Contact device for enthalpy exchangers

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to contact devices for carrying out heat-mass exchange processes and can be used in the chemical, microbiological, food and other industries. The contact device comprises a swirl deck, which consist of two profiled sheets pressed to each other, turned relative each other by an incision value. Perforations are made in form of a trapezium, narrowing towards the centre, on the base of which on the upper sheet there are incisions. The lateral edge of each perforation, on the side where there are incisions on the upper sheet, lies under the edge of the trapezium of the lower sheet. The ratio of the total area Sg of channels for moving gas (vapour) to the cross sectional area of the swirl deck Sd is equal to 0.008-0.099. The central overflow pipe has a device for taking liquid away from the rotating gas-liquid layer to its cavity. The ratio of the length of the incision L to the length of the arc of the base of the perforation L1 is equal to L/L1=0.1-0.4. On the lateral edge of the perforation on the upper sheet, there are triangular projections. On the outer surface of the cup-hydraulic lock there is a plain washer.

EFFECT: more efficient heat-mass exchange of the contact device due to intense gas disintegration and increased inter-phase surface, and increase in the range of working speed of the gas due to provision for rotating motion of the gas-liquid layer on the plate at low speed of the gas in perforations (gas carrying channels) and attaining the condition for bleeding out liquid to a lower stage at high speed of gas.

3 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to contact devices for holding heat and mass transfer processes and can find application in chemical, microbiological, food and other industries.

Well-known mass-vortex plate, consisting of a swirl, made of radial plates, partially overlapping and located in the center of the Cup - trap with overflow pipe, which is equipped with guide ring [1].

However, this vortex plate is complicated to manufacture, has a low efficiency of mass transfer. The difficulty in manufacturing due to the presence of radial plates, centering and mounting which in practice causes difficulties. The low efficiency is due to the fact that the layout of the radial plates of the swirler not ensure the creation of a rotating liquid layer in the cross section of the plates in a wide range of gas velocities. Due to the centrifugal force of the liquid layer is squeezed out to the periphery of the plate, which leads to the separate flow of gas and liquid (gas does not pass through the liquid, and, therefore, not dispersed in the form of bubbles) and reduce the efficiency of mass transfer.

The closest in technical essence is a contact device for heat and mass transfer devices containing war the first plate, made of thin sheet metal foil having a thickness of 0.1-0.5 mm, a radius of 10-50 mm, the periphery of which are located around the circumference of the perforation, and a drain device for draining fluid containing a number of peripheral spaced drain channels, with the edges of slots, bent up and down with the formation of the inclined unidirectional channels for the passage of gas or vapor and give a two-phase mixture on the plate rotational motion in one direction, while the ratio of the length of the slot to the radius of the plate is L/R=0,3-0,6, the ratio of the area of the cross sections of the channels for the passage of gas to the sectional area of the plates Sg/St=0.1 to 0.4, and the ratio of the area of all discharge channels to the area of the plates SW/St=0,01-0,07 [2].

Indeed, when the gas outlet of the slots is its fragmentation in the liquid with the formation of gas bubbles. However, the contact device has not sufficiently high efficiency of mass transfer and a small operating speed range-gas, providing for a plate rotating liquid layer overlying the entire length of the slot, as only this condition provides a complete dispersion of gas in liquid, update, and high efficiency of mass transfer.

Maintaining the ratio of Sg/St=0,1-0,4 requires making a large number of slots, channels for which rachada gas with a large gap and a large length. The increase of the gap in the channel increases the diameter of the gas bubbles in the liquid, thus reducing the interfacial surface and, consequently, reduce the efficiency of heat exchange. And increasing the number of slots complicates the manufacture of the device, leads to increase of the resistance of the contact stage (increased resistance due to entrance effects) and thereby reduces the operating range of the gas velocity, so as to increase the gas velocity is zaklepywanie contact device (gas passes through the holes in the drain channel). In addition, because the installation of a large number of slots increases the friction between a rotating liquid layer and the surface of the plates, which reduces the rotation speed of the gas-liquid flow, the intensity of the crushing of gas and, consequently, the interfacial surface.

