Method for heat pump operation
SUBSTANCE: method for operation of heat pump may be used in refrigerating equipment and in heat pump sets for heat and cold supply to consumer. Mentioned technical problems are solved by method of heat pump operation, which includes serially realised processes of working medium compression and expansion with its transition from compression chamber to expansion chamber and back with heat removal after compression process and heat supply after expansion process, at that compliance of pressure value in the end of expansion process to pressure value in the beginning of compression process is maintained by means of additional working medium supply to expansion chamber, in which expansion process is realised in at least two expansion chambers, and supply of additional working medium in expansion chambers is realised by means of its transfer directly from one expansion chamber to the other.
EFFECT: increased efficiency parametres of heat pump.
The invention relates to refrigeration and can be used in the heat pump device for supplying consumers with heat and cold.
The known method of operation of a heat engine (Patent RF №2077004, F03G), comprising sequentially processes of compression and expansion of the working fluid transition him from the compression chamber into the chamber extension and back with heat after compression and supply of heat after the enlargement process, and the line pressure at the end of the process of expansion of the pressure value at the beginning of the compression process support by filing in the camera extension additional work body
The disadvantage of this method is that additional working fluid passes through the heat exchanger low temperature capacity where it is fed to the heat. This increases the temperature of the working fluid at the inlet of the heat exchanger with a low thermal capacity, and therefore, reduces the temperature difference between the working fluid and the coolant and increases the mass flow of the working fluid through the heat exchanger. As a result, increase of thermal and gas-dynamic losses in the heat exchanger and reduces the efficiency of a heat engine, and these losses increase with the increase of the ratio of temperatures in heat exchangers, as this increases the I number of additional working fluid.
Problems solved by this invention are an increase in the effective performance of the heat pump.
These technical problems are solved by the method of operation of a heat pump, comprising sequentially processes of compression and expansion of the working fluid transition him from the compression chamber into the chamber extension and back with heat after compression and supply of heat after the enlargement process, and the line pressure at the end of the process of expansion of the pressure value at the beginning of the compression process support by filing in the camera extension additional working medium, characterized in that the expansion process produces at least two expansion chambers, and the filing of additional working fluid in the expansion chamber is carried out by moving it directly from one camera to another extension.
The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a diagram of a heat pump.
The method of operation of a heat pump is as follows.
The working fluid is compressed in the chamber 1 compression. After compressing the working fluid passes alternately into the chambers 2 and 3 extend through AutoClean 4, the heat exchanger 5, the regenerator 6 and controlled valves 7 and 8. After the process of expanding the working fluid enters the chamber 1 through controlled compression valves 9 and 10, the heat exchanger 1, the regenerator 6 and AutoClean 12. The amount of heat exchangers significantly larger volumes of the chambers of the compression and expansion and pressure in the process changes slightly. Therefore, the number of chambers of the expansion does not depend on the number of cameras compression. Cameras 2 and 3 extensions are in antiphase, that is the end of the expansion process in the cell 2 extension coincides with the release of the working fluid from the chamber 3 expansion. The ratio between the maximum volume of the chamber 1 and compression chambers 2 and 3 extensions are subject to the minimum of the relationship of the temperatures at the beginning of the compression process and at the end of the expansion process. With increasing ratio of temperature, the maximum volume of the chambers 2 and 3 expansion becomes greater than the volume of the working fluid at the end of the expansion process and the working fluid passes from one expansion chamber to another through AutoClean 13 and 14 at a pressure corresponding to the pressure of the working fluid at the beginning of the compression process, thereby removing pressure surges when connecting the expansion chamber to the heat exchangers. Thus, additional working fluid passes directly from one cell to another with a minimum of gas-dynamic losses, and the working fluid after expansion enters the heat exchanger at a temperature equal to the temperature at the end of the expansion process, that is, at max the maximum possible temperature difference between the working fluid and coolant that increases the efficiency of the heat exchanger. All of this increases the effective performance of the heat pump.
