Method of control over speed and momentum of movable block for preventing collision with head and floor of installation for well repair
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method of control over movement of block on drilling rig. According to the first version the method consists in determination of speed of the movable block, of position of the block within the range of displacement, of load of weight on the movable block, in comparison of speed of the movable block with maximum value of speed, notably, that maximum value of speed is determined in function of weight of load on the movable block and position of the block in the range of displacement. Also speed of the movable block is controlled so, as to maintain its speed at maximum value of speed or below it. According to the second version the method provides for determination of speed of the movable block, of position of the movable block within the range of displacement, and also weight of load on the movable block, for calculation of momentum of the movable block, for comparison of momentum of the movable block with maximum value of momentum. Also speed of the movable block is controlled so, as to maintain its momentum at maximum value of momentum or below it.
EFFECT: increased safety of rig operation.
24 cl, 12 dwg
Prerequisites to the creation of inventions
After drilling an oil well using a drilling rig, and introducing into the well casing drilling rig is dismantled and shipped with the operating platform. From this point to service wells typically use mobile repair unit or installation for well workover. Service wells includes, for example, the installation and removal of internal columns, pipes, sucker rods and pump. This is usually done using a system with cable lifting mechanism that includes a movable unit that raises and lowers the specified column of pipes, sucker rods and pump.
In U.S. patent No 4,334,217 described system to control movement of the mobile unit on the rig. In the mentioned patent describes that the mobile unit can be raised or lowered beyond safe boundaries move. This is called exit through the cap (collision with cap), if the mobile unit reaches its highest safe position, and the collision with the deck, if it reaches its lowest safe position. Collision with cap or floor can cause damage to equipment and/or create a hazard to personnel working at the facility. As the system operator shall we rope hoist often cannot see the position of the mobile unit and/or the distraction of the operator from observing the position of the mobile unit, the operator may accidentally crossing the boundaries of safe provisions of the mobile unit.
In U.S. patent No 4,334,217 noted the problem of dangerous operation of the lifting mechanism and its proposed solution, according to which measure the total distance traveled by the mobile unit, and then compare it with a reference point such as the upper position (position at the tip) and the lower position (position of flooring) mobile unit. The proposed electronic system for indicating the position of the mobile unit to the system operator of the lifting mechanism. In the case when the operator is in error does not stop the mobile unit is outside the upper or the lower position, the system automatically disables the equipment lifting mechanism, if these limits are violated.
Despite the fact that in U.S. patent No 4,334,217 an attempt is made to solve the dangerous operate the lifting mechanism for the oil rig, there are still many unresolved issues, if you apply proposed in U.S. patent No 4,334,217 solution for repairing wells. For example, system hoist installations for repair of wells have significantly better performance than the corresponding systems for oil rigs, therefore, proposed in U.S. patent No 4,334,217 system n which can prevent the collision of the fast-moving mobile unit with cap or with the flooring. Moreover, automatic shutdown this system leads to abrupt system shutdown, hoisting mechanism and traveling block. A sudden stop can create hazardous conditions during operation of the plant for repair of wells and may even cause damage to the equipment as a mobile unit often carries great weight, often more than 45,400 kilograms
Summary of invention
The present invention allows to improve the solution, disclosed in U.S. patent No 4,334,217, and to offer a more secure system that can be used at facilities for repair of wells. The proposed system performs calculation of a position of the mobile unit, the speed, weight and momentum previously activate the braking system to slow down and, if necessary, to stop mobile unit. The system takes into account these parameters with slow moving and/or stop of the mobile unit, when it comes to the position of the headgear or flooring. This provides a much safer operation of the mobile unit at the facility for repair of wells, as well as on an oil drilling rig.
Brief description of drawings
Figure 1 shows a side view of the installation for repair of wells with their issued (extended) derrick-crane.
Figure 2 shows a side view of the installation for REM the NTA wells with its retracting (retracted) derrick-crane.
Figure 3 shows the lifting and lowering of the inner tube of the column.
Figure 4 shows a first variant of the present invention.
Figure 5 schematically shows the control of the mobile unit to prevent clashes with the flooring.
Figure 6 shows an alternative control mobile unit to prevent clashes with the flooring.
7 shows another alternative control mobile unit to prevent clashes with the flooring.
On Fig schematically shows the control of the mobile unit to prevent collision with the helmet.
Figure 9 shows a simplified block diagram of one embodiment of a control system in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 10 shows a simplified block diagram of a system throttling traffic to prevent collisions with cap and floor in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 11 shows a logic diagram showing how one of the variants of this system.
On Fig shows a graph of the operation of one embodiment of the regulator of momentum.
A detailed description of the preferred options
Refer first to a consideration of figure 1, showing the retractable stand-alone installation for repair of wells 20, which contains the bogie frame 22 that supports riveau wheels 24, the engine 26, the hydraulic pump 28, an air compressor 30, the first transmission gear 32, the second transmission 34, the lifting mechanism of the variable speed 36, block 38, expand (lengthen) the derrick 40, the first hydraulic cylinder 42, a second hydraulic cylinder 44, the monitor 48 and retractable rack 50. The motor 26 is selectively connected to the wheels 24 and the lifting mechanism 36 by means of the transmission 34 and 32, respectively. The engine 26 also drives the hydraulic pump 28 through line 29, and the air compressor 30 through line 31. The compressor 30 actuates pneumatic slip (not shown)and the pump 28 actuates a set of hydraulic tongs for pipes (not shown). The pump 28 also actuates the cylinders 42 and 44, which are extended accordingly and turn the derrick 40 so as to selectively set the derrick 40 is in the operating position (figure 1) and in stenothoe position (figure 2). In the working position the derrick 40 is directed upwards, but its longitudinal Central line (axis) 54 is displaced from the vertical by the angle 56. This angular offset 56 allows the block 38 to have access to the wellbore 58 without interference from the frame derrick-crane and allows quick installation and removal of internal pipe segments, such as the inner pipe string 62 and/or pump rod (Fig.).