A small range of operating gas velocity due to the absence of valves in the drain channels, so this dish works only in a small range of gas velocity (pair), providing a low hydraulic resistance (no more than 20-40 mm Vogt, because at higher speeds the fluid in the drain channels squeezed gas). In known contact device a slight increase in the gas velocity leads to increased resistance and zachlapywaniu plates (gas start the AET passes through the drain channels, the liquid is decanted from the lower level). It is well known that plates failure type (to which way to drain the fluid can be attributed contact device, taken as a prototype) are characterized by a low speed range of stable operation.

In addition, the presence of slots, edges, bent up and down with the formation of unidirectional channels, does not provide the overlapping edges of the slots (as, for example, on the plate, taken at similar)that you can't effectively operate the device at low gas velocities (gas acquires no tangential velocity (breaks up) and does not participate in the rotational motion, which reduces the fragmentation of the gas and, consequently, reduces the interfacial surface, reduces the operating speed range of the gas.

The inventive valve diameter 20-100 mm is also not conducive to the expansion of the range of gas velocities, providing rotational movement of the gas-liquid mixture on the plate. It is well known that increasing the radius of the circle on which you are cutting, rotational movement begins to occur at smaller angular or linear velocity, in this case gas. For example, assuming that the rotating liquid layer behaves as a solid cylindrical body, the forces of inertia and pressure evenly along the height of the flow, the equilibrium condition forces moment education annular mode can be represented in the form

2R=ρgH(1-φ)S,

where m is the mass of fluid; ω - angular velocity; R is the radius of rotation; H - height of the column of gas-liquid mixture; and S is the inner surface of a rotating liquid layer; g - gravitational acceleration; ρ is the liquid density; φ - gas content.

Then it is easy to get

where δ is the thickness of the liquid layer.

According to the presented dependences shows that the increase of the radius kontaktnogo R leads to a decrease in the angular velocity of gas, which starts the rotational movement of the liquid. And it extends the range of gas velocity, providing rotational movement of the liquid layer on the plate. Therefore, the larger the diameter of the device, the higher the operating speed range.

The invention solves the problem of increasing the efficiency of heat-mass-exchange contact device, as well as the problem of increasing the operating speed range of the gas.

The technical result consists in increasing the efficiency of heat-mass-exchange contact device due to intensive crushing gas and increase the interfacial surface and the increase of the operating speed range of gas by providing a rotational motion of a liquid layer on the plate at lower gas velocity in the slots (channels for the passage of gas) and the achievement of conditions if the and fluid on the lower level at high gas velocities.

This technical result is achieved in that in the contact device for heat and mass transfer apparatus, comprising a cylindrical casing, a Central overflow pipe, provided with a Cup-trap, vortex plate made of a sheet on which radially performed with perforation, with bent up and down the edges with the formation of the inclined unidirectional channels for the passage of gas or vapor and give a two-phase mixture on the plate rotational motion in one direction, according to the invention, the plate consists of two tightly pressed to each other profiled sheets, which are made with perforation in the form of a trapezoid, tapering toward the center, on the grounds of which the upper sheet made slotted, corrugated sheets are rotated relative to each other by the value of the slot, and the side edge of each slot from the placement of the slots of the upper sheet skipped under the edge line of the bottom sheet, and the ratio of the total area of Sgchannels for the passage of gas (vapor) to the sectional area of the vortex plate Stmade equal 0,008-0,099, with Central overflow pipe provided with a device for draining fluid from a rotating liquid layer in its cavity; the outer surface of the Cup - trap installed washer; on the side edge of the perforation, the upper sheet is made of triangular protrusions; the ratio of the length of the slot L to the length of the arc of the base of the slot L1equal to L/L1=0.1 to 0.4.

The implementation of plates of two tightly pressed to each other profiled sheets, which are made with perforation in the form of a trapezoid, tapering toward the center, on the grounds of which the upper sheet is made of the slot, rotation of profiled sheets relative to each other by the value of the slot, the contour of the side edges of each slot from the placement of the slots of the top sheet under the edge of the perforation of the bottom sheet with the achievement of the ratio L/L1=0.1 to 0.4, and fulfilling relationship of the total area of Sgchannels for the passage of gas (vapor) to the sectional area of the vortex plate Stequal 0,008-0,099, and a device for draining fluid from a rotating liquid layer in the cavity of the Central overflow pipe provides increased efficiency of mass exchange contact device and the interval of the working gas velocity (pair).