The method of operation of a heat pump, comprising sequentially processes of compression and expansion of the working fluid transition him from the compression chamber into the chamber extension and back with heat after compression and supply of heat after the enlargement process, and the line pressure at the end of the process of expansion of the pressure value at the beginning of the compression process support by filing in the camera extension additional working medium, characterized in that the expansion process produces at least two expansion chambers, and the filing of additional working fluid in the expansion chamber is carried out by moving it directly from one cell expansion in another.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: there is proposed heat and mass and energy exchange method and device, at which, by means of concentric vortex tubes, owing to deformation-shear interaction in intersection zone of side surface layers, there provided is excitation of two and more vortex product flows. External vortex tube is longer than internal one. Along centre line of internal vortex tube, there is installed the first axial displacer forming a vortex-forming annular cavity on the part protruding from internal vortex tube; thereon installed is the second axial displacer forming adjustable annular gap, and with external vortex tube - an acoustic chamber. Pressure chambers are equipped with control valves along the inlet.
EFFECT: use of invention will allow increasing capacity and duration of acoustic excitation, and control of frequency-amplitude performance of acoustic excitation.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering, gas distribution.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to heat and power engineering and is goaled for the application in the means of using energy of natural gas operational pressure differential. Method of supplying natural gas to consumers by a gas distribution station (GDS) with reducing lines implies simultaneous production of electric energy and cold during reduction with the usage of a power and refrigerating unit (PRU) which is switched on parallel to the GDS. PRU is equipped by an expansion-generation aggregate (EGA) with a heat exchanger. Automatic units for opening/closing of GDS reducing lines synchronously with EGA switching on/off are mounted at the reducing lines to provide for interconnected functioning of GDS and PRU as a unite gas-reducing system with keeping total section of its elements for gas passing in case of changes in gas supply mode, input gas pressure and number of operating EGA. In case of closing all reducing lines the GDS is put into reserve, gas input into the GDS collector and gas output are blocked by controlled shut-off valves. In case of PRU or most of EGA stop the above shut-off valves and GDS reducing lines are opened providing for standard GDS operation.
EFFECT: increasing stability of the time variable of supplying gas to the consumers along with keeping specified gas pressure and allowable temperature at the system output.
14 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: vortex apparatus comprises casing wit upper and lower covers, the lower one making a condensate collector, gas inlet/outlet and condensate outlet branch pipes, partitions, vortex pipe, initial compressed gas flow rate control device and condensate-separation units. Aforesaid vortex pipe includes a cold flow and hot flow pipes. Initial compressed gas flow rate control device incorporates a screw-type tightening device (STD) with adjusting washer furnished with a cross-piece with stem arranged in the STD membrane hole. The said stem passes via the cold flow pipe and through the gland in the upper cover out from the apparatus and is furnished with the rotation drive. The condensate-separation units comprise pipe laid between the said partitions, two pairs of crosswise slots arranged opposite to each other on the hot flow pipe at the distance of (1.25 to 1.45) d, where d is the pipe ID, from the STD edge and shifted relative to each other by 90°. Note that the said slots are arranged along the axis at the distance of (0.15 to 0.25) d. The circular chamber outlet channels, inside the hot flow pipe, are terminates at the gap between the casing wall and thin-wall cylinder. The hot flow pipe outlet is furnished with a nozzle and thin-wall cylinder is provided with confuser-diffuser element making an injector.
EFFECT: control over initial compressed gas flow rate by external effects and higher efficiency of condensation-separation processes.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics; heating.
SUBSTANCE: vortex tube includes tangential or scroll inlet fitting, cylinder working chamber, hot gas inlet fitting, throttle and cold gas inlet fitting, is supplied by series cold and hot cylinders of working chamber. Cold cylinders represent ring closed loop with circulating cold coolant. Hot cylinders can represent ring closed loops with circulating hot coolant. Hot cylinders can be designed as rings made of heat-resistant electrical insulating material with internal ring cavity into which electrospiral with led-out terminals is inserted, and fixed from inside with thermocement. Hot cylinders can be designed as metal circular groove with attached electrospiral isolated from groove by ceramic scaly beads. Thus spiral terminals are connected on heat-resistant insulator, and groove is closed from outside with metal screens. Cold gas inlet fitting contains nozzle of external diameter (0.65...0.85)·D, where D is internal diameter of cylinder.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of power distribution due to increased temperature difference between hot and cold gas and reduced flow loss.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power machine building.