When installing the inner tube segments, the individual pipe segments sbencivu together using a hydraulic wrench for pipe (not shown). Hydraulic wrench for pipe known in themselves, and this term refers to any hydraulic tool, which allows you to screw together two pipes or pump rod. During operations of acquisition, block 38 supports each pipe segment, while it is screwed into the bore of the string of pipe. After the connection block 38 supports the column pipe segments so that the new pipe segment can be lowered into the well. After lowering the column is fixed, and the unit 38 selects another pipe segment to connect to the entire column. On the contrary, during retrieval operations unit 38 raises the column of pipe segments from the well, while at least one individual segment will not leave on the earth's surface. The column is fixed, and then the block 38 supports pipe segment while it is disconnected from the column. Block 38 then moves the individual pipe segment to the standby position and is returned to lifting so that other individual pipe segments can be separated from the column.
Let us turn again to the consideration of figure 1, which shows that the weight g is connected to the block 38, measure, for example, by a hydraulic Shoe 92, which supports the weight of the derrick-crane 40. Usually hydraulic Shoe 92 is a piston in the cylinder, but it may be the diaphragm. Hydraulic pressure in the Shoe 92 increases with the weight on the block 38, and this pressure can be monitored to assess the weight of the load on the unit. To determine the weight of the load on the unit can be used with other types of sensors, including main indicators attached to the stationary end of the pulley rope hoist, strain sensors, which measure any attached to the derrick-crane compression forces, or torque units installed in different positions on the derrick-crane or on the cap. While the load weight can be measured in any way, it should be borne in mind that the exact value of the dimension is not critical in accordance with the present invention, however, it is important that the weight of the load on the block was measured.
The lifting mechanism 36 controls the movement of the cable 37 that extends from the lifting mechanism 36 over the top of the unit wheel cap 55, located at the top of the derrick-crane 40 and supporting mobile (mobile) unit 38. The lifting mechanism 36 spool and unwind the cable 37, causing the movable block 38 moves the tsya between its upper position the unit for the wheel cap 55 and its lower position in flooring, normally the position of the wellbore 58, but this may be the position at the height of the raised platform above the wellbore 58 (not shown). The position of the mobile unit between its upper position the cap and the bottom position of flooring should always be controlled, for example, using the system described in U.S. patent No 4,334,217.
The system in accordance with U.S. patent No 4,334,217 contains a magnetic sensor or a sensor of another type with electrical output signal, which is operatively installed in the immediate vicinity of the node of rotation of the cable winding mechanism 36 or block the wheels of the cap 55, and generates an electrical pulse when the node is rotated. Alternative photovoltaic device can be used to obtain the necessary electrical impulses. These electrical impulses are sent in electronic equipment which counts the electrical pulses and combines them with the value of the multiplier, the result of which determine the position of the mobile unit. While in the mentioned patent describes one method of measuring the position of the mobile unit, in accordance with the present invention can successfully be used and other means, such as pulse position sensor, an optical position sensor, linear position sensor is of 4-20 or any other known device of this type. A means of measuring the position of the block 38 is not critical in accordance with the present invention, however, it is important that the position of the block is measured and is known.
Since the position of the mobile unit is known, the speed of the mobile unit can easily be calculated using the system described here. For example, in its simplest form, the speed of the mobile unit can be calculated by determining the position of the mobile unit at the first point, then determine the position of the mobile unit at the second point, calculate the distance between them and dividing the distance traveled by the elapsed time of the move. If for positioning a mobile unit using a pulse system, for example, one in which used pulse position sensor or an optical position sensor, the speed can be calculated by counting the number of pulses per unit of time. If to determine the position of the mobile unit using the device 4-20, it is necessary to calculate the rate of change of current per unit time to determine the speed of the block, and the current is the output signal of the position transmitter 4-20.
If the weight of the load, the speed and the position of the mobile unit is known, the mobile unit can be safely delayed (retarded) and gradually stopped using the brake C is theme, taking into account these variables before starting the deceleration of the mobile unit. When you want to prevent a collision with cap (the cap, crown out), the system first finds the speed and the vertical position of the mobile unit, depending on which area (in any position) is the block (figure 4), and the processor compares the actual speed with the maximum speed for this area. If the speed is less than the maximum allowable value, for example, is 0.61 m/s in region 108, or may be, 1.22 m/s in the Central region 112, then nothing happens. If, on the other hand, the speed of the block exceeds the permissible maximum speed for this particular area, the system can warn the operator (for example, using audible alarm)that he moves the unit too quickly, and can block the throttle by the operator to slow the movement of the block, or may hold the throttle of the engine to the point at which the speed is reduced to an acceptable level, or to use any combination of both. This methodology allows the team to operate at full capacity when lifting heavy loads at full engine speed at any point along the axis 104-106, provided that supported the ultimate security is th operating speed. Each transition zone 108, 112 and has its own maximum speed of the mobile unit, and the average area 112 has a maximum speed higher than zone deceleration (braking) 108 and 110.
On the other hand, if the rate of rise exceeds the specified value, the system automatically sends a signal to the controller throttle to slow the rate of climb, regardless of the operating point of the regulator throttle set by the operator for repair of wells. The slow movement of the block when its occurrence in the region 108 prevents the output block for the headgear, as it moves slowly enough to stop earlier reaching a specified upper limit for avoiding collision with cap (crown out). The system may have a zone of required deceleration (field 108), in which the maximum speed of the block is lower than in region 112, and the speed limit takes into account and considers the internal delay associated with the time information processing, reaction time brake and braking distance between the input unit in region 108 and cap. In other words, the system needs time to measure the speed of the mobile unit, for processing data for the beginning of the braking action, and then to the brake drum deistvitel is but produced an inhibition. In some embodiments, this time is about 0.5 sec, however, it is easy to see that this time should be determined in the case of each particular system. Ultimately, the system should have sufficient time to slow down and stop the unit before it reaches the extreme upper or lower position. Regardless of the speed of the block when the block reaches the predetermined upper limit position shown in figure 4 as the upper point 104 (upper travel limit), the system automatically stops the moving up of the mobile unit, by switching the engine in the idling mode, the disengagement of the clutch drum and activate the Parking brake drum.
