Space vehicle arrangement method

FIELD: aircraft industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers namely to telecommunication satellites with energy consumption power of 1-2.5 kV. According to the invention, space vehicle (satellite) is made of two modules: payload and support systems. Instruments are installed on inner skins of their radiators - honeycomb panels. Evaporation zones of horizontal straight and uncontrolled L-shaped heat tubes are built into those panels opposite the instrument location area. Those zones are attached with their flanges to inner skin of panels in that area. Condensation zones of the above tubes are arranged in the panel areas free of instruments. Radiators are located in planes perpendicular to the axes corresponding to northern and southern sides of the vehicle. At that, opposite located radiator panels are arranged at a minimum possible distance from each other, which is determined beforehand based on instrument arrangement conditions. More heat-stressed instruments are located in the lower part of panels, in which there used are uncontrolled L-shaped heat tubes. Condensation zone flanges of the above heat tubes are made so that they face outer skins, and are attached thereto. The above zones are located in extreme zones of panels, which are free from instruments.

EFFECT: decreasing mass, and reaching the acceptable configuration of the above satellites.

4 dwg


The invention relates to space technology, in particular to telecommunications satellites, and established authors in the performance of official duties.

Currently, domestic telecommunication satellites intended for use in geostationary orbit, start at the specified orbit from the Baikonur cosmodrome.

In modern conditions is an extremely urgent task of further reducing the total material and financial costs, israthoum on each satellite is operating in a geostationary orbit, and preferably, to be launched on the specified orbit with Russian cosmodrome "Plesetsk".

To solve the above problem it is necessary to improve the layout of the newly developed satellites to provide simultaneous withdrawal from the cosmodrome "Plesetsk" working on orbit using a rocket type of "Soyuz-2" plus upper stage "Fregat", for example, two or three satellites with power consumption of 1-2 .5 kW.

The analysis showed that, if such satellites can build on the basis of known technical solutions described in the patent of Russian Federation №2092398 [1] source: Jean J. Dechezelles, Dietric E Koelle "Design and application of the AS/MBB Spacebus Family" - AJAA 11 Sattelite Communication systems, March 17-20, 1986, pp.688 - 696. R j 41, 1986, Ref. 10.41.125-10.41.126 (Platform KA S - 44) [2], this task is not feasible, TKS for their complex configuration of the masses of the satellites are obtained unacceptably large.

Therefore, the newly developed satellite for solving the aforementioned problem should have a layout that provides a significant simplification of the structure and reducing the mass of her while guaranteeing high quality manufacture and high reliability under long-term orbital satellite operation.

Analysis of sources of information on the patent and scientific literature showed that the closest to the technical essence of the prototype of the proposed technical solution is the way to build KA [1], made of modules payload and service systems in which devices the AC set on the radiators - sotapannas, which are built unregulated heat pipes, placed on the North (+Z) and South (-Z) side of the SPACECRAFT. In a known prototype is not the solution, providing a compact design SPACECRAFT with an acceptable, relatively low mass.

The purpose of the proposed technical solution is to eliminate the above-mentioned significant disadvantages.

The result is a comprehensive detailed analysis of this issue, the authors found that the minimum possible mass of the satellite with acceptable desired configuration is implemented when performing the build process following a comprehensive technical solution is.

All devices must be placed on the inner casings are installed on the Northern and southern sides of the satellite and located as close as possible to each other radiators made of aluminum honeycomb panels with integrated aluminum straight and Mr. irregular shaped heat pipes (with redundancy), each having one area of condensation and evaporation (based on the experience of currently unregulated aluminum heat pipes are the most reliable and have a low relative weight compared to other types of heat pipes: if unregulated direct heat pipe (or U-shaped heat pipe has two of the condensation zone, located at different sides of the evaporation zone, one of the zones of condensation can overflow the liquid phase and efficient operation of the heat pipe is broken (see the book Chi "Heat pipes: theory and practice" - translation from English Sidorova VIA M., "engineering", 1981, p.65).

However, the condensation zone of the heat pipe must be placed in the area of the lateral margins, where should not be installed fuel devices.

