Method and equipment for excavation of garden or fuel peat and product out of fuel peat

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of excavation of garden or fuel peat. Peat is extracted from a bog, is transported from the bog at a distance to a drying field, whereon transported peat is dried with the use mainly of direct solar energy so, that peat is being dried under influence of solar radiation and wind. When peat is dried, it is transferred from the drying place for further use or storing. The said drying field is made in form of specially leveled field, in essence not permeable to water and accommodated for drying; peat is spread on the field in form of a thin layer of 1-15 cm thickness of high consistent mass with contents of solid substance of 8-30%.

EFFECT: creating method and equipment which facilitate more efficient use of peat bogs with their banks without producing dust, noise and harmful effect to rivers.

17 cl, 11 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method and equipment for the production of horticultural or fuel peat, in which:

- remove the peat from the bogs,

- move the extracted peat on the distance from the swamp to the field of drying, which is dried displaced peat, using mainly direct solar energy to dry the peat under the action of solar radiation and wind,

- after drying, move the peat from drying for further use or storage.

In addition, the invention relates to the product of fuel peat produced using this method. The invention relates to the drying of waste from timber felling.

Production on an increasing number of wetlands leads to a situation in which reduced their surface area, and production is becoming more difficult due to the reduction of the thickness of the peat layer. On the other hand, requirements for the protection of the environment have become more stringent in regard to discharges into rivers, as well as against dust and noise. In addition, opportunities for production are limited in the vicinity of settlements. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain licenses for new bogs, so you have to fully develop existing marshes with their banks.

Known, for example, from the United Kingdom patent 166576 so-called hydraulic mining of peat, when what oterom use water jet to remove the peat from the bog and pumped it in a very liquefied hydromancy on the field spill, which usually is the area of the swamp, derived from exploitation. Hydromasse, which are distributed across the field of oil spill in the form of a thin layer, allow to dry for several weeks, after which drying pasty layer make at least a longitudinal slot, preferably in the form of pattern separation for bricks, resulting after drying hydromancy formed individual bricks. When using this option, you over the summer to make probably the only one cleaning peat, so the overall performance remains moderate.

In the Finnish patent FI-93855 describes how to peat extraction, which extracts the wet peat from bogs and collect it in a pile in the selected location on the territory of the turf mining sites, with regular intervals turning with a dry side to the other side. In this case, the performance is also reasonable.

When drying peat main problem, apparently, is that drying occurs on wet surfaces, which prevents the drying process. The publication of the Finnish patent 56863 describes the way in which mechanically extracted peat in winter and leave it in the form of small pieces on a plastic film for drying, allowing the pieces of peat to dry even before you be able to thaw the swamp.

When the extraction sado is wow peat aim is drying peat for subsequent processing.

The invention is intended to provide a method and equipment of new type, which allow you to fully use the swamp with their banks without dust formation, occurrence of noise and harmful impact on the river. The invention is characterized by the features set forth in the characterizing part of the independent claims. In addition, the invention relates to a product manufactured from the fuel peat in a new way. If the peat is spread in the form of vysokokonkurentnoj weight solids content, typically 20%, you will need to evaporate significantly less water than when using, for example, hydraulic method of peat extraction.

Peat usually move in vysokokonkurentnoj mass, but possible, in which the peat is pumped in the form of liquefied sludge, press on the edge of the field for education vysokokonkurentnoj tortomasi return the water in the swamp and spread wrung vysokokompetentnoe Thomass on the field drying.

Field drying is preferably an asphalt field. It preferably contains a circulation system environment to feed from the bottom part of the heat of drying. Special field aligned drying has a clear advantage over the field in the swamp. The bottom surface drying of tortomasi no longer in contact with the wet foundations of the tion, that completely changes the conditions of drying.

Peat is preferably moved by pumping through a pipeline from the notches in the storage hopper or directly to the field of drying.

The invention can be applied in many different ways. Different preferred process chain according to the invention (extract from the swamp, transportation, drying on the drying) can be represented as follows:

1) extraction of Tortosa - spin - pumping - drying, for example, thomassy (processed) (soft pieces) with a solids content of 20%,

2) removing the backhoe crushing and screening - pumping - drying (processing) (soft pieces),

3) removing the backhoe crushing and screening - transportation on trailers - drying (chunks of peat) - obtaining granulated peat.