Another variant of the present invention is to prevent out of the helmet through the use of an "infallible" omni (always) reading metal detector, located in the immediate vicinity of the cap installation. In accordance with the first variant, this metal detector is a detector of the type Banner S18M. When this metal detector is properly wound on the installation that can be done by the professionals in such detectors, then it forms an additional means for stopping the movement of the mobile unit, if it is near the position of the output for the headgear. At the mouth of the information in series with the clutch, the throttle of the engine and the drive of the brake, for example, if the detector detects metal (mobile unit), it opens (breaks) chain clutch throttle and brake, whereby the upward movement of the specified block is terminated. Therefore, if the processor or the position sensor fails during normal operation, the detector becomes the latest safety device to stop the traveling block. This detector must be installed and calibrated so that it does not work when moving the unit in the normal operating region derrick-crane, but it worked and, therefore, open circuit, when the unit gets too close to the cap, regardless of whether the position sensor or the processor in an active state or working properly. Thus, in the event of failure of a processor, a complete failure of electrical equipment, malfunction of the position sensor or any other type of system failure, the metal detector still allows you to prevent a collision block with cap.
When the block moves down through region 108 and 112, when the speed of the block below the specified or calculated maximum values for this field, for example, is 2.4 meters per second, then nothing happens. When the unit is in the lower region 110, to ora is in close proximity to the lower breakpoints 106, the speed limit is reduced, but again nothing happens, if the measured speed in this area is below the set limit value. The maximum speed of the downward movement in the regions 104 and 108 can be entered into the control system in the form of a preset value or alternative can be calculated using a simple algebraic equation. An equation of this type can take many forms, but in its simplest form, this equation takes into account the weight of the load and the amount of movement of the mobile unit. As the weight of the load can be measured in (92), we can calculate the maximum allowable speed based on the load on the hook, divided by the maximum number of cargo movement, as shown below:
Maximum speed = Amount of traffic (max) / Weight of the mobile unit.
In some embodiments, the weight can be measured and plotted on a graph according to the given speed of the block from the weight of the load on the unit, as shown in Fig. In this embodiment, after calculating the weight of the load the system can refer to the chart to determine the maximum allowable speed of the block when it moves down in the areas 104 and 108.
On the contrary, if the mobile unit is moved at a speed whose value exceeds the specified value, the system then takes into account both speed re is vignolo block, and the speed of movement of the load, before the brake block. For example, if the cargo weight is 18,160 kg, and the speed exceeds a preset value, for example, 0.6 m per second, then at a given altitude send a signal to start slowing moving down the block, so that by the time when the block reaches the lowest point of its travel, it could completely stop without colliding with the floor.
In accordance with the first variant, the speed of the mobile unit is proportional to the weight of the load on the mobile unit. For example, if you weight 18,160 kg limit set speed is 0.6 m per second, when the weight 22,700 kg limit set speed will be lower, and when the weight 13,620 kg limit set speed will be higher. This allows you to effectively calculate the amount of movement of the mobile unit to determine how to slow down (decelerate) the mobile unit. In accordance with a second embodiment, only the maximum weight of cargo and only the speed limit can be used to simplify calculations. In accordance with a second embodiment, the system allows the unit to move freely in the lower range, if the mobile unit carries a small load or carry it at all.
In accordance with the first variant, the mobile unit slows down by using air brakes connected to the KLA is an with proportional control. For example, if the specified protected range of motion is 3.1 m above the bottom travel limit, then at 3.1 m valve with proportional control can make 10% air pressure to the brake. At 2.7 m valve with proportional control can make 20%, and at 2.4 m can make 30%, etc. up to 100%when the block reaches the lower limit of movement, while the mobile unit stops smoothly.
We now turn to a consideration of figure 4, which shows the installation of the workover unit, a supporting string of pipe. The unit makes a full move between the cap 55 of the lifting mechanism and the flooring near the mouth of the bore 58. Point is before the cap is the upper limit of travel 104, where the mobile unit will completely shut down the system. Point before flooring is the lower limit of movement 106, where the mobile unit will completely shut down the system. The range below the upper limit represents the upper protected range of movement 108. As has been mentioned here before, in this range, if the speed exceeds the specified value, it sends a signal to the controller of the engine to reduce the speed of the mobile unit, so that when it reaches its upper limit of movement 104, it can be reliably stopped. Analogictech above the lower limit is the lower of the protected range of motion 110. As has been mentioned here before, in this range, measure the speed and weight (optional), and if the rate or amount of movement of the mobile unit exceeds a preset value, a signal is sent on the brake to start the deceleration of the mobile unit, so that when it reaches its lower limit 106, it can be safely stopped.
In some embodiments, the operator has a disable button automation that allows the operator if necessary to maintain control over the entire range of its movement, without the use of an automatic control system.
We now turn to a consideration of figure 5-9, showing another variant of the present invention in graphical form. When the block moves down, as shown in figure 5, the amount of motion of the block can be calculated by multiplying the weight of the cargo on the block at the block rate. The distance required to stop the load, increases with the amount of movement. Therefore, the braking distance SD may be calculated by multiplying the amount of movement of the block To a value that is a simple introductory rate in the control system that slows down the block. Located on the installation of the control system calculates the braking distance on the basis of this equation. The braking distance definition is here as the distance above the lower limit position of the stop block.
The lower limit position stop is the bottom point up to which you can move the block, and it is usually introduced into the control system by the operator of the installation.