High-heat appliances (for example, solid-state amplifiers) must be located in the lower area of the panel radiators and from excess heat must be dissipated Mr. irregular shaped heat pipes is (if this is implemented the location of the condensation zones: they will be in the marginal zones above the zone of evaporation, what is important in ground-based tests).

To achieve the shortest possible distance between panel radiators, in particular, the satellite must be performed consisting of two modules: the payload module (MPN) and service module systems (MSS) - this will require the minimum possible distance between the panels to ensure the replacement (or repair) of nonconforming devices, mainly revealed by the offline tests, mad and MSS.

In the close distance between panel radiators reduced mass design and cables, as well as improving mutual heat exchange between devices and surfaces of the panels radiators located on different sides, which in turn decreases the degree of difference of device operating temperature, which is beneficial to their work.

Thickness of panel radiators should be as low as possible - this means that the thickness of the heat pipes should be as short as possible and they must be in the evaporation zone of the shelf facing the inner trim panel, on which is mounted a fuel device, and in the condensation zone of the regiment should be directed to the outer skin.

In addition, the location of the shelves thus reduces the temperature difference between evaporation and condensation and increases the average temperature of irradiation the Oia surface of the heat sink, thereby reducing the required area of the radiators and additionally reducing their weight.

In addition, the external surfaces of the heat pipes in areas across shelves made with protrusions having a flat surface to ensure the effective thermal communication with the surface of the skin and the surface radiation, which also contributes to raising the temperature of the radiating surface and to reduce the required area of heat sinks.

Thus set by the authors goal is to build a SPACECRAFT with ensuring the lowest possible weight and acceptable desired configuration of it - according to the technical solution of the authors is achieved by the use of this method, the composition of the AC, as opposed spaced radiators are placed on a pre-determined minimum possible distance from each other, while more high-heat appliances is placed at the bottom of the panels, which use l-shaped unregulated heat pipes, and shelf zones of condensation heat pipes perform facing the outer casings and add to them with the placement of these zones in the peripheral regions of the panels-free devices, which is according to the authors, significant distinctive features proposed by the authors of the technical solution.

The analysis conducted by the authors known the th patent and scientific literature, the proposed combination of significant distinguishing features of the proposed technical solution in the well-known sources of information are not detected and, therefore, the known technical solutions do not exhibit the same properties as in the invention.

For the proposed method (see figure 1, 2, 3, 4, where 1 is the area of the antenna; 2 - zone placement of solar panels (shown in the folded position at the site of injection into orbit); 3 - mad; 4 - MCC; 3.1 - radiator mad; 4.1 - radiator MSS; 3.1.1, 4.1.1 - straight heat pipes; 3.1.2 - l-shaped heat pipes; 3.2, 4.2 - area placement Netherlandian devices; 3.3 - zone heat-stressed devices; 3.4 (4.4) - devices; 3.1.3 (4.1.3) - outdoor (external) sheathing panel radiators; 3.1.4 (4.1.4) - inner sheathing panel radiators; ( ( - evaporation zone; ( ( the condensation zone; 3.1.5 optical solar reflector; 3.5 (4.5) -insulation) the layout of the SPACECRAFT, such as telecommunications satellite with consumed energy with a capacity of 2 kW with a long lifetime in orbit (15 or more years), do as follows: KA perform consists of two modules: the payload module 3 and module service systems 4, and devices 3.4 (4.4) mounted on the inner casings 3.1.4 (4.1.4) their radiators 3.1 (4.1) - cell panels with built-in front of the sphere of the host devices evaporative zones ( ( horizontal direct 3.1.1 (4.1.1) and l-shaped 3.1.2 unregulated heat pipes, attached in this area shelves ( ( to the inner lining 3.1.4 (4.1.4) panels, with accommodation zones condensation ( ( pipes in the areas of panels-free devices, while the radiators are placed in planes perpendicular to the axis +Z (North side KA) and-Z (South side KA) of the device.