Execution of the vortex plates of two tightly pressed to each other profiled sheets, which are made with perforation in a trapezoid shape, tapering toward the center, on the grounds which made the slot, rotation of profiled sheets relative to each other by the value of the slot, placing the side edges of each slot from the placement of the slots of the top sheet under the edge of the tra is ecii bottom sheet provides overlapping edges to form channels for the passage of gas and improves the formation of the velocity profile of the gas and its rotation at a lower speed, than the device, taken as a prototype that extends the operating speed range while maintaining the gas-liquid layer of the liquid on the plate and prevents Stripping of slots. This eliminates the leakage of gas relative to the liquid leads to the rapid formation of gas bubbles, updating them, increasing the interfacial surface, and, consequently, the efficiency of heat exchange.

A fulfilling relationship overlapping edges L/L1=0,1-0,4 provides intensive rotation of the gas, which increases the efficiency of heat transfer and increases the operating range of the gas velocity. When performing the ratio L/L1<0,1 reduced rotation of the gas that is not effective, and when the L/L1>0.4 to increase the hydraulic resistance of the contact stage, which is also not justified.

Execution relations total area of Sgchannels for the passage of gas (vapor) to the sectional area of the vortex plate Stequal 0,008-0,099 extends the operating range of the gas velocity. When performing Sg/St<0,008 dramatically increases the resistance plate, and when Sg/St>0,099 complicated constructive, the plates increases the friction of the liquid on the plate, which reduces rotational movement of the liquid layer on the stage and, consequently, the efficiency of mass transfer.

Set the device for draining fluid from a rotating liquid layer in the cavity of the Central overflow pipe extends the operating range of the gas velocity and allows you to remove the fluid from the torque of the layer in an overflow pipe at high gas velocities (allows for the flow of fluid through the stages).

Placement on the outer surface of the Cup-trap washers increases the efficiency of heat exchange, as the fluid is coming from the upper plate, is discarded in a rotating liquid layer, that is, prevents leakage of fluid downstream of the contact stage.

Running on the side edge of the perforation, the upper sheet of the triangular protrusions provides uniform distribution of liquid and gas along the length of the slot and thereby increases the efficiency of heat exchange.

Figure 1 presents a General view of the contact device of heat and mass transfer apparatus; figure 2 - section of the vortex plate; figure 3 is a top view of vortex plates; figure 4 is a top view of the profiled sheet; figure 5 - profiled sheet with rents, provided with a triangular projections; figure 6 is a device for draining fluid from a rotating liquid layer in an overflow pipe, made of the area; figure 7 is a photograph of the vortex plates; Fig - pictures of the upper corrugated sheet; figure 9 - pictures of the flow regimes of gas-liquid layer on the vortex the plate for D=114 mm, which shows the modes: and - bubbling; b - ring; in film.

The contact device of teplomassoobmen the machinery consists of a cylindrical body 1, vortex plate 2, provided with a Central overflow pipe 3 and the glass trap 4. Vortex plate 2 is made of densely pressed to each other the top 5 and bottom 6 of profiled sheets, on which radially performed with perforation 7 in a trapezoid shape, narrowing towards the center. On the bases of the trapezoid at the top of the sheet 5 is made of the slots 8 and 9. Profiled sheets 5 and 6 are rotated relative to each other by the value of the slot, and the side edge 10 of each slot 7 by the placement of the slots 8 and 9 of the top sheet 5 is bent and ignored under the edge line of the bottom sheet 6 with the formation of the inclined unidirectional channels 11. In the center of the plates made the hole 12, which is installed overflow pipe 3, is fixed by nuts 13. And on the upper end of the overflow pipe 3 attached device 14 for draining fluid from a rotating liquid layer in the cavity of the Central overflow pipe 3, made for example from the area. On the glass trap placed the washer 15. On the side edge of the slot 7 of the bottom sheet 6 is made of triangular protrusions 16. The ratio of the total area of Sgchannels for the passage of gas (vapor) to the sectional area of the vortex plates 2 Stmade equal 0,008-0,099. The ratio of the length of the slot L to the length of the arc of the base of the slot 7 L1equal to L/L1=0.1 to 0.4.

