Production of iron mica of micron size grade
SUBSTANCE: natural mechanically milled iron (III) oxide of lamellar structure at least 50 wt %, preferentially 75 wt %, contains particles sized 10 mcm and less in amount, at least, 50 wt %, preferentially 70 wt %, particularly preferentially 90 wt %. The ratio of thickness to maximum diametre of iron (III) oxide plates is 1:5, preferentially 1:10. To produce such iron (III) oxide, it is mechanically milled in an impactor or a jet-type mill. Iron (III) oxide resulted from mechanical milling, is separated by size grade, e.g. by an air separator. Iron (III) oxide can be used in lacquering for a base corrosion protection, mechanical load protection, UV and IR protection, for decorative coating, and also as an extender for polymeric and ceramic materials.
EFFECT: possibility to prepare highly dispersed lamellar particles of natural iron oxide.
The invention relates to iron oxide (III), lamellar structure which is at least 50 wt.%, preferably 75 wt.%.
In addition the invention concerns a method of obtaining a plate of iron oxide (III) and the use of this oxide.
Iron oxide (III) contains, as a rule, the crystals from red to black. His paramagnetic modification referred to in Mineralogy hematite. Hematite may contain fine-flaked, tabular, tabular and compact crystals and grains or particles. Due to its fine-flaked, tabular and lamellar structure of iron oxide (III) is known on the market under the name "iron oxide" (Fe-oxide).
In this case, the plate structure is understood, fine-flaked, tabular structure of iron oxide (III).
Iron oxide (III) with such a structure can be applied in many areas in which effective is the plate form crystals. This applies in particular to the coating, painting, etc. of the different types, and iron oxide (III) is often introduced as a pigment in an appropriate binder and is used for applying a coating to the substrate, for example, steel. Due to the presence of lamellar particles of iron oxide (III) the coating has a barrier and shielding effects, increased strength is and abrasion, and the paint layer is formed of increased thickness. Under the barrier and shielding effects is usually defined as the resistance of the coatings. Usually, it is achieved due to the fact that in the coating on the base plate of the iron oxide (III) are almost parallel to the substrate surface and overlap each other. What prevents the rapid penetration of corrosive substances (barrier effect). Simultaneously prevents rapid damage to the base and binder other environmental factors such as ultraviolet and infrared radiation, temperature extremes (shielding effect).
An additional positive effect is the increased resistance to mechanical loads. Due to the evaporation of solvents from the coating, wetting and drying, and under the action of mechanical loads normal coverage is able in a short period of time to fail. Thanks to the strengthening coating layer lamellar iron oxide (III) can be effectively withstand such loads.
Up to this time there was a problem with the fact that iron oxide (III) can be prepared while maintaining the lamellar structure only when the content of particles with a size of up to 60 or 50 μm. In the extreme case, the particle size could be reduced to 30 μm, but only particles of more than 30 MK is were undamaged plate. Therefore, the above advantages of lamellar iron oxide (III) could be used up to the present time only in the presence of particles larger than 30 microns. The oversize of the iron oxide (III) with a particle size less than 30 microns could conventionally be used in small quantities, however, it was considered a marriage. Especially unsuitable for coatings were iron oxide (III) with a smaller particle size, as hitherto he had been employed as a mixture of grains with a very small fraction of particles with a lamellar structure and a positive properties, due to the lamellar structure, could not appear.
Therefore, the object of the invention is the provision of opportunities for a wide cheap use of iron oxide (III) with plate structure, and should be provided with the content of the lamellar particles in the smaller size classes.