Oppositely spaced radiators are placed on a pre-determined minimum possible distance from each other (see above), while more high-heat appliances (in particular, MPN) is placed in the lower area of the panels, and in this region have been using l-shaped unregulated heat pipes, and shelves ( ( zones of condensation heat pipes perform facing the outer casings 3.1.3 (4.1.3) and attach them with the placement of these zones in the peripheral regions of the panels-free devices.

The work is arranged according to the proposed method of spacecraft is as follows.

In the areas of launch vehicles operating point of geostationary orbit included the replacement heaters placed inside the casing near the installation, and the required temperature by the appropriate compensating teplootvodom from heaters.

After insertion of the apparatus in operating points and their corresponding Orient the AI included in the work devices 3.4 (4.4) according to the standard sequence diagram: the main value of the excess heat from the devices is transferred to the evaporator ( ( heat pipes, then to their capacitors and then passed the outer trim panel radiator (part of the excess heat is transferred from the inner cladding outer cladding), and the total amount of heat radiated into space.

Currently the final layout of the newly developed telecommunication satellite.

During the build process of the satellite considered different options for the layout of the satellite using the known technical solutions on this issue and proposed by the authors of the method and found that in the case of the proposed method is acceptable satellite configuration and reducing its weight is achieved as a result of:

1) the maximum possible convergence with each other radiators mad and MSS: this distance is determined by the height of the devices that are installed on the inner skins of the panels, and the minimum required additional distance for substitute equipment;

2) the location of the high-heat appliances (in particular, MPN) at the bottom of the radiator and the lack of instruments in the areas of the edges of the radiators;

3) the use of unregulated heat pipes and the location of their zone of evaporation horizontally (relative to the Earth);

4) each heat pipe has one condensation zone;

5) apply heat pipes, to the x regiment in the evaporation area facing the inner cladding, which installed devices, and in the condensation zone regiment pipes facing the exterior (transport area of the pipe to ensure placement in the honeycomb structure between two parallel plates is appropriately bent by a small amount), which provides, on the one hand, the minimum possible thickness of the honeycomb and the lowest possible weight of the actual heat pipe while providing a reduced mass (area) of the radiator as a result of increasing the average temperature of the radiation from the outer surface of the outer shell.

Thus, as can be seen from the above, in the design layout of the newly created satellite proposed by the authors of the technical solution provided the required configuration and reducing its weight to an acceptable value, i.e. thereby achieved the objectives of the invention.

The positioning of the spacecraft, including the execution of two modules: the payload and service systems, the installation of devices on the inner linings of their radiators - cell panels, which are opposite to the area of placement of the devices integrated evaporative zone horizontal straight and l-shaped unregulated heat pipes attached in this area their shelves to the interior trim panels, and zone Conde the compensation of these tubes are placed in areas of the panels, - free devices, and these radiators are placed in planes perpendicular to the axes of the +Z and-Z, the corresponding North and South sides of the apparatus, characterized in that the oppositely located radiators are placed on a pre-determined minimum possible distance from each other, while more high-heat appliances is placed at the bottom of the panels, which employed Mr. irregular shaped heat pipes, and shelf zones of condensation data heat pipes perform facing the outer skins and attached to him, placing these areas in the outlying areas of the panels-free devices.


Same patents:

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to space engineering and can be used in development of space vehicles intended for comprehensive investigation of soil of celestial bodies and delivery of effective loads to the massifs of Mars, Moon, asteroids and other planets and celestial bodies of solar system. The device to deliver effective cargo into celestial body massifs (versions) comprises a hollow primary structure having a front and cylindrical tail part accommodating a ballast with a mean density exceeding that of the primary structure and effective cargo. The length of cylindrical tail parts makes 8 to 15 its diameters, the center of masses being located at the distance equal to 0.4 to 0.5 of the primary structure length starting from the front part head. In compliance with the first version the front part, starting from the head, represents the first truncated cone or, simply, cone of the cylinder behind the head, the said truncated cone lager base abutting on the cylinder tail part of the other truncated cone. In compliance with the second version the front part hast the holes communicating with the primary structure space wherein ballast and effective cargo are located, while the ballast or a part of it are made from materials can penetrate, due to inertial forces, through the said holes into ambient medium.

