Chipboard

FIELD: wood industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to production of chipboards. The board includes bottom and top surface layers with fine particles, and an intermediate layer with more coarse particles is placed between these surface layers. The intermediate layer has various density in the areas, where the board is supposed to be attached to an other object. The chipboard production method includes even distribution of fines followed by generation of the first particle matrix to form a bottom surface layer, distribution of more coarse particles followed by generation of the second particle matrix above the fine particle matrix using a distribution device so that at least in one zone the coarse particles are applied in a more thick layer than at least in one surrounding area, even distribution of the fine particles followed by generation of the third coarse particle matrix to form a top surface layer and compression of the first, second and third matrices, whereby the intermediate layer thickness remains virtually unchanged, so the intermediate layer has various density.

EFFECT: produced chipboards feature increased soundproof and heat-insulating properties, and light weight, that facilitates efficient shipment of the processed boards.

9 cl, 13 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to particle boards having characteristics, and also relates to a method of their production.

The present invention finds application in the manufacture of chipboard, but are not limited to such, as it can be used for the fabrication of other types, based on the use of wood such as MDF and OSB (oriented slab of twisted fibers or reinforcing strands). In turn, the plate containing the wood used for furniture manufacturing, and construction.

The level of technology

Currently, commercially available particle Board traditional designs contain one upper and one lower layer of fine wood particles and one intermediate layer of larger wood particles. Such particleboard manufactured under pressure and heat using adhesive as a binder. These wood particles may be of wood or other lignocellulosic material and may constitute, for example, particles, cut with a sharp instrument from round logs, sawdust or wood chip particles. Examples of non-timber justicialismo material are flax straw, hemp and bagasse is.

At present, the intermediate layer plate made of particles with uniformly distributed volume densities in order chipboard had the same quality across its entire surface. Such intermediate layer may have a density value of approximately 660-700 kg/m3.

In order to get particleboard traditional design, the fraction of small particles, which are pre-mixed with a binder, are first applied to the tape and distribute it evenly over the thickness of the ribbon, the so-called surface particles.

The fraction of large particles, also called internal particles, which is similarly mixed with the binder, then evenly applied a thick layer on top of the smaller particles. The upper outer layer fraction of fine particles is applied to the uniformly distributed fraction of large particles, forming a matrix composed of particles. Then this matrix is compressed, thereby displacing a large part of the air trapped between the particles.

The specified matrix particles, or the particle mass, is subjected to compression under the influence of pressure and heat. After squeezing under the pressure plate acquires firmness of texture, and its cool. And finally, the flat surface of the obtained plate is subjected to sandblast treatment order-the Oia faded spots and irregularities. In this form the plate supply, and the recipient can apply a suitable surface layer during further processing.

However, the known method the disadvantage of the high cost of the intermediate layer materials, such as particles and binder. Besides the known particle Board difficult, which causes difficulties during transportation and excessive impact on the environment.

Preferably, wood stove had a sound-proof and heat-insulating properties, because it can also be used in construction.

This task is achieved by the above-mentioned wood stove that includes characteristic elements specified in the characterizing part of paragraph 1 of the claims. Thus, the resulting fiberboard almost the same thickness, which in some parts has a smaller amount of material, resulting in lower material costs and weight plates.

Convenient to have such an intermediate layer had a higher density in those areas where particleboard must be attached to another object.

Thanks particleboard can be used, for example, Cabinet doors, in which fasteners, such as hinges and handles, set in estah increased density of the intermediate layer plate. Other parts of the intermediate layer plates are more porous and therefore are lightweight in weight, which contributes to the economic efficiency of transport of processed wood fibre boards.

Alternatively, the intermediate layer provide at least one reinforcing strand formed from particles having a higher density than at least one of its surrounding portion of the intermediate layer.

Otherwise, at least one edge of the particle Board coincides with a part of the intermediate layer having a density higher than that of another portion of the intermediate layer.

Thus, the edge area particle Board can be used for mounting various types of objects, and the edges can be processed on the machine just like an ordinary particle Board, while maintaining the same strength as that of the plate, whereas the proposed particleboard can be made more lightweight.

Preferably, the intermediate layer in its cross-section had at least one portion of reduced density located between at least two parts of a high density, provided with reinforcing strands.

Thus, particleboard can be produced with fewer cha the particles, and a binder, what contributes to the reduction of cost of production and the cost of the plate. Particleboard can be produced while reducing periods of stay under pressure due to lower density of certain parts of the intermediate layer of particles. This leads to an increase in production capacity. These areas of low density are limited to those areas of particle Board that are not used for installation of items fixing accessories, connecting loops, etc. This leads to a reduction in transport costs when transporting processed wood fibre boards.