Refer first to a consideration of figure 5, which shows a block is moving downward with a speed of 6.3 m / sec. If the load on the hook is, for example, 45,400 kg, and the value of the average 00001 s/1b (s/f), used the computer, then the calculated stopping distance SD will be 6.3 m above the lower limit stop. When the unit reaches the start point of the estimated braking distance, the control system begins to transmit an alternating electrical signal in the loop proportional integral differential (PID) control to the brake device installation. In accordance with the first variant, the electrical signal is sent to the electropneumatic Converter or valve with proportional control, the function of which when receiving an electrical signal is the creation of the output air pressure proportional to an electrical signal. Exhaust air is directed through the tube to the air brake cylinder, resulting starts braking unit. In accordance with the first variant, proportional integral differential (PID) controller used in the t for braking unit between the point of the beginning of the braking distance and the lower limit position stop. The PID controller is simple to perform current control velocity or momentum of the block and send a signal to the specified electro-pneumatic Converter or valve with proportional control to increase or decrease the air pressure as needed to stay on the desired braking curve, shown in figure 5.
Let us now turn to the consideration of Fig.6, which shows that reducing the weight of the shipment, the point of beginning of braking distance will be closer to the lower limit position stop. If you compare 6 with figure 5, it appears that if 22,700 kg lowered into the well using this same value To, as the braking distance and the slope of the curve braking would be half of what you receive when lowering into the well 45,400 kg
Let us now turn to the consideration of Fig.7, which shows that with decreasing speed and maintaining the same weight on the unit, the braking distance is reduced, however, the slope of deceleration curve remains the same. If you compare 7 with figure 5, it appears that if 45,400 kg lowered into the well with the speed per second instead of 3.1 meters per second, using this same value, then the braking distance would be half of what you receive when lowering into the borehole 45,000 kg with a speed of 3 meters per second, however, the slope of deceleration curve will remain the same.
The same concept is shown in Fig for lifting. The speed of moving up is controlled by the control system in such a way that at a given point of the beginning of braking, which is located slightly below the highest point of the moving block, the control system first reduces the engine speed, then slows down a moving block. Thus, instead of actuating the brake, as in the case of a move block down the speed of the lifting mechanism is simply reduced, which leads to slower moving block. This can be accomplished by the signal controller of the control system, which produces a proportional control the throttle of the engine, which, like the brake is activated in proportion to the control signal and slows the movement of the block. The starting point of deceleration is calculated based on the speed of the unit, the weight of the cargo and the K-factor, in much the same way as it is done to calculate the braking distance to move down. In some embodiments, the weight of the load can be neglected and taken into account when determining the starting point of the deceleration of speed. The starting point of the deceleration control system using PID controller keeps the unit on the curve deceleration by reducing speed is vegetale. The brake can still be used to move up, especially if the block reaches the upper point limit movement or to the upper position of the moving block specified by the operator. After reaching this position, the control system may include a brake and disconnect the clutch drum, which leads to the cessation of rotation of the drum and to stop moving up a block. A simplified block diagram of this control system is shown in Fig.9.
Another variant of the present invention involves the use of a regulator of the amount of movement in the installation. This control of the amount of movement is not only useful for protection against collision of the mobile unit with cap and flooring, but also useful for protecting the installation and members of the brigade from excessive mechanical stresses in the pipe sections, and a derrick-crane, when the installation enters the pipe section into the well. When performing standard operations introduction into the borehole, it is desirable that the mobile unit could perform free fall through region 108 and 112, if he has a light load, and could hinder or reduce his speed, if he has a heavy load. On Fig shows one example of such a concentration. For example, if the weight of the load on the mobile unit is less than 9,080 kg, the unit can move with what Rostami to 6.1 meters per second. If the weight of the load on the hook increases, the maximum permissible speed is reduced so as to maintain the amount of movement of the mobile unit within the safe area. For example, in accordance with the schedule Fig, when the load weight unit constituting 18,160 kg, the maximum speed of the move down could reach 3.4 meters per second. However, when the weight of the load on the hook of more than 34,050 kg, maximum speed will be down to only about 1.2 meters per second. The specified controller number of motion operates only in the regions 108 and 112 of figure 4 and does not affect the above-mentioned areas to prevent the collision with cap and flooring. Needless to say, the above weight and speed are shown for example only. Actual values may vary from one installation to another, the operator must determine these values before using the specified controller number of the movement. Valid values depend on various factors, including the type of installation, the operating parameters used by the operator, and the security level with which it wishes to operate the operator.
We now turn to a consideration of figure 10, which shows a simplified block diagram of a system controller of momentum, designed to prevent the treatment collision with cap and flooring. In the system, enter data from the position sensor pipe drum (or from any other position indicator block) and from the sensor weight and calculate the speed, position and weight of the cargo on the mobile unit, using sensor data. The processor system using loop PID, compares the actual speed values and weight values stored in the system memory. In accordance with the first option, enter data into the system memory is produced in a single operation, however, as has already been mentioned here previously, in a separate embodiment, the memory system can be in the form of a graph, as shown in Fig. Using loop PID compares the actual values with the values stored in memory to ensure that you find the system below the line on the graph Fig or below the values specified speed for the given position.
Let us now turn to the consideration 11, which shows a logic diagram showing how one of the variants of this system. If the speed exceeds the maximum allowed, then the PID controller sends an output signal to the target module, which, in turn, actuates a brake to slow the movement of the mobile unit. This process is repeated until such time as the unit will not stop or will not come on the flooring, and if you move up a mobile unit, loop (feedback) will throttle the engine to slow the movement of the block. Needless to say that the maximum speed will change when the mobile unit is in the upper or lower zone of slowing.
Assume that you use one of the examples of such a system, the operator enters a heavy string of pipe into the well and exceeds the maximum allowable speed. If the bottom of the tubing facing ledge deposits (in the borehole), only for one moment, if the block is lowered too quickly, he can let go of the string of pipe after stopping its downward movement. If the column pipe down, she could fall and make a sudden blow to the mobile unit. This is common in the field. Created by free-falling column of tubes of force may sometimes exceed 45,400 kg, which can lead to significant damage to the installation and the pipe string, as well as to create a dangerous situation for the operator. When using this system, if exceeded the maximum speed, the mobile unit automatically slows down, thereby substantially reducing the probability of a catastrophic event of this type, since the operator is able to capture the block before you release the column t the UB.