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5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: geophysics.

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10 cl, 9 dwg

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3 dwg

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2 dwg

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EFFECT: it enlarges functional possibilities of the system.

5 dwg

FIELD: production methods.

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5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: heating.

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2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: space engineering; forming satellite systems for positioning objects on earth surface.

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1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: space engineering; operation of spacecraft flying in orbit of artificial earth satellite, but for geostationary orbit, which are stabilized by rotation along vertical axis, as well as ground reception points.

SUBSTANCE: system used for realization of this method includes emergency object transmitter, onboard equipment of spacecraft and ground equipment of reception point. Onboard equipment of spacecraft includes horizon sensor, receiving antenna, comparison unit, receiver, Doppler frequency meter, blocking oscillator, two AND gates, two rectifiers, pulse generator, pulse counter, switching circuit, magnetic memory, transmitter, transmitting antenna, modulating code shaper, RF generator and power amplifier. Ground equipment of reception point includes receiving antenna, RF amplifier, two mixers, standard frequency unit, phase doubler, three narrow-band filters, phase scale-of-two circuit, phase detector, Doppler frequency meter, computer and recording unit. Proposed method consists in search of such space position of space object by receiving antenna when Doppler frequency of received signal is equal to zero. Measurement at this moment of angle between mechanical axle of receiving antenna and horizon axis is carried out referring to onboard receiving unit.

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5 dwg

Nanosputnik // 2308401

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has bed unit mounted on lateral surface and pivotally connected to device casing. Bed unit rotation axis is arranged in parallel to casing end face part. Mechanisms for rotating and fixing the bed unit relative to the casing (optionally of screw-nut type) are mounted on both sides with respect to the axis. The mechanisms provide supporting bed unit surface arrangement at an angle less than 90°. Solar battery board is rigidly mounted on the supporting bed unit surface. Camera for taking Earth surface pictures is mounted in nanosputnik casing end face on the opposite side with respect to nanosputnik units for connecting it to separation system. The camera is arranged in plane passing through longitudinal nanosputnik axis arranged in perpendicular to the solar battery board.

EFFECT: reduced device weight; increased effective solar battery board area.

5 dwg

Retainer // 2351811

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to retainers used to fasten cargoes delivered aboard the cargo rocket to the international space station. The proposed retainer comprises rings with hooks and adapters linked up with the said hooks. Aforesaid adapters have larger diameter collars arranged nearby the said hooks as well as smaller diameter collars. The retainer incorporates a bearing spring, its end being wound up on the adapters ends, and an arimide fabric boot fitted on the spring whereon an arimide thread is wound up very tightly, from hooks to adapter larger diameter collars.

EFFECT: higher reliability in prolonged operating in space at abnormal temperatures, longer life.

2 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space equipment, namely, to recoverable minor durable space apparatuses (capsules). Recoverable self-contained space apparatus comprises three-blade rotor fitted, with blades folded, into the chamber between the load-bearing casing and tight compartment. Each of aforesaid blades represents a trapezoidal wing with large elongation. Note that each blade is coupled with the rotor bush rigidly fitted on the tight compartment tail part. End part of every blade represents a replaceable load-bearing hollow element with its cross section mating that of the blade aerodynamic section. The apparatus comprises additionally, at least, three extra aerodynamic trapezoidal surfaces. Inner space of the said hollow element accommodates, at least, one solid-propellant engine equipped with a detachable cylindrical casing and jet nozzle. The rotor bush comprises additionally three pyrotechnical mechanisms that can abruptly increase the blade angle of attack. Note that the said three pyrotechnical mechanisms are actuated by the instruction generated by radio altimeter simultaneously with feeding the signal to start, at least three engines, via the control unit.

EFFECT: reduced scope of scheduled and recovery jobs, multiple use of capsules and lower costs on maintenance.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety devices of spacecraft used, in particular, in emergent explosion-dangerous conditions. In compliance with this invention, proposed system comprises thermally isolated divided fuel tank with a cooling circuit, looped fuel lines running to engines, draining line, safety and anti-explosion valves. The said valve jettison furl from emergency tank sections into the said draining line. It incorporates also airflow armored spinner and spreaders. The latter represent armored rods arranged on the fuel tank bottom. Aforesaid elements ensure protection of fuel tank against an ingress of foreign objects and high-intensity air waves than can originate in spacecraft launching and entering dense atmosphere.