At least one part of the plate, provided with reinforcing strands that are made up of particles, and having a higher density compared with other surrounding parts of the plate, it is located at some distance from the two edge portions of the intermediate layer and between those.

Therefore, particleboard can profitably be handled by such cutting plates in the part that contains reinforcing strands, so that the hinges, fittings and other accessories can be attached to the edge region of such particle Board in exactly the same way and for the same strength, as in the case of chipboard traditional design. In addition, the DOP is leitlinie parts of high density can be arranged between outer parts, equipped with reinforcing strands, in order to increase the strength of particle Board, providing a uniform thickness of such particle Board.

The objective of the invention is also achieved by a method of obtaining set forth in the preamble of the claims, which includes the stage referred to in paragraph 6 of the claims. Using this method achieved a certain distribution of particles in a chipboard made in accordance with the present invention, which has the same thickness as a traditional wood stove, but it has the advantage, as expressed in the reduction of consumption of materials for making it, and getting a lighter finished product.

On the other hand, this method of manufacture is characterized by partial dosing fraction of larger particles for distribution, pre-pressing this partially dosed fraction of larger particles and dispensing of the remaining amount to form a second matrix particles.

This method reduces the risk of sedimentation of particles from the thicker part of the matrix, and therefore the number of particles can be concentrated in a more limited area, so the rest of this intermediate layer can be obtained with a smaller number of particles, achieving high rentabel the STI production.

The proposed method of distribution of fraction of larger particles is preferably characterized by an ordered dispersion deep particles through a separate dispensers in the form of reinforcing strands of the specified width.

This way you can ensure that the distribution of particles with the ability to regulate the thickness of the thin part of the matrix of the intermediate layer, covering its thickest part. It also means that you can very accurately determine the number of particles in the intermediate layer.

The proposed method of distribution of fraction of larger particles properly characterized oriented dispensing of a larger number of particles in the supply of reinforcing strands of the matrix by the elements of machine design for controlled distribution of particles.

In the proposed method, the distribution of particles is achieved by an adjustable device distribution, which is profitable from the point of view of production costs. For easy operation this device is designed so that its operation can be easily operated from the control areas, ensuring an even distribution of particles in the intermediate layer of the matrix and, therefore, the same density if the customer will require a plate of traditional design.

Alternative options the ante proposed method is characterized by the possibility distribution of the fraction of larger particles by means of replaceable modular units to a device for the distribution of particles.

Get on the modular system particle Board can be adapted to the desired dimensions of the finished product, such as, for example, the width of the Cabinet door where the hinges are attached on one edge, and the handle is on the opposite edge.

Description of the drawings

Hereinafter the present invention will be described in greater detail using the attached drawings, in which:

figure 1 shows a schematic representation of particle Board in accordance with the first embodiment of the invention;

figure 2 shows a schematic representation of particle Board in accordance with the second embodiment of the invention;

figure 3 shows a schematic representation of a first example of a machine for particle dispersion, comprising a device for the distribution of the particle;

on figa and fig.4b shows a schematic representation of a second example of a machine for particle dispersion, comprising a device for the distribution of the particle;

on figa and fig.5b shows a schematic representation of a modular system for the distribution of deep particle;

on figs shows a schematic cross-section of different parts of the matrix particles having a different number of particles in the intermediate layer;

in Fig.6 and Fig.7 shows a schematic drevesnostruzhechnaja, pressed until tender in the process of further processing;

on figa and fig.8b are schematic image of a hot press, designed for compression of the matrix particles; and

figure 9 shows a schematic illustration of particle Board, shown in figure 1, with attached pieces of furniture.

Disclosure of inventions

The present invention will now be discussed with reference to the drawings. For clarity omitted details that are not relevant to this invention.

The term "matrix particles" refers to mass, composed of coated with adhesive and distributed by volume of the matrix surface and deep particles to hot pressing. The term "wood stove" applies or to permanently pressed chipboard, coming out of the hot press production line, or to the chipboard, which is cut according to customer specifications for details of length 'L' and width 'B'.

Figure 1 schematically shows an isometric image of a particle Board according to the first variant embodiment of the invention.