Contact device deploma suomenoja apparatus operates as follows. Gas (vapor), moving up, enters the inclined unidirectional channels 11 and acquires a tangential velocity (rotational motion). The output of the channel 11 gas (steam) is evenly distributed on the projections 16 and comes into contact with the liquid placed on the surface of the vortex plate 2. He intensively broken down into small bubbles (2-0,25) mm, forming a gas-liquid mixture in the form of a rotating cylinder, where it is heat and mass transfer. Depending on the gas flow there are three flow regimes of gas-liquid mixture in step (Fig.9): bubble; ring; film.

For contact stages of distillation columns, with the aim of obtaining a developed interfacial surface at a relatively low flow resistance, the greatest interest is the annular flow regime, which is observed when the critical gas velocity utoon the exit slit (bubbling regime is not effective, no bubbles intensive crushing). When the annular flow regime of the fluid from the Central part of the column due to the force of inertia is pushed to the periphery with the formation of a rotating liquid layer in the form of a cylinder with an initial inner diameter of 15-20 mm with increasing gas velocity is reduced layer thickness and increase its height.

Upon reaching the gas velocity equal to un/sub> (which also characterizes the beginning of uncovering the channels 11 for the passage of gas), there is a film flow regime with separate flow of gas and liquid. When this mode is observed outflow of gas bubbles from the rotating liquid layer and not going to update them, which also leads to lower heat transfer. As established, the transition from the annular mode in the film for the stage swirler is when uk/un≈0.5 in. The specified parameter is the operating speed range of the contact device of heat and mass transfer apparatus.

The flow of liquid from the plate on the plate through the Central overflow pipe 3 and the hydraulic lock 4. The drain of the rotating liquid layer is carried out by means of the device for draining fluid 14 made of the area. The liquid is captured by the surface area and flows into the overflow pipe while maintaining a certain level of liquid on the stage.

The use of the inventive contact device of heat and mass transfer apparatus increases the efficiency of heat transfer and the operating speed range of the gas and thereby improves the performance, which reduces the cost of the manufactured product.

Sources of information

1. Inventor's certificate SU 284965. Faustin, Naanillai, BM is Sizov. Mass transfer of the vortex plate. 29.10.1970.

2. Copyright certificate EN 2198012. V.I.Smirnov. The contact device Smirnova. 06.08.2003.

1. Contact device for heat and mass transfer apparatus, comprising a cylindrical casing, a Central overflow pipe, provided with a Cup-trap, vortex plate made of a sheet on which radially performed with perforation, with bent up and down the edges with the formation of the inclined unidirectional channels for the passage of gas or vapor and give a two-phase mixture on the plate rotational motion in one direction, characterized in that the swirl plate consists of two tightly pressed to each other profiled sheets are rotated relative to each other by the value of the slot, which made punching in a trapezoid shape, tapering toward the center, on the basis of which the top sheet of the slot, and the side edge of each slot from the placement of the slots of the upper sheet skipped under the edge line of the bottom sheet, the ratio of the total area of Sgchannels for the passage of gas (vapor) to the sectional area of the vortex plate Stmade equal 0,008-0,099, the ratio of the length of the slot L to the length of the arc of the base of the slot L1equal to L/L1=0.1 to 0.4, with a Central overflow pipe provided with a device for draining liquid from rotating the Osia liquid layer in its cavity.

2. Contact device for heat and mass transfer apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that on the outer surface of the Cup-trap installed the washer.

3. Contact device for heat and mass transfer apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that on the side edge of the perforation, the upper sheet is made of triangular protrusions.



 

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Lattice column // 2097096
The invention relates to the structures of mass transfer columns for interacting systems the gas(vapor)-liquid intended for the processes of absorption, rectification, and may find application in chemical, petrochemical, gas, food and related industries

Mass lattice column // 2093240

The invention relates to heat-mass exchange apparatus with contact interaction phases

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