This task is solved according to the invention due to the fact that iron oxide (III) a particle size less than 30 microns comprise at least 50 wt.%, mostly 70 wt.%, particularly preferably 90 wt.%. The target product with a high content of lamellar iron oxide (III) with a particle size less than 30 μm, it becomes high quality and has applicability. You can strive to target the product to be able to content the th of about 90 wt.% lamellar iron oxide (III) with a particle size less than 30 microns. This is effective, for example, for coatings, such as lacquer or the like, as improved barrier and screen effects, and resistance to abrasion. Also the resistance to mechanical load, fluctuations in environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, dryness, etc. can be significantly increased. When observing the corresponding distribution of particle size can be achieved with a high degree of compaction of the particles of iron oxide (III) in varnishes, resulting in high resistance varnish to mechanical loads. Compliance with specified maximum particle size and distribution of particles by size in the target product can be effectively controlled by the curve of particle size distribution. It is quite natural that may contain particles with submicron size range. Depending on the destination of iron oxide (III) the latter can be prepared with particles of any range of particle size. Preferred are, for example, ranges from 5 to 25 μm, 1-20 μm, or other ranges, in which the maximum of the particles have a size less than 30 microns. Needless to say that and lower limits of the particle size can be in the submicron range. In technical language materials class size particles - including in the examples above - referred to as 5/25 1/20 etc.
High quality and usability can be further improved if you apply the iron oxide (III) with a particle size of 20 μm or less. Iron oxide (III) can also be used with a particle size of 10 μm or less, preferably 5 μm or less.
According to another characteristic of the invention, iron oxide (III) is subjected to mechanical grinding. As a rule, iron oxide (III) is brought to micron size or crushed, and mechanical grinding may be carried out preferably by using the following methods.
Iron oxide (III) can occur from natural deposits or have an artificial origin, and the same fitment has a mixture of oxides of iron (III) natural and artificial origin. Synthetic iron oxide (III) can be obtained by various known methods. For example, can be applied thermolysis of compounds of iron, such as ferric sulfate, or oxidative methods in aquatic environments, as a way of Penniman-Sofa or aniline method, or methods to obtain iron oxide (III) as a pigment. Synthetic iron oxide (III) can also be obtained by dissolving, for example, iron scrap in the corresponding acid with subsequent controlled translation in the sludge under pressure and the presence of a protective atmosphere (e.g., nitrogen atmosphere).
Suppose the equipment, to iron oxide (III) artificial origin was obtained by growing the crystal, usually from a solution of iron oxide in known conditions (see above). Crystals of iron oxide (III) are grown up to the maximum size of the particles according to the invention. Alternatively, it is also possible to grow larger crystals, then subjected to mechanical grinding up provided by the invention the particle size. When crystal growth is necessary in any case to control the education and preservation of the lamellar structure of crystals of iron oxide (III).
For the job and the characteristics of the lamellar structure of iron oxide (III) can be used, the ratio of external parameters. Under it in the framework of the present invention is the ratio between the thickness or height and maximum width or length of a particle or plate particles of iron oxide (III). To determine the ratio of external parameters is used primarily particle of iron oxide (III) the maximum class size, i.e. the limit, equal to about 30 microns. For iron oxide (III) according to the invention the ratio of external parameters (thickness/maximum diameter) plates particles of iron oxide (III) with a maximum class size equal to mainly 1:5, preferably 1:10 is particularly effektivnym to ensure wider application.
The objective of the invention is also solved by a method of obtaining a plate of iron oxide (III) according to the invention, in which the iron oxide (III) is subjected to the cutting effort, as is the case in known disk mill. During this treatment, the particles of iron oxide (III) crushed by friction.
Iron oxide (III) is made in the form of a mixture of iron oxide (III), obtained from natural by means of mechanical grinding, and iron oxide (III) artificial origin.
Alternatively, the iron oxide (III) may be machined into the impact mill or known jet mill and then reduced to the size of the particles according to the invention, while providing a lamellar structure. In this case, can be used in the expansion of steam to accelerate particles of iron oxide (III) in the mill.
It is preferable that the oxide of iron (III) as a result of mechanical grinding is divided according to the size of the particle or grain size of the grains.
It is appropriate that the iron oxide (III) as a result of mechanical grinding through the air separator is divided according to the size of the particle or grain size of the grains.