Fiberboard 1 is made of wood particles, also called chips 3, which is dried and sorted on the screen with more fine particles 4 and larger particles 5. H is sticy each type 4, 5 then mixed with the adhesive in accordance with the requirements of the method of coating the adhesive. Then covered with adhesive particles 4, 5 put layers on the tape, forming the matrix of the particles, which is subjected to a preliminary pressing fortresse and hot-pressing in a hot press 8 (see figa), acting on a matrix of pressure and heat at a temperature of about 170-230C and resulting in the finally pressed particleboard 1. This finally pressed particleboard 1 is cut off and cool before you pack in the foot. The surface can then be processed on the machine and cut the workpiece particle Board 1 according to the technical requirements of the customer on the details of length 'L' and width 'B', providing the desired surface appearance of the finished product.

Wood stove 1 contains upper and lower surface layers 9, 11, consisting of the fraction of fine particles 4, the so-called "surface particles, and the intermediate layer 13 is almost the same thickness 't', located between the surface layers 9, 11. The intermediate layer 13 includes the fraction of large particles 5, the so-called "deep particles, and the intermediate layer 13 is located in the plane of 'R' and has a certain width 'In' and a length 'L' in the longitudinal direction.

Because drevesnostruzhechnye the I plate 1 is equipped with two external valve parts 15, consisting of deep particle, and one part 17 of the reduced density located between the reinforcing portions 15, the intermediate layer 13 has a different density in the cross section, in longitudinal section and in a plane 'p'. Deep particles in the reinforcement parts 15 are tightly Packed in accordance with packing density of the intermediate layer in the traditional chipboard, i.e. approximately 650-700 kg/m3. Deep particles in section 17, between the reinforcing parts, less densely Packed than in the reinforcement parts 15, and have a density value 350-500 kg/m3. Therefore, the part 17 with a deep particles located between the reinforcing portions 15, has a reduced weight and requires less material, such as particles and the adhesive, while the thickness 't' (see also Fig.9) remains constant. Consequently, the depth of particles in section 17, located between the reinforcing portions 15, is compressed to a lesser extent than the depth of the particles of the reinforcing portions 15, which provides a more porous intermediate layer 13 in the area between the reinforcing portions 15. Part 17 contains a greater number of larger air inclusions than reinforcing part 15. This more porous portion forms the thickness of the particle Board. This saves material, mainly wood stove 1 acquires improved zvukoizolyator the district and insulation qualities compared to traditional wood stoves.

Edge areas 18 particle Board 1 coincide with areas of high density of the intermediate layer, that is, the reinforcing portions 15. This means that the edge sections 18 particle Board 1 can be used to attach different pieces of hardware, such as handles, hinges, locks, etc. and can also handle on plate edge milling machine in the same way as traditional process particleboard. The manufacture of particle Board 1 is cost-effective, and transport costs are reduced.

Figure 2 schematically shows an isometric image of the particle Board 1 according to the second variant embodiment of the invention.

The intermediate layer 13 particle Board 1 has a different density in the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction so that the intermediate layer 13 has an extended portion 21, formed from particles with a higher density than the density of the particles in the surrounding part 22. The extended portion 21 having a higher density than the surrounding portion 22 is located between the two edge sections 18 of the intermediate layer 13. Particleboard 1 can be used in cases where the accessories, such as pens and the like, is mounted in the center of the particle Board 1. Particleboard 1, the image is defined in figure 2, you can also cut in the center so that could end surface, which allows ordinary processing for edge trimming machine.

Figure 3 shows schematically a first example of a machine for scattering particles 23 containing a distribution device 25. Using adjustable distribution elements 27, the appropriate device 25 provides the distribution of the fraction of large particles 5 by direct dispersion of larger particles 5 in the places where will be located the reinforcing part 15. Each distribution element 27 for the distribution of particles 5, forming a reinforcing part 15 contains the nozzle 29, 29', United by a tube 31 with the container (not shown) covered with adhesive particles 5 of the fraction of large particles.

Each nozzle 29, 29' can be moved along and across the location of the reinforcing portions 15. The nozzle 29', in the heart, in this case turned up and not used. The second nozzle 33, designed to cover the entire width of the matrix particles 7, takes the remaining depth of the particles 5. When one reinforcing portion 15 is placed in the intermediate layer 13, in order to modify the characteristics of particle Board in accordance with customer requirements, the operator (not shown) to the control and p is the displacement of 35 translates the Central nozzle 29' into position for the distribution of the underlying particles. The operator adjusts the throttle valve 37, to submit a certain number of particles 5 in accordance with the speed of the conveyor belt, 'v' with the matrix particles 7 and the nozzle 29, 29' is moved by the cylinder 30 or worm screws and other devices. Reinforcing strands of different widths can be obtained by replacing the nozzles.