EFFECT: better protection of spacecraft fuel tank against effects that can cause explosion in spacecraft launching and entering dense atmosphere.

1 dwg

Space-rocket system // 2351510

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space-rocket systems, namely, to means or placing spacecrafts into preset orbits. The proposed system incorporates a rocket carrier, spacecraft with nose cone and a detachable compartment arranged at the rocket carrier final stage to couple the latter with the nose cone that features coupling diameter exceeding that of the rocket carrier final stage. Detachable compartment has a load-beating structure composed of load-bearing elements arranged along the taper surface generating line to transfer load from the nose cone to the rocket carrier housing. The detachable compartment cross section represents a right triangle with its smaller leg located in the plane of rocket-to-nose cone joint and its hypothenuse seating on the detachable compartment taper surface generating line. Note that larger leg is represented by a portion generating line of the rocket final stage housing. The detachable compartment has also a face detachable joint with the nose cone detached in flight, that with rocket launcher final stage housing along its face and cylindrical parts incorporating tight-fitting fasteners, and the joint with frame of coupling with the spacecraft.

EFFECT: increased net volume.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes superposition of normal line to illuminated working surface of solar battery (SB) panels to plane created by axis of panels and direction at the Sun. Angle between direction to the Sun and specified normal is established and maintained so that value of SB power (measured as product of its current by voltage) corresponds to daily consumption of the Earth satellites loads. This angle is also used to provide maintenance of SB voltage at required level in the point of its current-voltage characteristic that corresponds to maximum output power of SB (at preset angle of SB establishment). In case specified voltage of SB reduces at accurate orientation of SB at the Sun, SB is inverted from direction to the Sun by the angle, at which specified voltage of SB remains at required level.

EFFECT: simplification of satellite power supply systems equipment and increase of its weight and dimension characteristics.

2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: method is designed to control booster unit longitudinal motion on delta-velocity phase wherein, after the booster unit is separated from rocket carrier, the booster unit lengthwise axis is stabilised with respect to the said axis direction at the moment of separation of the rocker carrier. The proposed method comprises reading out flying mission data on control parameters and orbit of the booster unit being set up at the delta-velocity maneuver phase, cutting in pulse correction engines at preset time intervals after separation from the rocket carrier to pre-compress fuel in fuel tanks for preset time interval and starting the sustainer. After this, in preset time and as specified in flying mission, the booster unit pitch orientation program is run and corrected with help of terminal control means, the sustainer is cut off. Before this, at preset time interval, orientation program is fixed. The booster unit separated from the rocket carrier, it is turned with respect to pitch till attaining the orientation defined by starting angle of pitch variation at the delta-velocity phase as specified in flying mission. Note that at this angle the booster unit longitudinal axis is stabilised till completion of the aforesaid orientation program.

EFFECT: power savings at delta-velocity phase.

4 dwg

Flight vehicle // 2350520

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: flight vehicle comprises body, two jet engines, two shock absorbers with outlets communicating with two outlets of shock absorber control unit outlets, cylinder, exhaust nozzle and two exhaust pipes. The body is rigidly coupled with the said shock absorber control unit and the cylinder, in its turn, rigidly coupled with two inflamed gas exhaust pipes. The first shock absorber is rigidly coupled with the body, in its turn, rigidly linked up with two jet engines. The second shock absorber is rigidly coupled with waste gas exhaust nozzle and furnished with two safety shock absorbers and plate with two ledges arranged between the first and second shock absorbers. The cylinder is provided with two recesses. The aforesaid ledges of the plates can shift along appropriate holes of exhaust pipes and move in compliance with the cylinder recesses. The said cylinder recesses accommodate safety shock absorbers arranged between plates ledges and auxiliary exhaust nozzles rigidly coupled with the cylinder recesses. The safety shock absorbers have outlets communicating with the third outlet of the shock absorbers control unit.

