Manufacturing method of polycrystalline elements

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: it is prepared mixture of abrasive dust of coarse grain and, at least, of one fine grain, mixture of powders is compacted and impregnated by metals or alloys. In the capacity of powders, at least, of one fine grain there are used powders, surface of which fulfil wettability conditions by impregnating metals or alloys.

EFFECT: method provides increasing of working layer height of elements, and also receiving in the element defined content of abrasive grains for optimal external environment.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of mechanical engineering and, in particular, to the manufacture of polycrystalline elements, mainly from powders of diamond and/or cubic boron nitride, intended for the manufacture of cutting tools, such as cutters, drill bits, milling cutters, drilling and ruling, tools for stone cutting, etc. and for use as structural members, such as the wear plates in friction pairs, precision machine tools, etc.

A known method of manufacturing a diamond-metal composite cutting tool, in which the mixture is covered with a metal diamond powders (powders of cubic boron nitride) of various grits, and a binder material, a wetting metal coating having a melting temperature below 1300°C, is placed in a mold and subjected to hot pressing to produce a single mass (U.S. patent No. 5096465, CL 51-295, 1989). The disadvantage of this method is that applied on all diamond powders metal layer significantly reduces their volume content in the finished polycrystalline element. Reducing the volume content of the abrasive powders leads to the reduction of physical and mechanical properties of an element (durability, modulus of elasticity and the like), not allowing to use a tool such elements to operate in harsh the conditions (mud, the governing instrument and so on).

The closest is a method of manufacturing a polycrystalline cells, in which the mixture of abrasive powders with different grain sizes (mixture of coarse and fine abrasive powders) is placed in a mold having a bottom and walls, compacted and impregnated with metals or their alloys, with the walls of the form is made of a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys, and the distance between the opposite walls of the mold is chosen from the condition h=(1÷4) A, where h is the distance between the opposite walls of the form And the grain size sacropenia fraction of the large abrasive diamond powder. In the known method a variant in which abrasive powders before being placed in the form metallitotuus (RF patent No. 1330888, B24D 18/00, 1985). The materials used for the metallization of abrasive powders and the appointment of metallization, in the known solution does not say.

The known method has the disadvantage that the method can be made of polycrystalline elements, the height of the working layer which is limited by the ratio (1-4) grain size sacropenia abrasive powder, i.e. when the actual maximum grain size of the abrasive powder to the cutting elements 500/400 can be obtained from the elements with a working layer up to 2 mm When using the abrasive powders, for example, grain 40/28 height of the working layer of the cutting element may be up to 0.2 mm Small height of the working layer elements significantly reduces the scope of their application, as well as their life. Metallization abrasive powders can improve propityvaet molded briquettes, provided that the metal coating is moistened impregnating metal or alloy, and thereby increase the size of the manufactured item. However, as mentioned above, the metal layer deposited on the abrasive powders, reduces their volumetric content. Reducing the volume content of the abrasive powders leads to the reduction of physical and mechanical properties of the element, not allowing you to use a tool such elements for operation in severe conditions (mud, the governing instrument and the like), that limits the scope of their application.

The technical objective of the proposed solutions is to increase the size (height) of the working layer of polycrystalline element, and the ability to achieve a given volume content of the abrasive grains in the finished element for optimum operating conditions.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a polycrystalline elements, which are preparing a mixture of powders of a large grain size, which take abrasive powders, and Myung is our least powders of one small grain, put the mixture into a mold, compacted and impregnated with metals or their alloys, as powders, at least one fine granularity take powders, the surface of which satises the wettability treatment of metals or alloys.

As a small grain powders take powders selected from the group of abrasive powders and/or powders made of material with a surface which satisfies the condition of wettability treatment of metals or alloys.

To satisfy the condition of propitiatory abrasive powders fine grits on the surface put a layer of metal or alloy, satisfying the condition wettability treatment of metals or alloys. As powders, made of a material satisfying the condition wettability treatment of metals or alloys, take metal powders made from such material, or can be taken metal powders any other metal or alloy, for example, with properties that satisfy the requirement of connecting the cutting element, but with a coating of metal or alloy, wet impregnation of metals or alloys. Such powders can be obtained by any known method, for example by crushing, spraying a suitable metal or JV is ava from metals.