On figa schematically presents a top view, and fig.4b - side view of the second example of a machine for scattering particles 23 containing a distribution device 25. The first diffusing nozzle 39' evenly delivers the surface of the particles 4 fraction of fine particles of synthetic tape 40. Instead of synthetic tape you can also use sheet metal or wire. A large fraction of the depth of the particles 5 is applied on the upper conveyor belt 41 or evenly distributed layer over the entire area, or evenly distributed layer only in certain parts and distribute rotating distribution roller 43, provided with holes 45 for supplying depth of the particles 5 on the top layer of the surface of the particles 4. The openings 45 can be adjusted, and this adjustment is made from the control room (which is not shown in the drawing). By regulating the area of the holes 45 of the distribution roller 43 can serve a greater number of particles 5 on the surface of the particles 4, h is usually used to form the reinforcing portion 15. Thanks to this feature, the flow depth of the particles 5 can be controlled in such a way that they fit strands of the same or varying width with a given distance from each other. Forpress 47, equipped with a roller 49, which can ascend and descend, compressed matrix particles 7 before the second dispersing nozzle 39 causes the upper surface layer 11 on the intermediate layer 13. Then the matrix particles 13 on the conveyor belt move to hot press 8 (see figa and fig.8b).

On figa and fig.5b schematically shows an example of a modular system for the distribution of the underlying particles. On figa depicts the formation of a matrix of particles 7, which contains five parts of the reinforcing strands 15, the intermediate layer 13 through the first modular block 51', includes adjustable elements 53 machine for particle dispersion. On fig.5b depicted the second modular unit 51 includes items 53 to the depth distribution of particles in accordance with the desired width of the processed particle Board 1, where the location of the edge regions of the processed particle Board 1 for mounting objects fittings 52 must match the reinforcing portions 15. On fig.5b shows how particleboard 1 is made with four parts of reinforcing strands 15, and two in the morning part of the reinforcing strands in size wider than the external parts of the reinforcing strands 15. Width there can be obtained three particle Board 1 of the finally compressed particle Board 1. Synthetic strip 40 serves as the Foundation and transports the matrix particles in the direction of 'v'. This synthetic tape can also be made of plates of sheet metal or wire. Customer requirements to a chipboard 1 can be met by changing the modular units 51', 51", consistent with the modular system. The elements 53 machine for particle dispersion are adjustable both vertically and horizontally and is designed in the form of plow elements.

On figs schematically presents a cross-section of different sections A-F of the matrix particles 7 having different numbers of underlying particles in the intermediate layer 13, and these sections A-F re shown in fig.5b.

On fig.5d presents another variant implementation of the present invention, where elements 153 machine for particle dispersion are adjustable in the x - and z-direction for the deep scattering particles in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction, with the result that the finished chipboard 1 will have a higher density in those places where it is planned to produce fastening objects fittings 52 to all CROs the Cam plate. This drawing shows a stationary plate, which is covered with particles. When using a moving conveyor belt elements 153 machine for particle dispersion can be made movable in the transverse direction by moving elements 153 in the transverse direction (direction 'z'), in the direction of movement of the conveyor belt to such an extent, in order to obtain transverse reinforcement strand of the dispersed particles. Diagonal strands can be obtained in the same way. For example, then particleboard 1 made by receiving the side walls of the Cabinet, it is possible to make so that all edge areas such side wall of the Cabinet will have a higher density for fastening the top and bottom fittings, shelves, back wall, etc. At low density (350 kg/m3) a middle layer between the parts with reinforcing strands edging pieces, coming across a direction of arrangement of the reinforcing strands may also be performed with transverse reinforcing strands 15 so that the edge surface can be putty or paint as the final processing.

The first element 55' machines for dispersion of particles initially uniformly causes covered by the adhesive surface of the particles 4 on synthetic tape 40 in a first matrix particles 7'. Evenly distribution the major fraction of fine particles 4, forming a first matrix particles 7'constitute the bottom surface layer 9 in the finished chipboard 1. Then, as a partial distribution, the underlying particles applied to the surface of the particles, uniformly applied through the second element 55". Schematically this is shown in figs in cross-section in the section 'A'. On fig.5b depicted as the second modular unit 51 ' is inserted into the distribution device 25 for the distribution of the underlying particles. Capacity reinforcement parts 15 schematically shows in cross section the section 'In'. This distribution is achieved by the diffusion depth of the particles in the form of reinforcing strands through jointly or individually controllable elements 53 for increasing the reinforcing portions 15 and the surrounding portion 22 to receive the second matrix particles 7". In the first stage on fortresse 47' pressed this second matrix 7" in order to reduce the risk of sedimentation of particles in the reinforcement parts 15. Cm. section 'C'.