It was found that the above-mentioned methods provide gentle and effective mechanical grinding h is STIC iron oxide (III) to obtain the desired particle size. The overwhelming majority of chopped thus particles of lamellar structure was suddenly not destroyed.
No matter which method, after the mechanical grinding of iron oxide (III) should be divided into separate factions, classes or ranges of particle size to obtain iron oxide (III) according to the invention for further processing. This can be used as a separator device, such as an air separator, centrifugal separator, etc. and other devices to separate.
For the application of iron oxide (III) according to the invention there are ample opportunities. It was found that the iron oxide (III) according to the invention is equally well suited for coatings, such as lacquer serving to protect the foundations from corrosion and coatings to protect the foundations from mechanical loads or coatings to protect the foundations from light, i.e., ultraviolet and infrared radiation. It was also found that by means of iron oxide (III) according to the invention can be significantly improved adhesion of the coating to the substrate even in the intermediate layers of the coating. Protective properties can be improved substantially as a whole, regardless of the type of binder in the iron oxide (III). This increases the maximum permissible load and increases the service life of the coating. In the operation of the framework can be applied to metal and non-metal surfaces items and much more. It was found that the iron oxide (III), according to the invention, is particularly effective as a pigment for paints, dyes, etc. intended for external application to steel structures.
Also with the help of iron oxide (III) according to the invention can be enhanced optical effect coatings, i.e. decorative coating, such as boats, boards for riding the waves, decorative items and much more.
However, the scope of application of iron oxide (III), according to the invention, is not limited to coatings, it can be used up to the fillers in the production of polymers. As polymeric products are meant polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamide, fiberglass-reinforced plastics and other substances.
Additionally, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the properties of iron oxide (III) according to the invention, such as barrier and screen effects, protection against mechanical loads, optical effect, etc. that can effectively be used in products for the ceramic industry. So, for example, iron oxide (III) is an excellent additive, for example, as a pigment for ceramic materials used, for example, for the manufacture of sanitary products, such as tiles, sinks, etc.
In addition to those listed in the scope of application, iron oxide (III) according to the invention can be used in numerous other fields in which it is effective lamellar structure of iron oxide (III) with particles of small size class.
1. Natural mechanically crushed iron oxide (III), lamellar structure which is at least 50 wt.%, preferably 75 wt.%, characterized in that it contains particles smaller than 10 μm represent at least 50 wt.%, preferably 70 wt.%, particularly preferably 90 wt.%.
2. Iron oxide (III) according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains particles of 5 microns or less.
3. Iron oxide (III) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the ratio of thickness to a maximum diameter of plates of iron oxide (III) is essentially 1:5, preferably 1:10.
4. Iron oxide (III) according to claim 1, characterized in that it is made in the form of a mixture of iron oxide (III), obtained from natural by means of mechanical grinding, and iron oxide (III) artificial origin.
5. Iron oxide (III) according to claim 2, characterized in that it is made in the form of a mixture of iron oxide (III), obtained from natural by means of mechanical grinding, and iron oxide (III) artificial origin.
6. Iron oxide (III) according to claim 3, characterized in that it is made in the form of a mixture of iron oxide (III)received and the natural by means of mechanical grinding, and iron oxide (III) artificial origin.
7. A method of obtaining a plate of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the iron oxide (III) mechanically ground in an impact mill or jet mill.
8. A method of obtaining a plate of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the iron oxide (III) as a result of mechanical grinding is divided according to the size of the particle or grain size of the grains.
9. A method of obtaining a plate of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the iron oxide (III) as a result of mechanical grinding through the air separator is divided according to the size of the particle or grain size of the grains.
10. The use of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6 for coating, such as varnish, to protect from corrosion to the base.
11. The use of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6 for coating, such as varnish, to protect the foundations from mechanical loads.
12. The use of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6 for coating, such as varnish, to protect the foundations from the light.