To get the highest volume content (concentration) of abrasive powders in polycrystalline element mixture should contain abrasives large grit and abrasive powders of two small grits, different sizes, and the sizes of the powders should be in a ratio of about 1:4:8. For example, when the size of large grains of abrasive powders 60 μm fine abrasive powders should have a size of approximately 15 microns and about 7 microns. To obtain, for example, polycrystalline elements with less of the required concentration of abrasive powders in the mixture may contain large abrasive powders, to which are added small abrasive powders only one size. To improve conditions propitiatory in the mixture can be introduced powders, made of a material satisfying the condition wettability treatment of metals or alloys. For more low given the concentration of abrasive powders in the mixture may contain only large abrasive powders, and to improve propitiatory as powders fine granular metal powders, the surface of which satises the wettability treatment of metals or alloys.

Options are mixtures consisting of abrasive powders coarse the grit from:

abrasive powders one small grain, the surface of which is provided with a coating of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys;

abrasive powders of two small grits, the surface of the powders of any one of the fine grits provided with a coating of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys, or powders of both grits provided with a coating of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys;

- powders of one small grain, made of metal material, wetted impregnating metals or alloys;

- powders of two small grits, of which as powders one small grain take abrasive powders without coating, as well as powders second small grain take metal powders, wettable impregnating metals or alloys;

- powders of two small grits, of which as powders one small grain take abrasive powders, the surface of which is provided with a coating of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys, and as powders second small grain take metal powders, wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

For the manufacture of polycrystalline elements take the form, that is, at least two opposite side walls made of a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

As abrasive powders can be used powders of diamond, cubic boron nitride or a mixture of, for example, as powders of large grain size can be used powders of diamond and abrasive powders fine granular powder of cubic boron nitride.

The invention consists in the following. To obtain the maximum concentration of the abrasive powder in the volume element content is large and, for example, two small grits, abrasive powders is in the following ratio: 62,5% - 17,5% - 10%, i.e. large abrasive powders to a greater extent determine the total concentration of the abrasive grains in the finished item. Therefore, the use of abrasive powders major grain uncoated, largely determining the concentration of the product, contributes to obtaining their high volume content due to the fact that the uncoated powders occupy a smaller volume and therefore a form can be posted more. Large powders form a frame element, and powders fine grits are arranged in the free spaces between the larger abrasive powders, so the coating on the powder fine grits, the input is used in the mixture, will not reduce significantly the total concentration. At the same time, the coating on the fine powders significantly improves the condition of propitiatory molded preform impregnation of metals or alloys, facilitating the movement of the front liquid impregnating metal or alloy into and in the transverse direction impregnated preform due to the flow of liquid ligaments not only on walls, but the coating on the abrasive powders small grain. However, the implementation of the walls of the mold from a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys, is not required as when using abrasive powders fine grit coated or when used as fine powders grits of metal powders propityvaet just molded item is satisfactory.

Performing at least two opposite side walls of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys, allows not only to successfully carry out the impregnation of the entire area of the element, but to get the elements with the surfaces adjacent to the mould walls (surfaces of the elements), with a fairly smooth surface on which the diamonds are located on one level, and the space between them filled impregnating metals or alloys. The tavern is ical treatment of such items in the future much easier.

As the coating material abrasive powders small grain, and also as a material for the metal powders can be used metals or alloys, and nonmetallic materials, which are able to soak the treatment of metals or alloys.

The method is illustrated in the drawings.

Figure 1 shows a vertical section of the form, filled with a mixture of powders with different grain sizes;

figure 2 shows the abrasive grains of the first small-sized grains with a metal coating;

figure 3 shows a second abrasive grain small grain coated;

figure 4 schematically shows the form filled with a mixture of abrasive powders major grain and coated abrasive powders one small grain size, available space between which is filled with an impregnating metal or alloy;

figure 5 schematically shows the form filled with a mixture of abrasive powders, large grit, abrasive powders first small grain coated and abrasive powders second small grain uncoated free space between which is filled with an impregnating metal or alloy;

figure 6 schematically shows the form filled with a mixture of abrasive powders large grit and abrasive powders of the first and second fine grits coated, free the space between which is filled with an impregnating metal or alloy;

7 schematically shows the form filled with a mixture of abrasive powders large grit and abrasive powders first small grain without coating and abrasive powders second small grain coated, available space between which is filled with an impregnating metal or alloy;

on Fig schematically shows the form filled with a mixture of abrasive powders, large grit, abrasive powders first small grain uncoated and metal powders as powders second small grain size, available space between which is filled with an impregnating metal or alloy;

figure 9 schematically shows the form filled with a mixture of abrasive powders, large grit, abrasive powders first fine granular coated metal powders as powders second small grain size, available space between which is filled with an impregnating metal or alloy;

figure 10 schematically shows the form filled with a mixture of abrasive powders major grain and metal powders, available space between which is filled with an impregnating metal or alloy;

figure 11 shows the finished polycrystalline element after removing all of the mold walls.