Drying involves spreading mass on the field of drying in the form of a relatively thin layer. In connection with the pumping vysokokonkurentnoj tortomasi, especially in connection with the pumping piston pumps, observed an unexpected phenomenon. As a result of processing caused by pumping, chunks of peat were perfectly dry. It can be assumed that this is particularly intensive processing, of course, can easily be achieved in other ways, and not through pumping vysokokonkurentnoj that is Tomassi. However, the degree of processing required is significantly greater than in known machines for the production of lump peat. When pumping vysokokonkurentnoj tortomasi from the swamp to the field of drying tortomasi receives strong abrasion treatment for at least 10 minutes at medium pressure 3-50 bar. New product from fuel peat, which is removed in the form of small pieces, much denser than any previously known peat product. The density of the pieces is equal to the order of the unit and can be even more. In one experimental batch, the pieces were dried using solar energy to a moisture content of 25%, and in this case, the calorific value was 4.1 MWh/so

The output of granulated peat, which also differs from the foregoing species of peat, with field drying even more than the output of small-sized peat, but its density is less.

For horticultural peat useful high efficiency drying.

According to the invention peat extract suitable cars from the swamp, which is not prepared, or out of the swamp with the main drainage, and is pumped by pipeline to the field of drying. There was less need for the road network.

In the case of transport on trailers peat can also be removed in late winter and carry on winter roads for laying in piles is and field drying. This prevents freezing of piles, the construction of winter roads is cheap. According to the invention the drying is carried out on asphalt field drying or on any other appropriate basis during the spring, summer and autumn. In addition, according to the invention accelerate drying by solar panels. In order to use solar energy, under the asphalt as at heating with Underfloor heating homes, build a network of pipelines through which solar energy is brought under the asphalt and then heats the peat bottom for drying. Used solar panels can be plain black radiators with glycolic filler. You can also use other methods of regeneration of solar energy. The heat transfer medium can also be heated by other means, for example, using the installation for the combustion of fuel, because the price of peat next drying, of course, is still quite low.

Used corroborate equipment is the simplest possible equipment, such as wheeled shovel loader, rasstilanie device, bucket Elevator and, for example, brush rake, with which the dry peat is placed in a pile. As calculated, when using the invention can be achieved annual production rate, m is Nisha least 10000 MWh/ha (MWh/ha/year).

When using the method and equipment according to the invention is achieved, for example, the following advantages:

1) the maximum use of solar energy

2) the maximum drying efficiency, because:

a) extend the period of production, as there are no problems associated with swelling in the cold or humidity and cold,

b) by heating the asphalt work can begin in early spring and continue until late autumn, soon after rain and also more effective to dry the peat night,

C) drying is more efficient, since the energy for drying is supplied from radiation from above and heat from below,

g) you can use short periods of dry weather, as the ground does not absorb moisture, and

d) can more accurately use the weather conditions, because the peat can be quickly removed with a smaller surface area,

3) reduced losses during harvesting of peat,

4) provide environmental protection,

5) accurate extraction of peat from the bottom of the swamp and its edges by means of excavation,

6) does not require the preparation of a bog, and peat can be transported with the use of winter roads,

7) the possibility of developing small and scattered marshy areas,

8) the necessary technology is simple and reliable,

9) to thetsa long life of the equipment contractor (notch raw peat, stage of drying, storage and delivery of peat),

10) the resulting product is either lump peat (soft pieces) brand new type, or granulated peat, which is similar to the existing milled peat

11) reduce weather risks and storage requirements,

12) quickly available area as a carbon sink.

In particular, with regard to environmental protection, it is important to develop small areas at a time when the environmental damage and other harmful effects will be less. In addition, we will reduce water problems, as it does not necessarily require channels on the place of extraction, and the extracted peat will be served on field drying at high consistency. Accordingly, when the production does not arise the problem of dust formation. Also alleviated the problem of occurrence of noise, as the mining simultaneously conducted on small plots. Pumping is almost noiseless. Excavation and transportation are events with a short duration. In addition, it reduces emissions from peat extraction works cars, when the extraction is carried out more efficiently. Also decreases the risk of fire when working in a small area and asphalt field drying, as can be easily installed control and fire-fighting equipment.