SUBSTANCE: microcooler comprises thermo insulated cylinder 1 filled with gas and divided with piston 2, made out of thermo insulating material, into cold 3 and warm 4 cavities with heat exchangers 5 and 6 installed therein and accordingly filled with cooled and cooling mediums. Piston 2 is equipped with drive 7 with sealed rod 8 located in warm cavity 4 of cylinder 1. Drive 7 is placed in pressure tight case 14 rigidly secured to thermo insulated cylinder 1. On side of warm cavity 4 regenerator 9 is mounted on piston 2, while coupled valve 11 is installed in hole of bigger diameter from side of cold cavity 3. Coupled valve 11 consists of case with socket whereto valve proper 15 adjoins closely with guides 16, spring loaded with spring 17 from plug 18 with holes 19. Throttle grooves 20 are made on socket of coupled valve 11; said grooves operate as throttle apertures when valve 15 is closed.
EFFECT: upgraded reliability of microcooler and simplification of its design.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to thermal physics, flow dynamics, power generation and relates to gas flow energy separation by means of eddy swirling. Method of gas flow energy separation is implemented by swirling of flow regarding to longitudinal axis generating turbulence, which transmits heat from paraxial flow layers to peripheral ones and further removal of peripheral layers to hot-gas-path and paraxial layers to cold-gas-path. Peripheral layers of flow swirled in operating chamber is periodically and repeatedly cooled (heat removal) and heated (heat supply) by means of external coolers and heaters, which are located in turns on peripheral wall of operating chamber. Sequential vortexes are generated in operating chamber (Karman vortex street) by means of nozzle located on cold flow outlet nozzle with outer diameter (0.65...0.85)·D, where D - inner diameter of operating chamber. Technical result is the improvement of energy separation effectiveness due to increase of temperature difference between hot and cold gas flows and decrease of flow dynamic losses.
EFFECT: improvement of energy separation effectiveness and decrease of flow dynamic losses.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: supersonic tube of temperature stratification contains separation chamber 1, external subsonic channel 2, internal supersonic channel 3, outlet nozzle 4 of supersonic channel, supersonic diffuser 5, outlet nozzle 6 of subsonic channel, supersonic nozzle 7, device 8 for whirling of supersonic dispersed flow in supersonic channel. As device 8 for whirling of supersonic dispersed flow, tape swirler is used.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency of temperature stratification method.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: pipeline transportation.
SUBSTANCE: design relates to the design of swirl pipes intended for producing cold and/or hot gas flows. The swirl pipe incorporates a swirler, a power separation device, a throttle and a cold end diaphragm. The power-separation chamber is furnished with lengthwise ribs, their semi-ellipse shape smoothly passing from the power-separation chamber to the rib side surface.
EFFECT: higher cold capacity ensured by pressure difference and lower temperature.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the configuration and operation of vortex tubes meant for obtaining hot or cold gas streams. A vortex tube includes tangential nozzle with a spiral, separation chamber, orifice, throttle and shell baffle being faired with a plain spigot that is arranged in its centre and has an axial bore. There are tangential nozzles arranged in the lateral surface of the plain spigot. The axial bore is made of two portions connected using a bell and spigot joint. Blades are fixedly mounted in a larger portion. The throttle is made in the form of a ring cylinder with tangential nozzles arranged in its outer surface and it is mounted capable of spinning together with the plain spigot and shell baffle. On the inner surface of the separation chamber, along its generatrix, there are semicircular grooves. The technical effect of the invention consists in enhancement of the device thermodynamic effectiveness and efficiency.