The method is as follows.

In form 1, with the holding, for example, two opposite side walls 2 and 3, made of a material wettable impregnating metal or alloy, is placed a mixture of powders of different grain size 4. The mixture powder contains, for example, abrasive powders coarse grit 5 and abrasive powders first small grain 6, provided with a coating 7 (figure 4). After the mixture of abrasive powders were filled in a form, the powder is compacted by any known method, for example by pressing. To obtain a dense packing of the abrasive grains can be used as slip casting, vibropile etc. After sealing abrasive grains constituting the powder are arranged so that the fine abrasive grain fill the free space between the large abrasive grains. Then on top of the compacted powders are placed impregnating metal or alloy 8, the shape is heated to a temperature that ensures the fluidity of impregnating metal or alloy, which mainly 50÷100°C above the temperature of melting. The molten metal or alloy flows through the walls of the mold, the coating on the abrasive powders small grain, simultaneously filling the pores present in the volume of the compacted powder, linking all of abrasive grain with each other and form a bond. The spreading of the metal or alloy is in the transverse direction a given distance is eat h between the opposite walls (the future height of the polycrystalline element) and deep on the value of N, which determines the sizes of the polycrystalline element in the direction perpendicular to its height, namely the area of the working layer of the manufactured item.

It is possible to carry out the treatment at a low pressure, for example, up to 500 kg/cm2.

For the manufacture of items with different concentration of abrasive grains with different physical-mechanical properties, in addition to the above mixtures can be prepared with the following mixture. The mixture may contain abrasive powders coarse grit 5, abrasive powders first small grain 6 floor 7 and abrasive powders second small grain 9 uncoated (figure 5) or abrasive powders second small grain size 10 with a cover 11 (6). Abrasive powders coarse grit 5 as powders first small grain can be entered abrasive powders 12 without coating and abrasive powders second small grain size 10 with a cover 11 (Fig.7). The mixture may also contain large abrasive powders 5, abrasive powders first small grain 12 without coatings and powders second fine granular metal powders 13 (Fig); powders coarse grit 5, powders first small grain 6 floor 7 and powders second fine granular metal powders 13 (Fig.9). Option, to the torus mixture composed of large abrasive grains 5 and metal powders 13 (figure 10).

At the end of the impregnation process, depending on the destination element removes all or part of the walls of the mold by any known method: drain, zashlifovyvayut, turning, milling, etc. for Example, figure 11 shows the cutting element 14 with the working surface 15, obtained after removing all of the mold walls. Such cutting element may be mounted in the holder for use, for example, as the cutting element of the cutter. To use polycrystalline element as, for example, wear plates to the frame of the machine, you can leave the wall shape on one surface of the element, which will serve as a layer for attachment of the element to the frame.

The form can only be performed on one of the opposite walls of a material which is wettable impregnating metal or alloy. The most preferred option is the implementation of two opposite walls, for example, 2 and 3 (figure 1) of a material which is wettable impregnating metal or alloy. In the latter case, you can obtain items greater thickness. Opposite wall forms may be entirely made of a material wettable impregnating metal or alloy, or the walls may be made integral, i.e. the walls may be made of a material not wettable impregnating metal, but equipped with the stakes, it is made of a material wettable impregnating metal or alloy. Instead of installing inserts wettable material may be deposited on the walls of the form by any known method, such as sputtering, electroplating capacity, etc.