The third element 55"' machine for particle dispersion causes the remaining depth of the particles 5, to complete the formation of the second matrix particles 7" (see section 'D'). This is the depth of the particles 5 is further split by the second set of machine elements of the scattering particles, so that after the hot pressing of the intermediate layer 13 drivescotrun echnol plate 1 has gained almost uniform thickness 't'. Further expansion of the reinforcing portions 15 is schematically illustrated in section 'E'.

Therefore, the second matrix particles 7" increasing so that one area fraction of large particles 5, there are provided reinforcing strands part 15, was applied in a thicker layer than the surrounding portion 22 with the fraction of large particles.

The cross-section of the matrix particles 7 schematically illustrates in section 'F'.

In conclusion, using a fourth element 55"" machines for particle dispersion fraction of fine particles 4 evenly applied to the second matrix particles 7, thereby forming a third matrix particles 7"', which is the upper surface layer 11 finally pressed particle Board 1, then the matrix particles 7 again subjected to a preliminary pressing the second forpress 47".

Then the matrix particles 7 on the conveyor belt move to hot press 8 (SMPhU), where under the influence of pressure and heat at a temperature of about 160-230C and due to the characteristics of the setting of the adhesive get a solid (rigid) structure of the particle Board 1 with an almost constant thickness of the finished particle Board 1. Finished particleboard 1 is cooled and cut into blanks of suitable length. Workpiece width","' get dissolved, and the dexterous at a later stage, in accordance with the desired final dimensions of the segments of the plate that will be explained in more detail below with respect to figures 6 and 7.

Figure 6 shows schematically finally pressed fiberboard 1, containing five parts 15 with reinforcing strands, which are obtained with the help of the device allocation/distribution of the particles depicted in figa, and inserted in him a modular unit that includes the element 51' machines for scattering (applying) particles or so-called block for particle dispersion. These are equipped with reinforcing strands part 15 extends essentially in the longitudinal direction of the particle Board 1. Finally pressed fiberboard 1 has an overall width In'equal to, for example, 2400 mm, which may vary depending on the desired size or width of the press, and saw by the dash-dotted lines, the respective Central lines 'CL' every part 15 containing reinforcing strands. The distance between the Central lines will correspond approximately to the width In the" processed wood fibre boards. External discs 48 is made to remove uneven edges 19 of the particle Board 1. Removed excess material return in the new production of chipboard 1. For about the abode required to particle Board 1 had a width In", and they are cut with obtaining billet length 'L'. Each chipboard 1 now takes the edge 19, is suitable for machining on the machine, and provided with a solid plot for fastening objects fittings 52, such as hinges, latches, locks, etc. Thus, particleboard 1 can be used, for example, in furniture manufacture exactly the same as particle Board 1 made by traditional methods. The fundamental difference is that wood stove 1 is 30% lighter than an ordinary wood stove, and that its production takes 25% less material than for the manufacture of particle Board of a traditional design. Particleboard 1 is made with a smaller number of particles and the binder, which helps to reduce production costs. Particleboard 1 is made with lightweight processing periods under pressure due to the reduced overall density of the intermediate layer 13 of particles 5. This leads to an increase in production capacity.

Figure 7 presents finally pressed fiberboard 1, containing nine narrow and wide portions 15, provided with reinforcing strands. That is, the subsequent cutting saw can is proizvoditel in the narrow parts 15, equipped with reinforcing strands, if you want chipboard 1 wide"', equal to 300 mm Chipboard 1 of a width of 600 mm can also be supplemented with part 15', provided with reinforcing strands, between the outer parts 15, provided with reinforcing strands, in order to provide an even thickness of the particle Board 1 and to increase the strength of the particle Board 1. Using machine 23 for particle dispersion, shown in figa, the operator can control the supply, distribution and increasing deep layer of particles in accordance with how finally pressed fiberboard 1 should be divided into several particle boards for separate use, for example, in the furniture industry. The intermediate layer 13 has a higher density in certain areas, such as areas designed for cutting with a saw, and in parts 15, provided with reinforcing strands, where wood stove 1 to be attached to another object 52.