In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention, all of the emergency situation that occurred in the immediate vicinity of the cap or covering, are entered into the data logger. For example, if the control system takes over the management of the unit and stops him as he is too close to the point of limiting move, this event is entered into the computer on the installation. The message of this event is then passed to the Central computer system that allows you to learn about the management of the company, serving well. Because this message is logged, the guide serves well the company can find out what the operator was created danger when the installation or worked too close to the limit values.
Despite the fact that have been described preferred embodiments of the invention, it is clear that it specialists in this field can be amended and supplemented, which do not extend, however, beyond the scope of the following claims. For example, many variants are described as useful for installations for repair of wells, but it should be borne in mind that these options can successfully be used on standard drilling rigs and other types of oil rigs.
1. The way to control what korostil mobile unit for repair wells,
which includes the following operations:
the determination of the velocity of the mobile unit, the position of the mobile unit in range of movement and also the weight of the load on the sliding block;
the comparison of the speed of the mobile unit with a maximum speed value, and the maximum velocity is determined in function of the weight of the load on the sliding block and the block's position in the range of movement; and regulate the speed of the mobile unit so as to maintain its speed at maximum speed or below it.
2. The method according to claim 1, in which the speed of the mobile unit is produced by reducing the motor speed, the control of the mobile unit.
3. The method according to claim 1, in which use an audible alarm when the speed of the mobile unit exceeds the maximum value.
4. The method according to claim 1, in which the maximum velocity in the upper zone of deceleration range of movement of the mobile unit is lower than the maximum velocity at a point directly below the upper zone of deceleration.
5. The method according to claim 4, in which the maximum velocity in the upper zone of deceleration continuously decreases from the base area to the top area.
6. The method according to claim 4, in which the length of the upper zone of deceleration is proportional to the amount of movement of the mobile is th block.
7. The method according to claim 1, in which the maximum velocity in the lower zone of deceleration range of movement of the mobile unit is lower than the maximum velocity at a point directly above the lower zone of slowing.
8. The method according to claim 7, in which the maximum velocity in the lower zone of deceleration continuously decreases from the top zone to the base of the zone.
9. The method according to claim 7, in which the length of the lower zone of deceleration is proportional to the amount of movement of the mobile unit.
10. The method according to claim 1, which additionally includes the operation of determining when a mobile unit reaches the upper position, and the operation of stopping the movement of the mobile unit, when it reached its highest position.
11. The method according to claim 10, in which the operation of determining the upper position is carried out using a metal detector, detecting a mobile unit.
12. The method according to claim 1, in which the speed of the mobile unit to reduce the use of air brakes connected to the valve with proportional control.
13. The method according to claim 1, in which the range of movement has an upper limit and a lower limit, and the method further provides for the registration of the information that the mobile unit has reached the upper limit or lower limit.
14. SP is a way to control the amount of movement of the mobile unit,
the determination of the velocity of the mobile unit, the position of the mobile unit in range of movement and also the weight of the load on the sliding block;
calculating the amount of movement of the mobile unit;
comparing the amount of movement of the mobile unit with the maximum value of the quantity of motion; and
regulation of the speed of the mobile unit so as to maintain its momentum when the maximum value of the quantity of motion or below it.
15. The method according to 14, in which the speed of the mobile unit is produced by reducing the motor speed, the control of the mobile unit.
16. The method according to 14, in which use an audible alarm when the speed of the mobile unit exceeds the maximum speed value.
17. The method according to 14, in which the maximum value of the quantity of motion in the upper zone of deceleration range of movement of the mobile unit is lower than the maximum value of momentum at a point directly below the upper zone of deceleration.
18. The method according to 17, in which the maximum value of the quantity of motion in the upper zone of deceleration continuously decreases from the base area to the top area.
19. The method according to 17, in which the length of the upper zone of deceleration is proportional to the amount of movement of the mobile is on the block.
20. The method according to 14, in which the maximum value of the quantity of motion in the lower zone of deceleration range of movement of the mobile unit is lower than the maximum value of momentum at a point directly above the lower zone of slowing.
21. The method according to claim 20, in which the maximum value of the quantity of motion in the lower zone of deceleration continuously decreases from the top zone to the base of the zone.
22. The method according to claim 20, in which the length of the lower zone of deceleration is proportional to the amount of movement of the mobile unit.
23. The method according to 14, in which the speed of the mobile unit to reduce the use of air brakes connected to the valve with proportional control.
24. The method according to 14, in which the range of movement has an upper limit and a lower limit, and the method further provides for the registration of the information that the mobile unit has reached the upper limit or lower limit.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed drive incorporates drive shaft, motor-driven flywheel, clutch fitted between flywheel and drive shaft and clutch control mechanism. Proposed drive incorporates also a centrifugal automatic clutch control mechanism made up of two three-arm levers articulated to the said flywheel. First levers are jointed by cup and bearing with movable half-coupling fitted on drive shaft to be locked thereon in working and initial positions. Second levers are in contact with spring-loaded con-rods arranged inside weights diametrically arranged inside flywheel to move unobstructed together with the said weights. Weights are linked up by pivoted linkage tied by return springs, the said linkage being furnished with a rocker set free on drive shaft. There are ears hinged to the rocker ends and coupled by a common shaft with the weight and a slider, both interacting with the aforesaid return springs also arranged in the flywheel.