Can be held is s different experiments to determine the rate of drying of peat on the pavement or on any other surface under different conditions. Although increased spending on equipment and field drying, increased and, in particular, a production is a competitive economical, especially at the final stage of development of peat bogs.

The invention is further considered with reference to the accompanying drawings showing some embodiments of the invention.

Figure 1 is a side view in section of the General scheme of location of sites for peat extraction,

figure 2 is a top view of the layout of Fig. 1,

figa - side view in partial section nastilochnogo device for vysokokonkurentnoj tortomasi,

fig.3b enlarged view of the device on figa during operation,

4 - pieces of a new product from fuel peat,

figa - side view in section of field drying,

fig.5b - system heating pipes connected with solar collectors,

6 is a solar collector,

7 - changes in pressure when pumping tortomasi in the pump and in the pipeline

Fig cycles of harvesting peat from the so-called soft pieces,

Fig.9 - cycles cleaning new granulated peat.

In the arrangement shown in figures 1 and 2, the peat is extracted from peat bogs 20 and transported by pipeline 28 to the field of drying 10. Most of the peat swamp 20 can be in a natural state, as in this case. Drained (not Asano) and removed from the forest only a small portion of forested swamps, while the rest of the swamp forest preserve, while, in turn, will not be used each small area. Peat is extracted in the region 20.1 body of peat bogs, using the excavator 22, and sieved by the loader 24, which is provided with crushing bucket and which transfers the extracted thomasso to the pump 26. Crusher bucket refers to the type described in U.S. patent 5405092 (ALLU), and is used for screening, for example, wood-based material.

When the experiments used two-piston fail pump KOS 1050 firm Putzmeister, Germany, equipped with a feed device THS 332 LIB. In addition, the pump was equipped with a liquid ring feeder from the manufacturer. The pipeline 28 (150 mm diameter) was made up of sections, some of which were flexible, allowing, thus, to move the pump. If desired, the pump can also be mounted on the chassis of the crawler tractor. The pipe 28 terminates in the collection storage 30, in which tortomasi pumped to transfer rasstilanie device 34. To download tortomasi used bucket truck 32.

Due to water lubrication, the energy consumption for pumping is about 4 kWh/T. the Performance of the prototype pump was 10-11 t/h (=m3/h) at a distance of pumping 300 meters, but this distance may be increased, at least up to 1000 m, this is not the nogo adversely affect the pumping ability. The pipe diameter was 150 mm For lubrication in the compression used 360 l/h of water and a small amount of water has little effect on drying, even if we would have to use several pumps.

With the wetlands ' area of 3 hectares, which was drained as peat extraction (1 m/year), you can obtain the appropriate volume of extraction in the area of drying in 1 hectare In this case, the volume of production (10000 MWh/ha) with the same volume of production of the present milled peat, with the area of 20 ha

The preferred coating for special fields of drying 10 is asphalt, under which or in which there is a network of heating pipes, as will be described below. The method according to the invention will operate without heating, but heating may be prolonged working period and increased production volume. Dried lumpy or granular peat collected in the stack 14 to await transportation to another location. In case of rain drop layer dried granulated peat may be temporarily assembled in a stack, from which it then spread. Field drying 10 is made convex and has a pipe storm drainage for quick removal of rainwater from the field.

Peat can be spread in a uniform layer, using either special rasstilanie device or spreader, apply the akim same way, as the manure spreader. However, when restilt spreader, it would be useful to spread the peat in the form of granules and not break tortomasi when it restilt, as it happens when using disc spreader.

On figa partial section shown rasstilanie device 36 mounted on the trailer. Located below the conveyor belt delivers thomasso to the bunker 362 from which tortomasi served to nastilochnogo the end, which details shown on fig.3b. On rasstilaniem end has Rosstroy drum 364 (diameter 250 mm, width 2.5 m) and coupled with it the top cover 365, which are manipulated using the control device 368. Between them formed by the nozzle 369, which can be adjusted to change the thickness of the facing laminated tape tortomasi W. Directly below the outlet and opposite nastilochnogo drum 364 is wheel-a bill 366, which in peat tape W squeezes figure split into pieces. Scraper 367 provides a separation of peat tape from nastilochnogo drum 364. During the drying of peat tape W it is divided into certain parts and forms lumps of peat. The pieces of peat enable to dry completely without movement, or they can be slightly moved in the direction of the hot part of the open asphalt.