EFFECT: enhancement of the device thermodynamic effectiveness and efficiency.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: refrigerating and cryogenic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: pulsating refrigerating machine comprises hollow housing with supplying and discharging branch pipes and pulsating pipe bank. Each pipe is connected with the housing space from one of the faces. Each of the main receivers is connected with the free face of the corresponding pulsating tube. The housing receives slide valve for permitting rotation for alternating connection with each pulsating pipe with supplying and discharging branch pipes. The slide valve is mounted with a minimum spaced relation to the housing from the side of its face, faces the pulsating pipes, and has a nozzle for supplying compressed gas to the pulsating pipes and port for discharging gas from pulsating pipes. The main pipeline for discharging leakage of compressed gas from the axial space is provided with a throttle. Each main receiver is connected with an additional receiver, and each additional receiver is connected with the main pipeline for discharging leakage of compressed gas downstream of the throttle. The slide valve is provided with a ring sealing member that overlaps the zone of nozzles and ports from the side that faces the housing. Opposite each nozzle and port is opening for free flowing of gas from the nozzle.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
12 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to a cooling device. The cooling device has cooling circuit (9) comprising: i) compressor (2), executing the cooling cycle; ii) evaporator (3), absorbing heat energy of the medium being cooled; iii) condenser (4), transmitting heat energy to an external medium; iv) capillary pipe (5), allowing for expansion of the cooling agent coming out of condenser (4), and carrying the cooling agent to evaporator (3); v) valve (6) with electromagnetic control, controlling flow of the cooling agent and located between condenser (4) and capillary pipe (5); vi) bypass line (7), leveling pressure in the sucking and blowing parts of the compressor (2). The cooling circuit (9) also has: i) valve (16) electromagnetically controlled, which prevent reverse flow to evaporator (3) when compressor (2) is not working and which is in the sucking part of the compressor (2); ii) control mechanism (8), which delays opening of electromagnetically controlled valve (16) by a period, which runs from starting the compressor (2) until a limit value of torque is attained.
EFFECT: prevention of migration of cooling agent when the compressor is not working and easier start up of the compressor.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cooling compartments, refrigerators with proper cooling compartments and methods of control. Super-cooling device contains storage compartments and super-cooling compartments. Storage compartments are supplied with cooled air from cooled air supply unit. Super-cooling compartment is inside storage compartment. Air-cooled super-cooling compartment cools down products. It consists of container and cover. Container forms free space for product storage. Cover is used for opening and closing container outlet. There are holes in cover for cooling air supply to and from super-cooling compartment. There is also a screen in cover to open and close holes. In addition, super-cooling plant contains temperature sensor inside super-cooling compartment and control unit.
EFFECT: development of refrigerator and control method, which may keep drinking compartment temperature at optimal levels and produce super-cooled drink in fast manner.
26 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to electric engineering and may be used for cooling devices. Cooling device freezes products without additional inducer due to compressor motor operation in cooling cycle at alternating speed rates from power supply voltage.
EFFECT: improvement of productivity by freezing.
4 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: air conditioning.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the technology of air conditioning. The air conditioner has a heat source device and a terminal device, joined by connection pipes for a coolant, in which there is exact determination of whether the contour of the coolant has the required amount of coolant or not. The conditioner can work, when switched in any of the normal working modes, in which the heat source device, consisting of a compressor and a lateral heat exchanger of the heat source device, is joined to terminal devices, consisting of lateral expansion valves and terminal lateral heat exchangers, using connection pipes. Each device is controlled depending on the work load of the terminal devices, or the working mode is determined by the quantity of the coolant, in which the terminal devices carry out cooling operations, and the running power of the compressor is regulated such that, the pressure during evaporation of terminal lateral heat exchangers is constant with control of lateral expansion valves such that, the degree of super heating on outlets openings of terminal lateral heat exchangers have a positive value.
EFFECT: accurate determination of whether the coolant contour has the required amount of coolant in a monofunctional conditioner.
12 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: lighting; heating.
SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a method for controlling operation of a refrigerator compressor whereby thawing is effected when the temperature inside the refrigerator reaches a predetermined thawing temperature. Refrigerating capacity of the compressor mounted inside the refrigerator is changed depending on the temperature inside the refrigerator by regulating the direction of rotation of the compressor. The refrigerating capacity of the compressor is increased by rotating the compressor in one direction and is decreased by rotating the compressor in another direction, this second direction being reverse to the first one. Prior to thawing the compressor is repeatedly rotated in the second direction and stopped until the predetermined thawing temperature is achieved inside the refrigerator. After thawing the compressor is rotated in the first direction until the predetermined temperature is achieved and in order to maintain this predetermined temperature the compressor is periodically stopped or rotated in the second direction. A device for controlling operation of a refrigerator compressor includes a microcomputer, a working frequency converter, a rotation signal generating unit and a unit for measuring temperature inside the refrigerator. The working range of the temperature measuring unit is predetermined depending on the compressor rotation direction.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption by a refrigerator; increased capacity and precise temperature control of the refrigerator.
FIELD: refrigerating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating plant comprises vessels and metallic pads that underlie the vessels and are connected to the pipeline through branch pipes. The pipeline is mounted with an inclination and is connected with the pressure-tight tank for collecting spilled ammonia. The tank is connected with the atmosphere through the pipeline and stop valve and is provided with air separator for removing air from its steam zone, branch pipes, and pipeline.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: conditioning system, particularly ones adapted for vehicle conditioning and provided with centrifugal compressors.
SUBSTANCE: cooling plant comprises closed loop with sealed centrifugal pump with built-in electric motor, as well as condenser with axial fan, thermostatic expansion valve and evaporator. Thermal phial of thermostatic expansion valve is installed at evaporator outlet. Bypass line with throttle is connected in parallel to thermostatic expansion valve. Object to be conditioned is communicated to evaporator through air loop provided with centrifugal fan. Throttle has locking valve and bellows-type pneumatic drive having control cavity communicated with thermal phial of thermostatic expansion valve.
EFFECT: simplified structure and increased operational reliability.
FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly devices to prevent wet vapor ingress in cylinders of compressors used in gas-processing plants for pressure increase in natural gas pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises horizontal sucking pipe and emergency shutdown sensor. Low-frequency ultrasound generator is arranged inside horizontal sucking pipe. Ultra-violet radiation sensor is installed in lower part of horizontal sucking pipe and is spaced 0.1-1 m from low-frequency ultrasound generator.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
FIELD: cooling engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises two temperature gauges, unit for comparing temperatures, unit for generating alarm signal on wet stroke, converters for converting signals from temperature gauges into the alternating signals, frequency synchronizer, amplifier, and protecting relay. The first temperature gauge is set in the line for supplying coolant to the object to be cooled. The second temperature gauge is set at the inlet of the line for withdrawing the vapors of coolant from the object to be cooled to the bridge of switching of the compressors. The converters are synchronized in frequency. The unit for comparing temperatures is made of a transformer with magnetization and two primary windings which are connected in series with the signal converters. The secondary winding is connected with the input of the amplifier whose output is provided with the protecting relay.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
SUBSTANCE: proposed absorption-diffusion refrigerating unit has a generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator, vapour-lift pump, steam pipe and another vapour-lift pump. The vapour-lift pump serves to raise strong solution into the separator and works on vapour of the cooling agent from the generator. The extra vapour-lift pump serves to feed solution into an extra separator and works on vapour of cooling agent from the separator. The liquid cavity of the extra separator through a hydraulic lock is joined with a connecting pipe for inlet of solution into the extra absorber. The refrigerating unit also contains the next extra vapour-lift pump for feeding solution into the next extra separator, working vapour of cooling agent from the extra separator. The liquid cavity of the next extra separator through a hydraulic lock is joined with the connecting pipe for inlet of solution into the next extra absorber. Liquid cavities of the absorber, extra absorber and the next extra absorber are joined together through a collector. The collector is joined to the bottom ends of the ascending pipes of the extra vapour-lift pump and the next extra vapour-lift pump.
EFFECT: obtaining a strong solution with maximum concentration during the absorption process.