EFFECT: increased specific power output, automatic clutch control at flywheel high RPM and reverse operating conditions.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of machine building, namely, to production of cranes, and may be used for control of mobile loaded crane stability, mostly jib self-propelled cranes. Method consists in the fact that load moment is calculated and compared to permissible limit, depending on data obtained signal is generated to actuate those actuating mechanisms, which reduce load moment. Additionally speeds of pressure change in outrigger hydraulic cylinders are measured, and their sign is identified, control combinations of pressure change speeds are made, which are then compared to the reference ones, depending on match or mismatch of obtained control combinations with the reference ones, signal for control of parameters that affect stability is generated. Device comprises hydraulic line of outriggers, mechanism for boom swing, analog-to-digital transducer, board microprocessor, board microprocessor memory comprises mathematical model of mobile crane made with the possibility of change depending on type of crane. Pressure sensors are additionally included into hydraulic line of outriggers, board microprocessor has communication with pressure sensors, mechanism for boom swing is equipped with controlled axial-piston hydraulic actuator.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and higher safety level of loading-unloading works.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed control system contains the onboard microprocessor control unit with actuators connected thereto, crane operating parameters pickups and controls. The proposed system incorporates means identifying lifted and moved cargo representing a reader of bar codes applied on the cargo, or a radiolabel attached to the cargo, to allow locking the cargo, exceeding the crane lifting capacity, lift and move. The system can contain cargo position pickups to automatically guide the tool to be clamped to the cargo. In compliance with the second version, manual input of the identifier or cargo parameters into this system, and, if required, the coordinates of a final point cargo transfer cargo. Note here that the system incorporates appropriate means preventing the crane overload and optimising cargo transfer trajectories. In compliance with the third version of the control system, the said system can block releasing the cargo from the clamping tool depending on current value of the crane load, speed of move and/or spatial position. In compliance with the fourth version, the control system is equipped with wire or wireless means of transmitting signals from a person, outside the load-lifting crane, to the onboard microprocessor control unit for them to be converted into warning light and/or sound data signals and/or to signals blocking the crane motion.
EFFECT: increase in safety of crane operation, its efficiency and ease of control.
24 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method envisages preliminary determining or setting of admissible values of parameters characterising loading and/or attitude position of outrigger or crane cargo-handling device, memorising this data, measuring of these parameters during crane operation, comparing of measured values with admissible values, and further forming of control signals or blocking of control by execution units in order to prevent exceeding of admissible values. Prior to commencement of crane work or in process of lifting and movement of cargoes crane-operator additionally performs preliminary visual control of crane operation condition or presence of people along way of crane or cargo movement or automatic control of correctness of slinging (securing) of cargo, or automatic check of correctness of crane installation on outriggers or optical measurement of crane performance parameters or automatic change of coordinate parity parameters using GPS receivers, radio-frequency or inertial determination of position devices located on obstacles, clothing or equipment of people. Results of this check or control ensue implementation of additional control or information signals.
EFFECT: enhancement of safety of crane operation and of crane efficiency.
24 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system contains hydraulic, electrohydraulic and/or electric drives of crane mechanisms, control device for these drives, and fuel supply control device connected to it. In process of crane operation automatic fuel supply change is performed depending on load position and/or speed of cargo relocation. In second version of system fuel supply change is automatically related to approach or touch of crane operator's hand to drive control handle. Drive control is made as control unit containing control handle, handle position sensor, and controller with outputs connected immediately, or via additional output device, to control drives' inputs and to device controlling fuel supply. Level of fuel supply in general case is different for different drives and directions of crane movement. After handles of crane drive control are returned to neutral position or after hands are removed from handles, value of motor angular velocity is preserved within preset interval after which minimum preset velocity of motor blank cycle is automatically established.
EFFECT: decrease of specific fuel consumption, efficiency increase, enhancement of usability of crane control and of safety of its operation.
17 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system contains electronic module made on basis of microcontroller with attached device for information input-output, display device, protection system controls located outside electronic module, and execution unit, and cargo-hoisting machine performance sensors connected with device for information input-output. Protection system controls and electronic module perform changing type of display of machine performance indicators and changes in both parameters and performance mode of work of machine protection system - scheduling sequence of telescopic boom sections extension, permitting/forbidding lifting operations mix, release of blocking of movement of cargo-hoisting machine in respect of overload and , blocking of cushioning of machine carrier, cargo-hoisting mechanism mode of braking, or boom extension change, position of bracing jack, etc. Display device may be located outside electronic module and it is made as graphic display.
EFFECT: safety enhancement.
13 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: crane protection system contains working conditions transmitters, actuator and data-control unit made on the base of microcontroller with possibility of wire or wireless connecting to it above mentioned transmitters and actuator and with possibility for actuator to generate control signals aimed to prevent working conditions to exceed their permitted values. In the system parameter is revealed for which permitted value exceeding is the most probable at current time, whereupon priority limiting of this parameter value. To do so, the main load carrying member of crane is determined or inhibition of it's stability under working conditions margin is revealed. In the second version of protection system, warning, detection and/or correction of operator wrong actions during setting parameters for jib equipment and/or support contour is performed. In the third system version, changing of permitted values for crane operation parameters is provisioned depending on error of used transmitters.
EFFECT: improvement of operation safety for lifting crane; reducing the value of its travels after achieving the rating value for any parameter and blocking the crane movements by protection system; increase of this system reliability and reduction of requirement to transmitters accuracy.
25 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to handling machinery and can be used in the systems of control and protection of climbing cranes. The safety system incorporates digital computing unit (1) with its data inputs receiving, via a data exchange multiplexer channel, the outputs of the crane parameter recording peripherals (71...7m) comprising, at least, one crane equipment travel pickup, and with outputs wired to crane parameter recorder (3) with real-time counter, display unit (4), preventive signaling unit (5), actuator (6) and external memory (2) communicating, via a two-way data exchange channel, with the digital computing unit. The system comprises, at least, one indicator (8) of the crane equipment crossing of, at least, one check point within the crane operating range, the said indicator being connected to the digital computing unit additional data input adapted to correct the crane equipment travel pickup readings in compliance with the signals generated by the aforesaid indicator.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the crane coordinate protection system operation.
SUBSTANCE: adjustment consists in regulation of signals in channels of measurement of boom load, overhang or inclination angles by adding and/or multiplying these signals with the signals corresponding to the adjusting parameters the values of which are preliminary defined and stored in power-independent memory of the safety device. Regulation is made without of reference cargoes proceeding from the conditions of independence of the results of measurement of the lifted and moved cargoes upon the boom length and inclination angle. Values of adjusting parameters are defined, allowing for the boom deflection, as the constants or functions of the boom overhand, length and inclination angle by commands of the operator/crane operator or automatically. The principle of definition of adjusting parameters is based, in particular, on their calculation as unknown factors in a set of the equations derived using the crane mathematical model. The said device contains transducers of the load-lifting crane operating parameters with digital or analog outputs and the digital computing device with power-independent memory.