On figa schematically shows a front view of an adjustable hot press 8 in the direction of 'v' of movement of the conveyor belt. On fig.8b shows a side view of the same hot press. Matrix particles 7', 7", 7"', pre-compressed in fortresse 47, served in a hot press 8, operating in the continuous mode, drive through the old tapes 57 at the first end 56 and delivered to the other end (not shown). The temperature and pressure regulate in accordance with the structure and composition of the matrix particles 7 in accordance with the depth distribution of particles, etc. Through a number of cylinders compression ratio 58, which are arranged in series one behind the other, along the drive belts 57 and which can be controlled from the control room (not shown), various parts with different densities can be subjected to different degrees of compression. For example, the pressure can be set very high in the areas arrangement of parts 15 with reinforcing strands having a high density as compared with the portions 17 of low density. This gives the opportunity to optimize the structure of particle Board. If the scattering machine 23 part 15 containing reinforcing strands and intended for use as edge parts 18, increasing with a large number of particles, in order to create a high density in these parts, then these parts can be made higher pressure to obtain particle Board 1 with high density in the edge parts 18. Cylinders compression ratio 58 adjusted so that chipboard 1 had an almost constant thickness across the entire width of 'In' and length 'L'.

Figure 9 schematically presents chipboard 1, depicted in figure 1, with the object of fitting 52 in the ideal loop 61, attached by rivets 60. Wood stove 1 shows in schematic form in order to show the different density of the intermediate layer 13 underlying particles. In the manufacture of furniture is usually practiced by the Assembly of chipboard together with the installation of fittings, such as hinges, handles, and other items of hardware on edge areas of chipboard. By adjusting the distance between the reinforcing portions 15 in accordance with the width of the treated particle Board and manufacturing finally pressed particleboard according to the specifications of the customer, so that when cutting (sawing is done in parts with reinforcing strands) it was divided into segments of width corresponding to the dimensions given by the manufacturer of furniture, and in accordance with the required strength particle Board for fastening pieces of furniture, factory furniture will be able to significantly reduce production costs and transportation costs.

The present invention is not limited to the above examples of variants of its implementation, described by combinations of these options and similar solutions that are possible without deviating from the scope of the invention. It is obvious that in addition to the wood particles can be used other particles. Deep frequent the hospitals, which is applied between containing reinforcing strands parts can be covered with a thicker layer of adhesive than the depth of the particles that contribute to containing reinforcing strands parts, and may be sent separately to the nozzle to make. In this way it is possible to vary the thickness of the particle Board under the terms of reference. In an alternative solution the fraction of fine particles can be used in containing reinforcing strands parts, as well as in the middle layer of the plate. Similarly, the fraction of fine particles can be used for the whole of the middle layer.

You can use continuous production line of other types than those described above. In addition to the press, operating in continuous mode, you can use a press with the so-called periodic loading. All parameters for the manufacture of particle Board in accordance with the present invention can be controlled from the control of the premises, carrying out their monitoring.

1. Chipboard includes upper and lower surface layers (9, 11) with the fraction of fine particles (4) and between the surface layers (9, 11) intermediate layer (13) with the fraction of larger particles (5), characterized in that the intermediate layer (13) has a different density in areas where this particleboard (1) is attached keychain, four button is set to another object (52).

2. Wood stove according to claim 1, characterized in that the intermediate layer (13) has at least one formed of particles (5) reinforcing part (15) with a higher density than at least one surrounding portion (17) of the intermediate layer (13).

3. Wood stove according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one edge (19) particle Board (1) coincides with a part (15, 21) of the intermediate layer (13)having a higher density than the other portion (17) of the intermediate layer (13).

4. Wood stove according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one reinforcing portion (15)formed from particles having a higher density than other surrounding parts (17), is located at a distance from the intermediate layer (13) and between the two edge portions (18) of this layer.

5. The method of obtaining particle Board (1), containing upper and lower surface layers (9, 11) with the fraction of fine particles (4) and intermediate layer (13) between the surface layers (9, 11), with the fraction of larger particles (5), and the method includes the stages of: a uniform distribution of the fraction of fine particles (4) with the formation of the first matrix particles (7') for forming the lower surface layer (9); the distribution of the fraction of larger particles (5) with the formation of the second matrix particles (7") over FR the work of fine particles (4) using a distribution device (25) thus, that, at least in one area (15, 21) fraction of large particles is applied in a thicker layer than the at least one surrounding portion (22); a uniform distribution of the fraction of fine particles (4) forming a third matrix particles (7"') on top of the fraction of large particles (5) for forming the top surface layer (11); and compressing the first, second and third matrices of particles(7', 7", 7"'), when the thickness (t) of the intermediate layer (13) remains essentially constant, so that the intermediate layer (13) has a different density.

6. The method according to claim 5, additionally comprising the following stages:
partial dosing fraction of large particles (5) for distribution;
pre-pressing this partially dosed fraction of larger particles (5); and dispensing the remaining amount of the particles for the formation of the mentioned second matrix particles (7").

7. The method according to claim 5 or 6, further comprising the following stage: the distribution of the fraction of larger particles (5) by scattering their strands through at least one adjustable element (53) of the device for particle dispersion in accordance with the desired distance (a) between two reinforcing parts (15)having a higher density.