13. The use of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6 for application of decorative coatings on articles, such as boats, boards for riding the waves, and decorative items.
14. The use of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6 in the form of fill the El polymer products, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamide, fiberglass-reinforced plastic.
15. The use of iron oxide (III) according to any one of claims 1 to 6 as an additive in ceramic materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in paint and varnish, cosmetic and other industries. Offered aluminium pigments are at least partially covered with greasing and having a) water spread coefficient within 40000 and 130000 cm2/g; b) average thickness h within less than 100 to 30 nm calculated from water spread coefficient and integral distribution h50 by data processing on thickness of scanning electron microscopy; c) relative width Δh of thickness distributions determined by data processing on thickness of scanning electron microscopy and calculated by corresponding relative frequencies integral curve by formula: 70% to 140%; d) form-factors d50/h more than 200; e) roughness degree calculated by specific surface area measured by BET method and spread coefficient according to the following formula: BET value/2 spread coefficient, from 0.30 to 0.9. Method of production of these pigments, as well as varnishes containing these pigments is offered.
EFFECT: production of very thin aluminium pigments without adhesive polymer film having excellent spreading capacity, high gloss value and improved metallic appearance, as well as reduced agglomeration tendency.
26 cl, 10 ex, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the method of obtaining low-dimensional filling materials, which can be used in engineering materials for making composite materials with given functional characteristics. The method involves grinding the raw materials of the layer mineral and thermal treatment of the ground up dispersed particles. Thermal treatment is done by putting the dispersed particles into a non-oxidising thermal gas stream with density of 3·106-8·107 W/m2 for a period of 10-4-10-3 s. The above mentioned stream, containing dispersed particles, is applied to a substrate in form of a steel sheet, heated to 20-100°C. The obtained particles are collected and cooled down to 100-120°C.
EFFECT: invention allows obtaining a filling material with size of not more than 10 nm, with low energy consumption, and is effective when making polymer nano-composites.
FIELD: industrial inorganic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: method of preparing high-quality titanium nanoxide with particle size 10 to 100 nm comprises generation of gas plasma, introducing gas plasma flow, oxygen, and titanium tetrachloride vapors, oxidation of titanium tetrachloride with oxygen in synthesis zone to form titanium dioxide and chlorine, and quenching synthesis products in supersonic nozzle by way of transforming subsonic synthesis products flow escaping synthesis zone into supersonic flow, which is then expanded and cold quenching gas is injected thereto. Prior to enter synthesis zone, titanium tetrachloride is mixed with oxygen at molar ratio between 0.05 and 0.25, respectively. Cold quenching gas is injected when supersonic flow is expanded inside expanding portion of supersonic nozzle having opening angle 10-15°.
EFFECT: improved quality of titanium nanoxide.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: methods and plants for increase of volume density of aerated powders.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of compacting the powder containing oxide or phosphate of metal consists in placing the powder in container and increasing the pressure in its area above atmospheric pressure sufficient for compacting the powder before diffusion of considerable part of gas into powder. Powder containing oxide or phosphate of metal is placed in container and its volume density is increased. Then, concentrated suspension of pigment which is titanium dioxide is prepared. Specification gives description of plant proposed for increase of volume density of powder containing oxide or phosphate of metal and plant for increase of volume density of aerated loose pigment which is just titanium dioxide.
EFFECT: increased volume density of aerated powder; improved consistency; facilitated dispersion in latex paints.
22 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: varnish-and-paint industry.
SUBSTANCE: process of producing titanium dioxide pigment according to chloride technology comprises oxidation of titanium tetrachloride with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas in plasmachemical reactor followed by cooling of reaction products in tempering chamber and subsequent multistep fine grinding of intermediate product, titanium dioxide, by way of affection with supersonic gas flow at 100-500°C and ratio of gas mass intake to titanium dioxide mass intake = 0.2. In the first step of titanium dioxide fine grinding, treatment of titanium dioxide is performed with a dry gas supplemented by vapor of organic or organosilicon modifier having in its molecule at least one of the following functional groups: -OH, -NH2, NH, SH at mass intake of modifier representing 0.1-2.0% of the mass intake of titanium dioxide.
