Thermo electrical systems of electric power generation industry

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: thermo electrical system of power generation consists of a multiple set of thermo electrical elements constituting a block with cold and hot side during operation. Operating medium collects reject heat from the cold side of, at least, several thermo electrical elements. Later on, following the above mentioned reject heat collection, the operating medium is heated and releases, at least, part of the heat to the hot side of, at least, several thermo electrical elements from the multiple set of the above elements. So the power is generated by means of, at least, several out of multiple set of thermo electrical elements.

EFFECT: application of invention helps to use heat losses.

27 cl, 35 dwg

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to the production of energy using thermoelectric devices.

The level of technology

Although the potential application of thermoelectric devices for energy production has been known for a long time, thermoelectric energy production is rarely used, because the effectiveness of existing designs of generators and the power density of such generators is too low.

Usually a solid system of production of electrical energy are constructed of thermoelectric (TE) modules or individual thermoelectric elements arranged between the heat source and heat sink. The structural elements of the power generator are developed in such a way that the design contains no moving parts. Typically, in systems that are the sources of heat and cold make use of hot and cold working environments, for transporting the medium to the device used fans and pumps.

In other cases, inside the generator burned compressed air and fuel. At the same time, in other applications, such as energy converters exhaust waste vehicles, heat is transferred to the generator through the exhaust system. In these devices, the heat of exhaust gases is diverted or external fans, p is giving a cooling means, or free convection through the finned radiators.

The use of generators, using as an energy source nuclear isotopes, individual TE elements are designed to produce electricity. Each thermocouple is attached to the source isotope heat on the hot side and the heat sink with waste heat on the cold side. During operation, no part of the design is not in motion.

Article describing the production of energy using solid-state thermoelectric generators-oriented application in space (Angrist, Stanley W., Direct Energy Conversion, Third Edition, Allyn and Bacon, Inc. (Boston, 1976),. Chapter 4, pp.140-165), or dealt with cases of land-use for which reliability is a more important goal than efficiency or used traditional standard model (Ikoma, K. et al., "Thermoelectric Module and Generator for Gasoline Engine Vehicles," 17th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, Nagoya, Japan (1998), pp.464-467), which is not always optimize system performance for today's applications. There is a need for the development and use of periodic processes TE production of energy for present and future use, including secondary use of heat losses, which occur when the exhaust gases in vehicles and when cooled engines in the industry is the R processes and co-generation systems, heat and electric energy, receiving benefits in the process of energy production.

The essence of the invention.

New thermoelectric materials with heterostructure, using the effect of quantum tunneling, and thin-film deposited thermoelectric materials operate at much higher power densities than conventional bulk materials, and represent the potential for increasing the efficiency of the system. In addition, recent advances in thermoelectric materials and systems has renewed interest in the potential use of thermoelectric elements to produce electricity. The properties inherent in TE systems - a small amount or no moving parts, quiet operation, and characteristics such as respect for the environment and the possibility of compensation for energy losses has raised further interest in SOFC systems.

The successful operation of thermoelectric devices with high energy density requires a high speed heat transfer on the cold and hot side of the TE modules. One of the ways we do this is by using rotary designs, providing high speed of the fluid flow, and as a result, a large release of heat energy. In one of the preferred implementations of the rotor system, in which part taproom is nice works as fan blades and through this contributes to the fluid flow, can reduce the energy in the fan, to simplify system design and reduce its size.

In addition, the rate of heat transfer in many systems can be increased through the use of heat pipes that are well known in the art. Such devices use a two-phase (liquid and gas) flow for transferring fluid from one surface to the other. In cases where heat must be removed from the surface of the heat source, the heat of vaporization of the liquid is used to heat release. The vapor is transported to the surface having a lower temperature side absorbing heat, where it is condensed and thus releases its heat of vaporization. The condensed fluid returns to the surface of the heat source due to the capillary effect and/or gravity.

Properly designed heat pipes are very efficient and transported large heat flow at very low temperatures. The efficiency of heat pipes is explained by the efficiency of the return fluid and constant wetting the entire surface of the heat source, providing a constant evaporation and removal of thermal energy. In addition, it is very important that the cold side receiving heat is not accumulated liquid, because the work is the first medium in the heat pipe is usually relatively poor conductor of heat. Therefore, the receiving party must effectively get rid of fluid in order to support the effective surface conductivity.