Example 1. Made of double-layer plate with the height of the layer h=3 mm, with an area of N×N=210×210 mm For a given concentration of cutting grains 82% took a mixture of diamond powder AS: powders of large grain 400/315 and powders one small grain 40/28. On diamond powders AFM grain 40/28 caused molybdenum coating thickness of 5 μm. One of these walls forms made from solid alloy WC, the second of steel 45. Diamond grains condensed with superimposed vibration frequency of 50 Hz. Impregnation was performed with alloy Lnmc 50-2-2. The wetting angle alloy Lnmc 50-2-2 solid alloy is equal to θ=30°, steel - θ=10°, the metal coating of diamond powder - θ=20°. The temperature of the impregnation Tpd=900°C, the impregnation time is 5 minutes After impregnation has removed all the walls of the form, but one made of hard alloy. The result was a two-layer plate with carbide substrate and the working layer, in which the volumetric content of diamond powder was 82%. The height of the polycrystalline layer was 3 mm, the Filling of pores in the entire volume of the working layer is full. In the coating necropsia diamond powders AU 35 grain 400/315 volumetric content of the diamond grains was 72%.

Example 2. Produced cutting element with the height of the layer h=5 mm, N×N=210×210 mm To obtain a given concentration of cutting grains 89% took a mixture of diamond powder AC 35: large grain 400/315 and the first small grain AFM 40/28. To the mixture was added CBN powders second small grain 5/3. Powders CBN grit 5/3 covered with chromium to a thickness of 3 μm. Wall forms made of 45. Manufacture of cutting element carried out as in example 1. After impregnation of all the walls of the form sollipulli. The result was a cutting element with a volume content of working in polycrystalline layer of diamond grains and CBN - 89%. The filling of pores in the entire volume of the working layer is complete.

Example 3. Made a cutting element as in example 2. The metal coating was applied on a large diamond powders grit 400/315. Small powder coating was absent. In the procurement soaked completely, however, the volumetric content of abrasive grains in the item amounted to 77% (instead of 89%).

Example 4. Made of double-layer plate as in example 1, except that instead of diamond powders of the first fine granular AC 40/28 coated took metal powders of similar grain size, is made of a coating material. The result was a two-layer plate with carbide substrate and working with the OEM, whose volumetric content of diamond powder was 62.5%. The height of the polycrystalline layer was 3 mm, the Filling of pores in the entire volume of the working layer is full. In the coating on the diamond powders AU 35 400/315 concentration of the diamond grains is decreased to 50%vol.

Example 5. Made of polycrystalline element for use as a reference centre for precision machine tools: cylinder diameter 12 mm, height 12 mm with cone 60° at one end of the cylinder. Took natural diamond powders isometric forms grit 250/200 and natural micropowders grain 63/50. For fine powders sprayed coating of chromium of a thickness of about 4 μm. The powders were placed in a glass made of steel 45, which was established in graphite form. Diamond grains condensed with superimposed vibration frequency of 50 Hz. Impregnation was performed with brass 63, alloy 4% titanium at a temperature of 980°C in vacuum for 5 minutes Received the item with a volume content of diamond powder 82%. The filling of pores in the whole volume of the diamond layer is full. The element was attached with silver solder PSRC to the shank of the center

Example 6. Produced cutting element with the height of the layer h=5 mm, N×N=210×210 mm turning alloyed cast iron in the crust. Take the powder of cubic boron nitride grit 400/315 and diamond powder and grit 100 / 80g with a coating of Nickel with a thickness of about 3 μm, caused by chemicals. The powders were placed in a ceramic form of zirconium oxide, the walls of which were treated hexagonal boron nitride. After compaction of powders were infiltrated with silicon at a temperature of 1550°C for 3 min Volumetric content of the abrasive grains was 84%. The item had a complete filling of the pores.

Thus, coating, wet impregnation of metals or alloys, abrasive powders only small granularity allows to increase the height of the working layer of the element and the volumetric content of the abrasive powder in the finished product.

1. A method of manufacturing a polycrystalline elements, comprising preparing a mixture of abrasive powders large grain of powders of one or two small grits, placing the mixture in the form, sealed and impregnated her of metals or alloys, characterized in that as powders of at least one fine granularity take powders, the surface of which satises the wettability treatment of metals or alloys.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as powders of at least one fine granularity take abrasive powders on the surface of which a coating of material, wet impregnation of metals or alloys.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality is TBE powders of at least one fine granularity take powders, it is made of a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that as powders, made of a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys, take metal powders.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture is prepared from abrasive powders large grain of abrasive powders one small grain, the surface of which is provided with a coating of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture is prepared from abrasive powders large grain of abrasive powders of two small grits, the surface of the powders one of the fine grits provided with a coating of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture is prepared from abrasive powders large grain of abrasive powders of two small grits, the surface of which is provided with a coating of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein preparing a mixture of abrasive powders major grain and powders one small grain, which take powders, made of a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys./p>

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture is prepared from abrasive powders major grain and powders of two small grits, at the same time as powders one small grain take abrasive powders without coating, as well as powders second small grain take powders, made of a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture is prepared from abrasive powders major grain and powders of two small grits, at the same time as powders one small grain take abrasive powders, the surface of which is provided with a coating of a material which is wettable impregnating metals or alloys, and as powders second small grain take powders, made of a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture of powders is placed in a mold having at least one pair of opposite side walls, made of a material wettable impregnating metals or alloys.