Nafig scale shown chunks of peat, obtained from one experiment. The height of these pieces of peat (at right angles to the plane of the figure) with a small variation is about 15 mm, when the initial thickness of the spreading was about 20 mm, the density of the pieces of peat at moisture content of 50% is nearly unity or even more. Pieces - dense, strong and solid, so that they will withstand the mechanical treatment without harmful dust. Chunks of peat can be easily dried to the solids content of 70-75%. In this case, their calorific value is 3.8 to 4.1 MWh/T. the density of the formed product in the loosened state is 490-510 kg/m3.

On figa shows a side view in section of one field drying 10. In any case, there is an insulating layer 12 under the asphalt. Possible heating layer is located inside or asphalt, or in contact with the bottom surface of the top insulating layer. On the field can be used to narrow the canopy (not shown), which can be collected is lined with a layer in the stack in case of a threat of rain and after rain peat can be covered again after the rainwater will drain into the sewer pipe and the surface of the asphalt will become dry.

As shown in fig.5b, a network of heating pipes 40 preferably contains pipe 40.1, 40.2, which have a zigzag located the group and powered by solar collectors 42 at opposite ends with the use of pumps 44. This results in uniform heating over the entire area of the field. In this case, the block size is equal to 5 m40 m, and the pipe spaced from each other at intervals of 200 mm placed at a depth of 80-100 mm Used plastic pipes with a diameter of 20 mm (UPONOR Wirsbo 202,0 PN6 Q&E pePEX).

In pipes circulating a heat transfer medium (a mixture of water and glycol), which is heated using these solar collectors 42.

The heat transfer medium is such that the heating and, thus, also the drying continues even after sunset. In the summer the surface of the asphalt can be easily heated to 50C., and the environment in solar collectors to more than 70C. Due to the presence of a base and heating the drying takes place so quickly that the surface drying time is one-twentieth part of the area that is required when conventional oil. Thus, the required surface area of the base is from a few thousand square meters to several hectares. The thickness intended for drying peat layer in the cycle is about 50 mm of the Bottom heat has preferably 2-30% of this area, most preferably 5-15%. Under certain conditions, even a small heater will have a significant impact on the humidity.

You can use a solar collector 42 Ljubo is of known type. As shown in Fig.6, one collector contains several modules 42.1 grouped together with their supporting frame 42.2. Usually the frame is set at a constant angle, but for maximum energy can also be used rotating the device.

When pumping tortomasi with a consistency of 20% is an intensive treatment thomassy. 7 shows the results of test pumping in the pipeline with a length of 100 m (diameter 5.5 inches), which is within 7 minutes transported Thomass at a distance of 100 meters Lubricated with water was performed at 5.5 l/min As shown in this drawing, when moving tortomasi in the pipeline can detect the cycle of the pressure change in about 10 minutes as in the pump (P)and distance (S=50 m). In this case, the interval moves piston is only a few seconds, i.e. much shorter than this interval. Due to transportation tortomasi, for example, at a distance of 300 m, continuing for about 20 minutes, is abrasive machining of relatively long duration, which unexpectedly improves the ability of the peat to dry, making it much better than previously. The cellular structure of the peat breaks down so that drying can occur more easily than in the peat in its natural state.

On Fig shows the cycles Burkinafaso product of fuel peat, called soft lump peat, with a rather poor conditions (without heating from below). Evaporation was usually less than 5 m, while the best indicator equal to 6-7 mm rainfall are shown as vertical columns, and they, of course, extended drying time. Under good conditions can be achieved cycle cleaning in one day.

Data on five sample cleaning (soft lump peat):

- the initial moisture content of peat 82-86%;

- the spreading of 180-200 m3/ha;

output 95-105 m3/ha;

- drying time 70-120 hours;

- 180-200 MWh/ha/dry cleaning.

Figure 9 shows the corresponding cycles of cleaning for granulated peat without heating from below. In the best case you can achieve (in Finland) to three cleaning cycles per day.