The energy generators, the design of which is combined with thermal insulation, according to patent application U.S. No. 09/844818 entitled "high-efficiency thermoelectric elements using thermal insulation can further improve performance.

According to one aspect of the invention the present invention is directed to the creation of a thermoelectric system of energy production that contains many of thermoelectric elements forming the device, which in the process has more cold and more heated side. Work environment collects used more heat from the cold side at least several thermoelectric elements. After collecting the used heat the working medium is heated even more and then gives at least a portion of its heat more heated side at least a few elements from a variety of thermoelectric elements, thereby producing energy using at least a few elements from a variety of thermoelectric elements. Preferably, at least one electrical system passed the energy from specified the CSOs device and was a controller for process optimization or for process control in specific cases of application.

In one example implementation of the invention, the working medium is heated by a heat source, for example, from solar energy, heat from the combustion process, isotopic heat or other sources of heat. In one example implementation of the invention, the working environment is solid, fluid, or a combination of solid and fluid material.

In one example implementation of the invention at least a few of the many thermoelectric elements are designed in such a way as to enable the working environment through, for example, have holes or are porous. In this case, it is desirable that the heat was conventionals working environment towards the warmer side of thermoelectric element.

In another example implementation of a variety of heat exchangers are in thermal engagement at least with multiple thermoelectric elements. It is desirable that at least some of the heat exchangers were insulated in the direction of movement of the working environment.

In another example implementation, at least one from a set of thermoelectric elements are designed to allow transportation of the convection heat of the working medium in the direction of more hot side of thermoelectric element, and at least plural what about the rest of thermoelectric elements designed to provide thermal insulation in the direction of movement of the working environment.

According to another aspect of the present invention is a method for the production of energy using thermoelectric effect, the method involves several steps. The working environment is moved so that thermally interact with many of thermoelectric elements forming an array having more cold and more heated side in the process. Heat is transferred to the working medium from the cooler side at least a few elements from a variety of thermoelectric elements, and thus, the working environment reported more warmth. Then working environment radiates heat to the warmer side of at least a few of the many thermoelectric elements to produce the energy by using at least a few elements from a variety of thermoelectric elements.

In one example of implementation of the additional heat reported by burning the working environment, due to solar heat, using isotopes, due to the use of waste heat from other processes, or by any combination of these or other sources of heat. In another example, the implementation of heat convectively working environment at least through Odie thermoelectric element in the direction of more hot side of thermoelectric element.

It is preferable that the method further include process control, energy production, ensuring the achievement of certain criteria, such as maximum efficiency, maximum output power, any combination of the above criteria or any other criteria that are important for a particular application. For example, can be controlled by the speed of the working environment to optimize operating parameters, such as efficiency.

These and other aspects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following more detailed description of the preferred implementations of the invention.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1A shows the components of a conventional thermoelectric generator.

Figure 1B-1G depicts a General arrangement of a thermoelectric generator, containing hot and cold fluids, engine and fin heat exchanger to create the temperature difference in thermoelectric module. Electrical energy is produced from thermal energy within the fluid flow hot side.

Figure 1H further illustrates the preferred device of a thermoelectric generator in which the flow and pressure of working medium rotates the construction of the generator, thus precluding the necessity of the motor shown in figures 1C and 1D.

Figure 2A depicts the TE module is, heat pipes and an array of heat exchangers for the General case of an axial flow of fluid in a rotary solid-state power generator.

Figure 2B provides a detailed view of the cross section of the array depicted in figure 2A.

Figure 2C represents the second segment of the array depicted in figure 2A.

Figure 3A depicts a view of the TE module section of the heat pipe and an array of heat exchangers for the General case of radial flow of the working fluid in a rotary power generator.

Figure 3B shows a detailed view in section of the array depicted in figure 3A.

Figure 4 depicts the energy generator with axial flow, where the hot and cold fluid flows in parallel to each other in the same direction. The generator uses thermal insulation and heat pipes in order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion.

Figure 5 depicts the power generator with radial flow, where hot and cold streams of the working environment in General parallel to each other in the same direction. The generator uses thermal insulation and heat pipes in order to improve efficiency.