EFFECT: improved quality of titanium dioxide pigment and simplified process of production thereof.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: production of composite materials on base of polymer material at preset functional characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes subjecting the ground fractions of natural laminar minerals to thermal shock continued for 1.0-30 min at temperature gradient no less than 800-1000°C. Proposed method includes mechanical grinding, separation and heat treatment by introducing the weighed portion into working space of heating appliance for realization of thermal shock. To increase gradient of thermal shock, ground semi-finished product is additionally subjected to treatment at temperatures of (-)60-(-)195°C. To enhance efficiency of grinding, semi-finished product is heated to 100-300°C before low-temperature treatment and cycle "heating-cooling-heat treatment by thermal shock" is repeated at least twice. Proposed method makes it possible to obtain dispersed powders at size no more than 10 nm.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements; enhanced efficiency of nano-composites.
4 cl, 3 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to production of black iron oxide pigments and can be used in paint and coating industry. The black iron oxide pigment is obtained from burning red mud - aluminous production waste. Before burning, the red mud is sorted according to size, with selection of the 0.02 mm fraction and further selection of the 0.02-0.045 mm fraction. These fractions are burnt in a controlled atmosphere with oxygen deficiency at 500-1000°C temperature.
EFFECT: obtaining iron oxide pigment of a pure black colour with 8-10 g/m2 coverage using aluminous production wastes - red mud, without more raw materials and additives and pollution of the environment.
FIELD: chemical industry; metallurgy industry; other industries; methods of production of the high purity ferric oxides.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the high purity ferric oxides and may be used in production of the pigments and the catalysts at production of the high purity ferric oxides. The ferric oxides are produced by interaction of the metallic iron made in the form of the microball-shaped particles either the scrap, or the turning chips, which dimensions are such, that the area of their surface per one kg of iron and per one liter of the reaction medium makes more than 0.01 m2 with the being stirred water solution of the carboxylic acid having рКа from 0.5 up to 6 for the first carboxyl and capable to thermolysis in the open air at the temperature of from 200 up to 350°С into carbon dioxide and the water. The ratio between the moles of the carboxylic acid and g-atoms of the iron makes from 0.03 up to 1.5 and the mass ratio of the water/iron - from 1 up to 20, the microball-shaped particles are kept in the suspension by stirring. The produced carboxylate of the ferrum (II) is oxidized up to carboxylate of the ferrum (III) with the oxidant selected from oxygen, the oxygen-containing gaseous mixture and hydrogen dioxide. The earlier produced carboxylate of the ferrum (II) also may be exposed to the oxidizing. Then the carboxylate of the ferrum (III) is heated up in the open air till production of the oxides. The invention allows to increase the purity of the ferric oxides and productivity at their production.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased purity of the produced ferric oxides and productivity at their production.
9 cl, 12 ex
FIELD: chemical and paint-and-varnish industries; production of inorganic pigments.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes leaching-out of serpentine ore mixture containing magnesium and chromium by sulfuric or hydrochloric acid for obtaining iron-containing solution which is treated with hydrogen peroxide and is neutralized to pH= 7.0-8.0. Suspension thus obtained is filtered and iron hydroxide residue is dissolved with sulfuric or hydrochloric acid, then it is treated with alkaline reagent to pH=2.0-6.0 and is filtered. Then, iron hydroxide residue is washed off water-soluble ions, dried and burnt at temperature of 550-700C.