8. The method according to claim 5, additionally comprising the following stage:
distribution fracc the larger particles (5) by direct dispensing of a larger number of particles (5) in the reinforcement part (15) controlled by the distribution of the elements (27).

9. The method according to claim 5, additionally comprising the following stage:
the distribution of the fraction of larger particles (5) with replaceable modular units (51', 51") the specified device distribution of the particles (25).



 

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EFFECT: enhanced moisture resistance of composite material.

3 ex

FIELD: wood-working industry, and namely the method of manufacture of the structural unit, in particular, slab of wood fiber, wood chip and/or sawdust, and pressing of fiber, chip, and/or sawdust with applied glue for formation of the structural unit, in particular, slab.

SUBSTANCE: at first the wood fiber, chip and/or sawdust are decomposed by steaming into liquid components and hard components. The liquid components are separated and cooled inside the closed hermetic system up to their discharge from the system. During this process the ecological load caused by odor is sharply reduced. The invention also includes a device for realization of the method and a structural unit manufactured on it.

EFFECT: produced an ecologically pure method for manufacture of slabs and a device for its realization.

46 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: compositions used for manufacture of plates from wood laminate.

SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacture of plates contains rice shell or rice shell and sawdust mixture used as filler, liquid sodium glass having modulus of 2.4-3.6, and silicon dioxide. Artificial silicon dioxides or siliceous dust-like wastes of various industries may be used as silicon dioxides, with SiO2 content making at least 80%. Composition components are used in predetermined ratio.

EFFECT: improved strength and water tightness, and increased efficiency in utilization of various wastes.

2 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry.

SUBSTANCE: fiber or chip is dried, then it is mixed with glue at a temperature of below 100C, and a plate is formed at a temperature above 140C, wood is decomposed into solid and liquid components that are used as the glue. The installation for manufacture of the plate has a drying device, device for application of glue onto the fiber or chip, device for compaction, transport facilities for transferring the fiber or chip from the drying device to the device for application of glue, mixer having means for cooling the body. The contents of glue in a plate obtained with the use of the installation makes up 45 to 55 kg per cubic meter of plate.

EFFECT: produced plate with a lower contents of glue as compared with plates produced by the known methods.

31 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: production of plate material.

SUBSTANCE: proposed composition is made on base of dispersed raw material with modifying additive; plate material is made by molding the said composition at temperature of 160-190°C and pressure of 65-95 kg/cm2; molding time of 1 min per 1 mm of plate thickness. Used as modifying agent are acid by-products of oxidation of cyclohexane of caprolactam process at mass ratio to wood wastes of 50-70:30-50, respectively.

EFFECT: facilitated procedure of production of composition.

1 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry; production of pressed building items.

SUBSTANCE: the group of inventions is pertinent to the field of production of pressed building items made out of plant roughage and may be used in wood-working construction industries and other branches of economy. The panel made by pressing out of a carpet without synthetic binding materials consists of a mixture of a birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns and a filler predominantly out of cellulose filaments at the following ratios in respect to the total dry solid matter (in mass %): a birchen bark - 60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. In an alternative version of the panel, which is made the same way as the above, the outer surfaces of the carpet are strengthened with lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound including an excelsior and the KF-EC resin with a hardener or an excelsior and triturated secondary polymer taken in amount of 10-12 mass % to the weight of the excelsior. At that the share of the lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound makes 20-40 % to the total dry weight of the carpet. The method allows to use a ground birchen bark without synthetic binding agents for shaping a carpet and its consequent pressing. At that for a carpet formation they use the birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns, and a filler mainly made out of cellulose filaments taken in the following ratio in respect to the total dry weight(in mass %): a birchen bark-60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. Before formation of the carpet the filler is moistened up to 18-20 % of absolute humidity and is mixed with ground birchen bark. The carpet is formed with a thickness equal to 200-300 % of the thickness of a finished panel. The group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.

EFFECT: group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.

8 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: production of plate materials of the splint-slab type, applicable in the wood-working and building industries.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in processing of husk particles by a binder containing urea-formaldehyde resin, ammonium chloride, Aerosil butadienstyrene methacrylic latex, forming of the mat, cold prepressing and hot pressing. The binder instead of ammonium chloride contains ammonium fluosilicate at the following relation of the components, mass percentage: urea-formaldehyde resin - 82.8 to 93.4, ammonium fluosilicate - 0.6 to 1.2; butadienstyrene methacrylic latex - 4.0 to 12.0, Aerosil - 2.0 to 4.0.