Figure 6 depicts the axial generator with the flow of hot and cold working environment in General in opposite directions. Mainly, the TE modules and HEA and thermally insulated, to improve the efficiency and increase the energy density.

Figure 7 depicts the radial generator with hot and cold working medium flowing in the General case in different directions. Mainly, the TE modules are thermally isolated. Heat pipes are used to increase both the efficiency and density of the dissipated power.

Figure 8 depicts the power generator for the General case both radial and axial flows. Solid-state conductive heat component is used to transfer heat between thermoelectric module and ribs hot side.

Figure 9 depicts a portion of the power generator with axial flow, in which the current flows through thermoelectric elements or modules and heat pipes in a circular direction around the axis of rotation of the rotor.

Figure 10 depicts the system block diagram of a thermoelectric power generator.

Figure 11 depicts the components of the convective thermoelectric generator according to U.S. patent No. 6598405.

Figure 12A describes a conventional thermoelectric generator in which the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric element have the same temperature. The cold side thermally connected with a large solar heaters and the hot side is heated moving environment.

Figure 12B depicts the power generator similar to the generator shown in figure 12A, but with the working environment is Oh, cooled by passing over the plate more heated side.

Figure 12C depicts a thermoelectric generator with moving environment with both hot and cold side. And the cold and hot side of thermoelectric generators are maintained at a constant temperature.

Figure 13A depicts the TE system with a modular design, which uses regeneration heat losses to improve efficiency.

Figure 13B depicts a perspective view of the construction shown in figure 13A.

Figure 13C depicts the operation of the system shown in figure 13A.

Figure 14A depicts the TE power generator, which works effectively at a relatively low temperature and uses a sufficiently high temperature heat source of the convective environment.

Figure 14B depicts the operation of the system shown in figure 14A.

Figure 15A depicts the joint power generator that uses both convection and thermal insulation.

Figure 15 depicts the operation of the system shown in figure 15A.

Figure 16 depicts a system for generating energy, in which the convective medium is a solid.

Figure 17A depicts the recovery system energy losses, which uses a convective environment in a closed loop.

Figure 17B provides an additional view of the system shown in figure 17A

A detailed description of the preferred variants of realization of the present invention

Below is a detailed description of the preferred examples of implementation of the energy generators using new thermodynamic cycles, in which the heat exhaust from the TE elements can be re-routed to the hot side together with additional warmth. In addition, we offer a description of ways of combining the combustion process with thermoelectric power generator. Accents are made on the factors that affect performance, including the status of the hot and cold sides, which increase the efficiency in the use of new thermodynamic cycles (bell LE, "the Use of thermal insulation to improve the efficiency of thermoelectric systems", Proceedings of the 21st International conference on thermoelectric systems, long beach, Canada, August 2002, and bell LEE, "Improving thermodynamic efficiency of thermoelectric system through the use of convection heat transfer", proceedings of the 21st International conference on thermoelectric systems, long beach, Canada, August 2002). The source of thermal energy (heat) is of particular advantage when used for energy generation in systems where valid values for exhaust heat loss from the cold side is s significantly affect the system's efficiency.

Such designs also have important applications in some of the respective solid-state energy technologies, including thermionic, photon, magnetocaloric, and thermoelectric energy converters.

The following concepts in accordance with their detailed descriptions in the above-mentioned patent applications or patents included in this description as references, are prerequisites of the present invention: (1) convection TE energy production and joint production (U.S. patent No. 6598405); (2) TE system with isolated elements (U.S. patent No. 6539725); (3) design of arrays with isolated elements and structures with high energy density (application U.S. No. 10/227398, filed August 23, 2002)).

In the context of this description, the terms Thermoelectric Module, thermoelectric module, thermoelectric element or TE is used in the broad sense of their ordinary meaning and understanding. In the context of this description, they can have the following values: (1) conventional thermoelectric converters, such as produced by Hi Z Technologies, Inc. in San Diego, California; (2) converters with quantum tunneling effect; (3) thermionic converters; (4) the magneto caloric modules; (5) elements that use the same effect, or any combination of thermoelectric, magneto caloric, quantum tunneling and thermionic effects; (6) any combination of, an array or other structure mentioned in paragraphs (1) through (6).