Data on 13 experienced cleaning (granulated peat):

- the initial moisture content of peat 74-77%;

- the spreading of 100-120 m3/ha;

output 55-70 m3/ha;

- the drying time of 10-100 hours;

- 60-76 MWh/ha/dry cleaning.

According to the invention paved the field can also be used for disposal of wastes from timber felling.

In this case:

- collect from forest waste from timber felling and transport them to the distance to the place of drying,

- cut on the waste chips from tree-felling,

- essentially dried wood chips on site drying, using direct solar energy, so the chips dries under the influence of solar radiation and wind,

- after drying, transport chips from drying for further use or storage.

Mentioned here place drying is paved field drying on which the chips are spread in a thin layer of thickness of 1-10 cm, preferably 1-5, see the Drying is carried out according to the same inventive idea of using solar energy and, possibly with the assistance of heat from below.

1. The production method of the garden or fuel peat, which
remove the peat from the bogs (8),
move the extracted peat on the distance from the swamp (8) to the field of drying, which is dried displaced peat, using mainly direct solar energy to dry the peat under the action of solar radiation and wind,
after drying, move peat (12) from drying for further use or storage, characterized in that the field drying is carried out in a special field aligned essentially impermeable to water and adapted for drying, and the peat is spread out in this field in the form of a thin layer of a thickness of 1-15 cm, preferably 2-6 cm, vysokokonkurentnoj mass with solid content 8%to 30%, preferably 15-25%.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat field drying, using internal circulation environment under lined by a layer of peat for heating of the peat layer.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the circulating medium at least partially heated using solar collectors placed at the side of the field drying.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the field drying is asphalt.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the peat move when, in fact, the consistency of stilke.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that Tohmatsu move, mainly through pump vysokokonkurentnoj thomassy and pipeline.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the pumping carry out a reciprocating pump.

8. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that to reduce friction supply pipeline, at least in one place coaxially water jacket.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the peat move on the trailer.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that lined the extruded layer pattern separation for the formation of pieces of uniform size.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the size of the piece of turf in the figure division is 10-40 mm, preferably 20-30 mm in greatest dimension.

12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that they form a granulated peat, turning the dried Thomass at least once.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the extract of peat swamp excavator, crushed and receivet to move.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the extract peat from bogs Tortosa and wring out until the specified content of solids.

15. The product of fuel peat, which contains mainly dried peat in the form of small solid pieces and which has a moisture content of 20-50%, characterized in that the peat is highly air-conditioned vysokokonkurentnoj mass, which is processed by pumping for at least 10 minutes at medium pressure 2-80 bar and has a solids content 8 to 30%, preferably 15-25%, and which is used to make blank pieces of peat, which allows essentially free of drying to a selected final moisture content.

16. The product of fuel peat in 15, characterized in that the size of the pieces of peat is 10-50 mm, preferably 15-25 mm in greatest dimension.

17. The product of fuel peat in item 15 or 16, characterized in that the weight of the product of fuel peat is 0.8-1.1 kg/DM3.
Priority items:

17.10.2003 - claims 1 to 5;

09.09.2004 - p-17.



 

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FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of excavation of garden or fuel peat. Peat is extracted from a bog, is transported from the bog at a distance to a drying field, whereon transported peat is dried with the use mainly of direct solar energy so, that peat is being dried under influence of solar radiation and wind. When peat is dried, it is transferred from the drying place for further use or storing. The said drying field is made in form of specially leveled field, in essence not permeable to water and accommodated for drying; peat is spread on the field in form of a thin layer of 1-15 cm thickness of high consistent mass with contents of solid substance of 8-30%.

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1 dwg

FIELD: drying equipment engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has frame with frontal and backward rotary support rollers, sole with groove on surface and heaters placed therein. Device is provided with mechanism for vertical displacement of soil, placed between ends of frame and sole, on running surface of rollers ball-like shelves are placed in staggered order. Vertical displacement mechanism is made of guide with post, held on the middle of each frame end, and of screw positioned on guide aperture, having two nuts, on sole surface groove is made along shape of common sine curve in form of even size portions serially placed one after the other along and symmetrically to longitudinal axis of sole. One nut is set on screw above said guide and made in form of hub and wheel placed below it, rigidly interconnected by rods, and other nut is set on screw below the guide. Size of ball-like shelves, length and width of sole are determined from mathematical formulae.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

11 dwg

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