EFFECT: reduced overall dimensions.

1 dwg

Flight vehicle // 2350520

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: flight vehicle comprises body, two jet engines, two shock absorbers with outlets communicating with two outlets of shock absorber control unit outlets, cylinder, exhaust nozzle and two exhaust pipes. The body is rigidly coupled with the said shock absorber control unit and the cylinder, in its turn, rigidly coupled with two inflamed gas exhaust pipes. The first shock absorber is rigidly coupled with the body, in its turn, rigidly linked up with two jet engines. The second shock absorber is rigidly coupled with waste gas exhaust nozzle and furnished with two safety shock absorbers and plate with two ledges arranged between the first and second shock absorbers. The cylinder is provided with two recesses. The aforesaid ledges of the plates can shift along appropriate holes of exhaust pipes and move in compliance with the cylinder recesses. The said cylinder recesses accommodate safety shock absorbers arranged between plates ledges and auxiliary exhaust nozzles rigidly coupled with the cylinder recesses. The safety shock absorbers have outlets communicating with the third outlet of the shock absorbers control unit.

EFFECT: reduced overall dimensions.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed reflector comprises central assembly representing aligned base and flange, and power carcass mechanically coupled, via form-building structure, with reticular sheet. The base is made from honeycomb panel. The said power carcass is made up of rectilinear spokes pivoted to the base and representing reticular rod structures with braces on the said structures ends. There is telescopic mast attached to the reflector base opposite to its aperture. The mast spear is linked to flexible ties coupled with the aforesaid spokes. The said form-building structure represents regularly arranged flexible bands attached to the reticular sheet working surface. Number of the said bands can increase from the centre to reflector periphery and pass radially from the flange to the ends of afore indicated braces and cords jointing the ends of adjacent braces. The brackets unequally distant from the centre are fastened on the bands surfaces and comprise staples, the form-building structure elements, connected by means of tangential cords. The said staples are axially jointed by ties with the said spokes and braces, as well as with the cords tensioned arc-like between the said spokes opposite appropriate tangential cords.

EFFECT: high-accuracy profile, guaranteed operation in orbit, simpler design and smaller weight.

6 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: transport, production processes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises stretching metallised knitted reticular sheet with preset force, cutting it into fragments and serging along radial directions to provide for required shape and sizes. The said sheet is cut into wedge-like fragments with the width of allowances not less than that of the form-building structure elements representing band. Then, these fragments are folded so that allowances get overlapped to be serged with zigzag seam over entire width of allowance. Now the reticular sheet working surface is placed on processing appliance representing required-shape 3D template, stretched with preset force to rule out surface irregularities. The required shape and sizes attained, the aforesaid sheet is fixed by means of the band staples relative to the bands surfaces. Note that the bands are preliminary placed on the said template and adjusted with the help of tangential cords to the required shape of the sections located nearby seams. Processing appliance is removed after mounting the reticular sheet on the strength carcass and reference marks are applied onto the said sheet working surface. Reflector working surface is finally adjusted with its aperture upwards and downwards and, then, tested. The working surface results with root-mean-square departure from theoretical profile not exceeding 1.3 mm measured after all tests at, approximately, 2700 points.

EFFECT: high-accuracy profile, guaranteed operation in orbit.

3 cl, 19 dwg

Descent spacecraft // 2244665

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; small descent spacecraft injected into orbit by ballistic missiles removed from combat duty.

SUBSTANCE: proposed descent spacecraft has case, control members for its orientation in space and units for coupling with launch vehicle. Plane of connection of descent spacecraft with launch vehicle coincides with transversal plane of symmetry of case of spacecraft and its diameter coincides in this plane with transversal diameter of launch vehicle. Descent spacecraft case is made in form of body obtained by rotation of oval around its larger axis and said plane of connection with launch vehicle coincides with plane of smaller axis of oval.

EFFECT: increased volume of descent spacecraft at limited transversal diameter of launch vehicle.

1 dwg, 1 tbl