In the present description of the word cool, hot, more cold, more hot and such are the related concepts and does not indicate the temperature range. For example, the heat exchanger on the cold side can actually be very hot for a human to the touch, but nevertheless colder than the hot side. These terms are used merely to indicate that at the edges of the TE module there is a temperature difference.

In addition, the examples considered in the present description are only examples and do not limit the invention, the scope of which is determined by its formula.

Basic operation of the TE power generator can be more easily understood when referring to figure 1A. One or more thermoelectric elements 161 and 162 are in good thermal contact with the source 164 of thermal energy QHon one end, and the first and second telopeptide 166 for removal of heat loss Qc 167 are located at the other end. Source 164 thermal energy at temperature T 165 is hotter than telopeptide 166 at a temperature TC 168. Due to the temperature difference ΔT 169 thermal energy is transferred from the source 164 thermal energy to telopeptides 166. Part of the heat energy can be converted into electricity is the Nergy respective thermoelectric elements 161, 162.

The energy conversion efficiency of ψ is equal to the output load 171 divided by heat input capacity of QH164.

The efficiency can be written as

The first expression on the right side of the equation, in parentheses, represents the efficiency of the Carnot cycle is the maximum achievable efficiency according to the second law of thermodynamics. The second expression ηgtis the efficiency factor for a separate conversion process (and it is less than 1). These properties of the generator is applicable in any case, regardless of whether he thermionic, thermoelectric (in the narrow sense), photon-based quantum tunneling magnetocaloric or created on the basis of any combination of the above.

The factor ηgtdisplays a characteristic of the specific type of generator.

Subscript "GT" is used to denote "type generator". For example, "GT" changed to "THE"to indicate that the format adopted for thermoelectric (in the narrow sense) material systems.

The cases when the value of theoretically optimum efficiency does not include losses are described by the formula:

where

(6) α = net Seebeck coefficient of the material system,

(7) ρ = average electrical resistance of the material system,

(8) λ = the average thermal conductivity of the material system.

It is a well known result, which is described in more detail in the article: Angrist, Stanley W., Direct Energy Conversion, Third Edition, Allyn and Bacon, Inc. (Boston, 1976). Chapter 4, pp.140-165).

Generally, it is desirable to optimize the efficiency or output power of the generator, for the sake of brevity, thermoelectric systems and their operation at high efficiency according to the description. However, the described approach is applicable to the work under different conditions and, in General, to other SOFC systems.

Figw-1G depict the General arrangement of the rotary thermoelectric generator 100 energy. Figure 1B is a perspective view. Figure 1C is a view of the rotor node 135, as it is visible through the slots 126, shown in figure 1B. Figure 1D depicts the rotary thermoelectric generator 100 energy in the cut. Figures 1E-1G give a detailed view of the various parts of the generator. Rotary node 135 (best shown in figures 1C and 1D) contains the TE module 101, which is in good thermal contact with one side being on the hot side heat exchanger 102, such as heat transfer fins, and on the other hand in the cold with the Auron heat exchanger 103, such as heat transfer fins. The insulator 109 separates the hot and cold side. The insulator 109 is rigidly connects the parts of the rotor with the rotor of the motor 110. TE module 101 is depicted here for purposes of clarification and consists of TE elements 104 and circuit 129. At the contact points 124, 125, wire 123 electrically connect the TE module 101 parts 117, 119 design of the shaft 130 that are electrically isolated from each other. TE module 101, located on the hot side of the heat exchanger 102, located on the cold side heat exchanger 103, insulators 107 and 109, the electric wire 123, the circuit 129 and part 117, 119 of the shaft form a rigid rotating block.

Node 111 of the motor connected to the rotor 110 of the engine bearings 144 (figure 1G). The contact 118 docosapentaenoic rings electrically connected to the end of the shaft 119 and the contact 120 docosapentaenoic rings electrically connected to part 117 of the shaft. Electrical wires 122 are attached to the contacts 118 and 120 docosapentaenoic rings through an electric circuit 132, and others not shown here, schemes such as paths on a printed circuit Board or other traditional connection of electric circuits. Electrical wires 122 are in contact with node 111 of the engine through the circuit Board 112 and others not shown here, the electrical circuit.