EFFECT: opportunity of checking the accuracy of the safety device operation without check cargoes is ensured and efficiency of protection of the load-lifting crane is increased.
16 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device contains the base and the force pickup attached thereto, two support elements and the deformable element connecting free ends of the support elements and attached, by its central part, to force pickup. The device additionally contains the electronic device made to compare the force pickup output signal with that corresponding to the maximal lifting capacity of the mechanism, and to generate the signal to lock its operation, and/or a warning light and/or sound signal depending on results of this comparison. The device, a second version, contains the force pickup, two support elements and two deformable elements jointing the support elements. The force pickup is attached to the central parts of deformable elements. One deformable element is made either elastic or in the form of rigid parts with elastic hinges.
EFFECT: higher safety in operation of the load-lifting mechanism and accuracy of measurement of the cable tension.
12 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: series of inventions refers to the sphere of tower crane operation security engineering. The method in question presupposes exchange of information on the cranes locations, movements and equipment loads between the control and protection devices of all the "n" jointly operating tower cranes. Additional features: identification of the position of each crane and/or its equipment against the construction site plan, conventional graphical visualisation of the position within the construction site territory of a specified crane and/or its equipment (as well as that of the "neighbouring" cranes and equipment related to them) on the crane display. When the crane operator initiates relocation of equipment related to crane Ki the following is carried out: the intended equipment motion path tracing, display graphical visualisation of the intended motion path(s) of the equipment related both to crane Ki and the "neighbouring" crane(s) whose equipment is currently in motion (by means of exchange of information between the control and protection devices), estimation of the minimum distance between the above paths, graphical visualisation of the point of intersection on the crane Ki display and generation of a signal disabling operation of this crane equipment and light and sound alarm signals in case the paths as having been traced happen to intersect. In order to enable further motion of the crane Ki equipment there is an additional line to be plotted by the crane operator which is intended to restrict motion of the crane equipment (the line becomes graphically visualised on the crane Ki, screen); in case the limiting line has been plotted erroneously operation of the crane Ki equipment and mechanisms is automatically disabled when at the paths intersection point.
EFFECT: improving the hoisting cranes operation standard of safety.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; material handling machinery.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measuring or crane loads, traveling of crane with load and time of operation of crane mechanisms, recording of data and comparing them with normal characteristics of crane. In process o measurement, crane operating cycle is found. Beginning of cycle is determined by switching on any other mechanism after switching on load lifting mechanism at G>Gnl and L>Lnl where G is actual load from load on crane hook, Gnl is load at no load on crane hook, ZL is displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load, Lnl is maximum tolerable displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load. End of cycle is found by beginning of following cycle after execution of load lifting in case of no load on crane hook at G>Gnl and operation of any mechanism of horizontal displacement of load at L>Lnl. Simultaneously with determination of beginning and end of cycle, load G is measured at beginning of load lifting in period from moment of exceeding of load Gnl to moment of switching on any other load horizontal displacement mechanism. Current mean value of load is calculated within time interval Δt. Maximum value of current mean load is determined also within said period. Basing on maximum value of current mean load, mass of load is determined, and crane cycle with obtained mass of load is recorded. Then cycles with corresponding load masses are summed up. According to obtained data crane is classified to group of class, data obtained in each group of class are compared with normal characteristics of crane according to specifications and , basing of results on comparing, crane is placed in operation, or crane operator is warned or operation of crane is prohibited. Proposed device contains sensors of load and horizontal displacements, processing unit and comparing unit. Device includes also crane operation cycle revealing unit, cycle recording unit, load mass metering unit, AND and OR units and crane state evaluation unit.
EFFECT: provision of reliable data on conditions of crane, improved safety.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; materials handling machinery.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety engineering of load-lifting machines. Proposed method includes supply of current to drives of mechanisms and safety equipment, switching on drive of at least one mechanism of crane, switching off and braking, all operations being performed from cabin. Power supply to mechanism drives in emergency in cut off from ground or base on which crane is installed. Then supply of crane mechanism providing change of crane from dangerous position into safe position is carried out from said base. Then mechanism is released, its drive is actuated and crane is brought into safe position by means of additional control panel. Proposed device contains control panel arranged in crane cabin and safety device, such as external load setter with electric input and output, emergency sensor and crane mechanism drive supply pushbutton. Moreover, device is furnished with additional control panel on running gear in place easy to get at from base. Additional control panel is connected with main panel through output of external load setter and by means of additional feedback, and it has key-mark and additional switch. Drive of crane mechanism is connected with additional panel, key-mark is made removable, being installed in additional panel to interact with additional switch.
EFFECT: improved safety of tower crane in operation.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: materials handling facilities; tower cranes.
SUBSTANCE: according to production plan, zones with different types of crane movement limits related to concrete objects are defined. Said zones are introduced into personal computer, not included into instrument complex of coordinate protection, under laboratory conditions. Using special software, array of data is formed in computer, each element of which corresponds to building site member and contains information of prohibited movement of crane in corresponding point. Said array is recorded in reprogrammable read-only memory of coordinate protection system which, basing on signals from transmitters, defining position of crane and its members and by signals from reprogrammable read-only memory forms drive locking signals if crane or its working members get into restricted zone.
EFFECT: provision of crane coordinate protection of high efficiency using simple devices.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control systems of load-lifting cranes. Proposed method and safety system provides realization of noncontact (wireless) communication between separate module (electronic units and pickups of boom tilting angle and length, force and pressure, azimuth, etc) of load-lifting crane safety system. For this purpose electric signals with serial code are converted into radiation (ultrasound, radio signal or optical radiation and said radiation is transmitted to receiving station. Transmission and reception of radiation is effected periodically by setting reception and transmission periods corresponding to required response of load-lifting crane safety system. Speed of change of operating parameters of crane and position of its load-lifting equipment are checked additionally, and at increase of speed, automatic decrease of crane operating parameters and position of its load-lifting equipment is done and automatic decrease of radiation transmission periods is provided. Safety system modules are furnished additionally with radiation transmitters and receivers (ultrasound, radio frequency or optical radiation ones) whose input and outputs are connected with outputs of forming units and inputs of reception units of serial digital signals. Serial digital signal forming units are made for periodical forming of said signals.