EFFECT: wide range of tints in processing and decontamination of sulfate and chloride waste obtained at production of periclase and chromite concentrate.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: pigment technologies.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in varnish-and-paint industry and in rubber and plastics production. Red iron oxide pigment preparation comprises: oxidation of aqueous solutions of ferric sulfate or suspensions of ferric hydroxide with air oxygen at quasi stationary temperature and pH values of reaction medium; hydrothermal heat treatment of suspension of ferric oxyhydroxides in periodical or continuous regimes in autoclaves; washing-out of pigment from water-soluble salts; drying and grinding of the pigment. During hydrothermal heat treatment FeOOH suspension is affected by nanosecond electromagnetic pulses having following characteristics: pulse duration 0.5-5 ns, pulse amplitude 4-10 kv, pulse repetition frequency 200-1000 Hz. Process is carried out at 130-200°С.
EFFECT: lowered FeOOH suspension hydrothermal heat treatment temperature and increased pigment preparation productivity.
1 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: paint-and-varnish industry; construction engineering; painting plastics and leather; production of enamel paints, primers, putties, wall-paper and veneer.
SUBSTANCE: solution of hydraulic washing-out of used melt of titanium chlorates containing ferrous chloride (II) is treated with alkaline reagent to pH= 2.5-4.5 at precipitation of oxyhydrates of metals. Solution is separated from sediment by filtration. Cleaned solution thus obtained is mixed with solution obtained after leaching-out of copper-containing melt of process of cleaning titanium tetrachloride from vanadium compounds by means of copper powder. Ratio of volumes of said solutions is 1 : (0.5-2), respectively. Mixed solution is treated with alkaline reagent to pH= 9-11. Suspension thus obtained is subjected to filtering. Sediment is washed, dried and calcined additionally at temperature of 400-700°C. Proposed method makes it possible to utilize wastes of process of production of titanium dioxide from titanium tetrachloride. Pigment thus obtained has rich black color, reflection coefficient of 3.5±0.5%, hiding power of 4.5±0.5 g/m2 and pH of aqueous suspension of 7.0±0.5.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: metallurgy; building industry; varnish and paint industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of metallurgy, building industry, varnish and paint industry, in particular, to the method of production of a red ferrioxide pigment. A ball mill is charged with industrial water, loaded with iron oxide with concentration of 500-900 g/dm3, poured with a neutralizing agent in the amount ensuring pH 6 ÷ 10. The iron oxide is formed at a thermal decomposition of the hydrochloride solutions used at etching treatment of carbon steels. As a neutralizing agent it is possible to use caustic soda, a slaked lime, microcalcite. The suspension is pulped for 3-5 hours, put in a reactor with a stirrer, where it is washed out with formation of a suspension, filtered off and dried. The target product has the following parameters: pH 5 ÷ 8; the share of water-soluble salts - 0.02-0.03 %; dispersing ability - 27-30 microns; hiding power - 6 ÷7 g/m2. The invention allows to simplify process and to upgrade parameters of the pigment.
EFFECT: the invention allows to simplify process and to upgrade parameters of the pigment.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: varnish-and-paint industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in chemical industry and construction for preparing varnishes, paints, and rubber products. Gas treatment slime from converter industry is fractioned, fraction up to 10 mm is dehydrated by drying at 70-110°C to at most 5% moisture content and reduced to particles not exceeding 300 μm in size. Color spectrum of product is extended from red to black by calcining disintegrated product at 300 to 900°C. Content of iron oxides in pigment is much higher than in pigments prepared using known processes.
EFFECT: widened resource of raw materials, utilized converter industry waste, and reduced price of product.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: this invention refers to production and application of sorbents. Offered is preparation method of composition for phosphate adsorption, including the stages as follows: a) base addition to aqueous solution containing ferric (III) sulphate and/or nitrate salt solution to deposit ferric hydroxide, b) optional water flush of produced deposit to produce aqueous suspension of ferric hydroxide, c) addition to produced aqueous suspension of component inhibiting deposit ageing ferric hydroxide produced in the stage b), d) drying of composition produced at the stage.
EFFECT: production of phosphate adsorbent with lowered chlorine content of for oral and parenteral preparations for human or animals.
23 cl, 5 ex