12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the abrasive powders of at least one fine granularity take the powders from the group of diamond and cubic boron nitride.



 

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27 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex, 7 tbl

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: dosed supply of molded material is carried out into closed press mold with its further molding. As molded material annular stocks are used that have been previously rolled and cut and assembled in packet. Diameter of lower annular stock is selected as equal to diameter D1 of circle base. Number n of stocks and diameter D1 of every subsequent stock is determined by given design formulas depending on the volume of manufactured wheel, angle of wheel walls inclination to the base, height of annular stock, which is selected in the interval of values 6-10 mm under condition of integer number n obtainment.

EFFECT: expansion of technological resources and reduction of manufacturing labor intensity.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: abrasive mass is rolled in sheets. Annular semi-finished products are cut out from them. Then they are packed, and assembled packet is sealed with its uneven clamping along radius of the packet with molding plate. packet sealing is carried out in several stages with molding plates of different diameters serially and in steps from its smaller diameter to the larger one. Diameter of molding plate in every subsequent stage is selected larger than the diameter of molding plate in the previous stage by 10÷25%.

EFFECT: wheels quality is increased due to elimination of delamination.

4 dwg

FIELD: electric tools.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of abrasive processing and may be used for manufacturing of electroconductive discs for electroerosion abrasive polishing on ceramic binding agent made of powders of natural and synthetic abrasive materials, for instance, diamond, cubic boron nitride, silicon carbide, fused corundum, etc. When abrasive tool is manufactured, preliminarily baked item on ceramic binding is saturated in gas phase by products of carbon-containing gases pyrolysis. Saturation is carried out at temperature of 300-1350°C and pressure of 0.0001-3000 atmospheres with provision of depositing of mentioned products on the pores walls of porous structure of abrasive item, which allows to impart to the latter electric conductivity, which is sufficient for conduction of electroerosion abrasive polishing process.

EFFECT: increase of mechanical strength and chemical resistance of tool.

1 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: plates are rolled from the forming mass; ring blanks are cut out from the rolled plates. Corrugation with profile increment of 1÷10 mm and height of 1÷5 mm is made on the contact surfaces of the ring blanks. Then ring blanks are packed and pressed.

EFFECT: elimination of pressing crack at joints of ring blanks; increase of disk failure speed.

1 tbl

FIELD: abrasive treatment processes and equipment, possibly manufacture of abrasive tools.

SUBSTANCE: abrasive tool includes abrasive grains, binder material and base. Abrasive grains of predetermined maximum diameter are bonded in single layer of matrix with base by means of binder material. Abrasive grains are oriented in matrix according to non-uniform pattern having omitting zone around each abrasive grain. Said zone has maximum radius exceeding maximum radius of predetermined-size abrasive grain. Methods for making such matrix of abrasive grain and for transferring it onto base of abrasive tool are given in specification.

EFFECT: improved quality of working due effectively decreased till minimum regular net of traces of abrasive grains on worked surface.

51 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises molding device, conveyer belt, and device for solidification. The conveyer belt is mounted for permitting it to be pressed to the working branch from bellow and removing the abrasive particles. The device for solidification is mounted downstream of the molding device and is used for solidifying abrasive particles located on the conveyer belt.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention claims diamond tool manufactured with monocrystallic diamond, synthesised under high pressure by temperature gradient method, so that the claimed diamond crystal contains not more than 3 parts per million of nitrogen. The tool features a blade with its edge oriented in plane (110), so that Knoop scale hardness at the plane (100) in direction <110> is higher than in direction <100>. Such synthetic monocrystallic diamond is synthesised by temperature gradient method under superhigh pressure and high temperature, and its crystals contain nickel atoms introduced by atomic substitution or boron and nickel atoms introduced by atomic substitution.

EFFECT: obtaining cheap synthetic monocrystallic diamonds with reduced flaw number.

24 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl, 7 dwg

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