EFFECT: enhanced physico-mechanical characteristics of the plates.

2 tbl

FIELD: production of building materials, applicable in the wood-working, furniture and building industries.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in mixing together of wood particles with urea-formaldehyde resin, butadienstyrene methacrylic latex, ammonium chloride and Aerosil, forming of the mat, cold prepressing and hot pressing. The binder instead of ammonium chloride contains ammonium fluosilicate at the following relation of the components, mass percentage: urea-formaldehyde resin - 82.8 to 93.4, ammonium fluosilicate - 0.6 to 1.2, butadienstyrene methacrylic latex - 4.0 to 12.0, Aerosil - 2.0 to 4.0.

EFFECT: enhanced physico-mechanical and ecological characteristics.

2 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry, in particular, methods for decreasing the content and emission of formaldehyde intended for fiber boards.

SUBSTANCE: the process of production of fiber boards is conducted with employment of aminated adhesive resins with an addition of substances binding the formaldehyde by compacting in running presses or continuous-action presses and by cooling. After compacting, but before cooling the fiber board is subjected to a short-time curing at 80 to 100C during 6 to 16 hours, depending an the expected level of decrease and emission of formaldehyde and used parameters of the process of production.

EFFECT: reduced content and emission of formaldehyde in the fiber board.

5 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: wood-working industry, applicable in furniture, building, packaging and machine-building branches of industry.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that filings and sawdust composed of: coniferous needles - 80%< filings - 10%, sawdust - 5% and wood fibers - 5% are added to the ground pulp of coniferous needles. The obtained mass is fed to the forming unit, which forms the sheets, which are fed to a press, where they are compacted at a pressure of not more than 10 Mpa at a temperature of not higher than 250C during not longer than 30 S. The obtained coniferous-needle material is cooled down, packed and delivered to the consumers.

EFFECT: produced material with breaking load, high density, low water absorption.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: manufacture of substantially flat articles, for instance particle boards and other articles of industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials by hot pressing thereof.

SUBSTANCE: method for particle board production involves performing hot molding at temperature of 120-200°C and under pressure of 2.5 - 30.0 MPa for panel forming. Industrial waste, molasses, concentrated corn steep or mixture thereof are used as binding material, wherein lime and starch-containing materials are added to mixture including industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials and the binding material before hot molding operation beginning.

EFFECT: increased ecological safety and increased strength of the panels.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: production of plate material.

SUBSTANCE: proposed composition is made on base of dispersed raw material with modifying additive; plate material is made by molding the said composition at temperature of 160-190°C and pressure of 65-95 kg/cm2; molding time of 1 min per 1 mm of plate thickness. Used as modifying agent are acid by-products of oxidation of cyclohexane of caprolactam process at mass ratio to wood wastes of 50-70:30-50, respectively.

EFFECT: facilitated procedure of production of composition.

1 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry.

SUBSTANCE: fiber or chip is dried, then it is mixed with glue at a temperature of below 100C, and a plate is formed at a temperature above 140C, wood is decomposed into solid and liquid components that are used as the glue. The installation for manufacture of the plate has a drying device, device for application of glue onto the fiber or chip, device for compaction, transport facilities for transferring the fiber or chip from the drying device to the device for application of glue, mixer having means for cooling the body. The contents of glue in a plate obtained with the use of the installation makes up 45 to 55 kg per cubic meter of plate.

EFFECT: produced plate with a lower contents of glue as compared with plates produced by the known methods.

31 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: compositions used for manufacture of plates from wood laminate.

SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacture of plates contains rice shell or rice shell and sawdust mixture used as filler, liquid sodium glass having modulus of 2.4-3.6, and silicon dioxide. Artificial silicon dioxides or siliceous dust-like wastes of various industries may be used as silicon dioxides, with SiO2 content making at least 80%. Composition components are used in predetermined ratio.

EFFECT: improved strength and water tightness, and increased efficiency in utilization of various wastes.

2 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry, and namely the method of manufacture of the structural unit, in particular, slab of wood fiber, wood chip and/or sawdust, and pressing of fiber, chip, and/or sawdust with applied glue for formation of the structural unit, in particular, slab.

SUBSTANCE: at first the wood fiber, chip and/or sawdust are decomposed by steaming into liquid components and hard components. The liquid components are separated and cooled inside the closed hermetic system up to their discharge from the system. During this process the ecological load caused by odor is sharply reduced. The invention also includes a device for realization of the method and a structural unit manufactured on it.

EFFECT: produced an ecologically pure method for manufacture of slabs and a device for its realization.

46 cl, 3 dwg

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