EFFECT: improved reliability of safety system and facilitated servicing.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: materials handling equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of protection of boom load-lifting cranes and pipelayer cranes from overloads and damage. Adjustment is carried out by lifting calibrated load of preset mass in points of load characteristic with known parameters of boom equipment and regulating signals in load, reach and/or boom tilt angle measuring channels to provide correspondence of safeguard characteristic to preset load characteristic of crane. In process of regulation of signals in load, reach and/or boom tilt angle measuring channels, values of output signals of corresponding sensors are kept constant and regulation is done by adding and/or multiplying output signals from sensors and signals corresponding to adjusting parameters. Values of the latter are preliminarily determined and kept in nonvolatile memory of safeguard.
EFFECT: reduced labor input in adjustment of safeguard on load-lifting crane, provision of interchangeability of all components, possibility of adjustment of device on any type of load-lifting crane with unspecified mounting of load sensor.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: materials handling facilities.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to devices for checking condition of safeguards of load-lifting machines and reading parameters of built-in parameters recorders. Proposed method comes to revealing output signals of separate components of safeguard and transmitting signals to control device, processing signals and their recording in control device according to prestored signals determining sequence of processing and recording and forming, by control device, in case of necessity, replacement test signals in compliance with prestored signals determining sequence of forming of replacement test signals and transmitting the latter to separate components of safeguard. Revealing of output signals and forming of replacement test signals is done by receiving and transmitting sequential digital signals by multiplexed communication line at asynchronous or synchronous modes by algorithms specified by sequential protocols. Proposed device to control safeguard of load-lifting machine contains control unit, data input-output module and memory module. Data input-output module is made in form of transceivers of multiplexed communication line CAN, LIN, RS-232, USB or IrDA of interface. Group of invention provides both control of safety of safeguard and reading of data of built-in parameters recorder making it possible to reveal troubles of connecting bundles, control and diagnosing of condition of safeguard directly on load-lifting crane, improve safety of crane at partial failures of safeguard owing to automatic or manual program disconnection and subsequent replacement of any defective functional unit of safeguard without its physical disconnection and without complete disconnection of partially failing safeguard.
EFFECT: improved control of safeguard.
12 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: materials handling facilities; safety engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains sensitive element interacting with control elements and installed in lower part of object housing, and warning unit placed in control circuit. Voltage source 1 is electrically connected with input of reversible travel motion starter 2 with normally closed contacts 3 whose output is connected at one side with time delay relay 4 with its power contacts 5 and through normally closed contact of cutoff relay 6, with step-down transformer 7 whose output is connected with series-connected sensitive element 8, signaling relay 9 with normally-open power contacts 10, red warning lamp 11 and howler 12, and at other side, with travel motion control contactor 13 and travel motion motor 14. Time relay 4 is connected through green lamp 15, and load grip switch 16 with series-connected load grip control contactor 17, reversible load grip control starter 18 and load grip motor 19. Sensitive element is made in form of infra-red radiation pickup.
EFFECT: simplified design.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to warning, emergency and control signaling of boom and bridge cranes, lifts and other load-lifting machines. Method is implemented by receiving data of value of at least one operating parameter, or conditions of load-lifting machine or its component, or control action of operator to charge said operating parameter or condition of load-lifting machine or its component. Provision is made for converting data into warning or control signal. In process of conversion of said data they are compared with preliminarily set or memorized limit value of operating parameter or condition of load-lifting machine or its component part, or value of control action of operator. If comparing reveals that data reach limit value or condition, intermediate signal is shaped. Then, depending on value of intermediate signal, warning or control signals are shaped.
EFFECT: improved safety of operation of load-lifting machine, including safety of operator and maintenance personnel.
23 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; load lifting.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in crane systems to prevent collision of load-lifting cranes with obstacles. Method provides change of spatial position of crane boom or load-gripping member, measuring of at least one coordinate of said positions, memorizing value of coordinate by first command of crane operator and forming working zone of crane with use of memorized value of said coordinate. After first command of crane operator when changing spatial position of boom or load grip-ping member of crane, values of said coordinate are memorized additionally through preset lapses of time or after change of said coordinate through preset value. Process of memorizing is stopped by second command from crane operator. Forming of working zone of crane is effected by calculating borders of zone with use of memorized values of coordinate. At calculations, closure of trajectory of displacement of boom or load-gripping member along at least one said coordinate is revealed. If trajectory closure is presents, working zone of crane is formed within the limits of changes of memorized values of coordinate. At no closure, working zone is formed as sector with center in axis of crane rotation and arc, in common case, curvilinear, whose coordinates do not exceed its maximum memorized values.
EFFECT: possibility of setting working zone of any form by crane operator, including three-dimensional one, taking into account sizes and type of hoisted load and near transmission lines, simplified work of crane operator and design of coordinate protection system.
16 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; materials handling facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in safeguards of boom lifting cranes. Proposed method provides for preliminary determination and storing of maximum tolerable value of load moment and determination on current value of moment by two methods in process of crane operation. Each method includes measuring working parameters of crane characterizing current load and current radius with subsequent calculation of current value of load moment. To generate warning signal or crane control signal, memorized maximum tolerable value of load moment is compared either with one of pre-calculated current values of load moment, or with maximum calculated value of two values. Current values of load moment obtained by first and second methods are compared additionally and if they differ crane control signal of formed.
EFFECT: provision of overload protection of load-lifting crane of any type, prevention of crane downtimes caused by frequent failures pf safety system.
16 cl, 1 dwg