stations 2 that before putting on the bottom are initialized and synchronized with the clock gene is atomnogo dipole reference signals (e.g., PPS signal of the GPS system). Can be equipped with one or more profiles of the observations. Some stations with receiving lines can be placed at zero depth (Bank).

When working at great depths arrangement of stations along the MO directly with the side of the generator vessel, and their binding is carried out according to the acoustic channel.

After placement of bottom stations (forming PN) generator vessel 5 goes to the starting point of the excitation profile (PV), the direction of which is orthogonal to the direction of MO and passes through the center of one of the spacings MO.

The excitation of the medium is generating a dipole which is towed behind the vessel on the water surface or near the bottom. It can be used as a vertical dipole. One MO can use several parallel PV to increase the number of observations.

Upon completion of the PV is the rise of receiver lines and ground stations on Board information from the bottom stations is overwritten in the on-Board computer for further processing and the whole cycle repeats.

According to the news channel bottom stations and the results of the planned anchor center generator dipole formed profiles measurements.

The obtained results are processed and through simulation retrieves information about change is how resistance and settings induced polarization with depth rocks along all profiles dimensions.

Obtaining three-dimensional geoelectrical medium model reduces the complexity of the research and to improve the accuracy of the forecast.

1. Way marine electrical exploration of oil and gas fields, including the placement of bottom stations in the area of research and the formation of profile observations using mnogorazemny bottom receiver lines, the excitation of electromagnetic fields using generator dipole placed in the zone of location of stations, recording signals of the electric field at the receiving electrodes benthic stations, removing from the stations received information about the changes of the electric field upon excitation of the rock bottom current generator dipole modeling profile of these rocks and making predictions about the presence of hydrocarbons, characterized in that the bottom station is placed on line, the overlapping area of study at a distance of 500-1000 m from each other, and the boat with the generator is conducted perpendicular to the profile through the center of one of the dressing-down profile of observations close to the centre of the study area, and include the results of measurements of the values of the electromagnetic field in pairs of receiving electrodes benthic stations to the midpoint of the segment connecting the centers of the generator is th dipole and the corresponding spacing of profile observations, form of these data areal system profile measurements for each profile measurements carried out one-dimensional inversion and build volume of the geoelectric model of the environment, based on the anomalies of parameters which are judged on the presence or absence of hydrocarbons.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the position of the receiving electrodes on the profile at shallow depths of the sea is controlled by the placement of the GPS system, and at great depths in the system of underwater acoustic binding is controlled by the position of multicomponent seabed stations.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the generator vessel on the profile of the excitation control position with respect to the center of the generator dipole according to the GPS end of the vessel and buoy when working with generator dipole towed on the surface, or according to the vessel's GPS system and underwater navigation when working with dipole towed at the bottom.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the lifting of the parameters is conducted repeatedly with the movement of the vessel perpendicular to the profile observations on the length, times the length of the spacing of the receiving line, from the original course.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the excitation of the field exercise bipolar rectangular current pulses with pauses between them.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the excitation of the I carry the current, consisting of one or more harmonics.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the profile of the observation form using multi-bottom stations.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the excitation of the field carry out horizontal dipole towed near the bottom, and the position of its center control system according to underwater navigation.

9. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the excitation of the field carry out a vertical dipole.



 

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