Spokes 113 (best shown in figure 1B) mechanically fasten the inner wall is at 114 (figure 1D) with the base 116 of the engine and thus, node 111 of the engine. Located on the hot side of the filter 128 fluid medium attached to the external casing 131, and are on the cold side of the filter 127 fluid supported blades 115 and attached to additional pieces 133 of the outer casing 131. The holes 126 in the outer casing, such as cracks, allow fluid 106, 108 to pass through the casing 131. Hot working environment 105, 106 (figures 1D and 1E) is enclosed in the chamber formed by the outer wall 131, the holes 126, insulation 109, the filter 128 and the TE module 101. Cool working environment 107, 108 is limited by the inner wall 114, blades 115, additional part 133 external casing, the base 116 of the engine and the filter 127.

Hot fluid medium 105 which passes through the hot side of the filter 128 and transmits heat are on the hot side of the heat exchanger 102. Thus, the region between the hot side heat exchanger 102 and the TE module 101 is heated. Similarly, the cold fluid 107 passes via the cold side of the filter 127 and takes the heat from the heat exchanger 103, located on the cold side. Therefore, the area located between the cold side heat exchanger 103 and the TE module 101 is cooled. Temperature gradient (hot stream) at the edges of the TE module 101 provides reception of electrical EN is rgii. Electrical energy is passed through the wire 123 to the points 124, 125 of the conductor, to parts 117, 118 of the shaft and through the contacts 118 and 120 docosapentaenoic rings to the wire 122 (best shown in figure 1G).

Node 111 of the engine acting on the rotor 110 of the engine, rotates the rotary unit. In one example implementation, the heat exchangers 102, 103 is constructed in the form of ribs, oriented longitudinally in the direction from the axis of rotation of the rotor design. In this configuration, the heat exchangers 102, 103 tend to work like the blades of a centrifugal fan or compressor and therefore constantly pump working environment 105, 107 to maintain the temperature difference on kraah TE module 101. A portion of the heat flow through the TE module 101, constantly converted into electrical energy. Hot medium 105 is cooled during passage through which the hot side of the heat exchanger 102 and exits as waste fluid 106 through the holes 126. Similarly, cold working environment 107 is heated while passing through located on the cold side heat exchanger 103 and exits as waste fluid 108 through the openings 126.

The advantages of such a rotating thermoelectric power generator with the special design of the rotor node 135 will be explained in more detail with reference to subsequent figures. Rotation thermoelectric module to the heat exchanger as a single node allows the use of one or more heat exchangers as fan blades to discharge the working environment. In addition, as will be explained hereinafter, can be obtained other advantages and applications of the rotation due to the increase of effectiveness of the system of energy generation and increase power density.

Figure 1E shows a more magnified image of the movements of the flowing media, located on the hot and cold sides of the generator 100 energy. TE module 101 is in good thermal contact with the hot side heat exchanger 102 and located on the cold side heat exchanger 103. The two sides are separated by insulation 109. Fluid 105 and 106 on the hot side is held by the outer wall 131 and the insulator 109. Similarly, fluid 107, 108 on the cold side is retained by the channel 114 of the inner wall and the insulation 109. The rotor 110 of the motor is rigidly attached to the insulator 109 so that the insulator 109, TE module 101 and the heat exchangers 102, 103 move as a single unit. Wire 123 connect the TE module 101 with rotating current collector 118, 120, as described in more detail in the detailed discussion of figure 1G. The rotor 110 of the motor is connected through bearings 144 (figure 1G) to the rotational actuator and the shaft 130 (shown in detail in figure 1G). Electric wire 123 are connected with the TE module 101 and the shaft 130.

A temperature differential is created on the TE module 101 using a hot fluid medium 105, the heating Teploobmen the Nike 102, cold fluid 107 and the cooling heat exchanger 103. Hot fluid medium 105 is cooled and exits, and the cold fluid 107 is heated and exits. Moving hot fluid 105 is initiated by rotation of the components of the heat exchanger 102, which act as blades or compressor blades of a centrifugal fan. The rotor 110 of the motor and the actuator 140 of the motor to cause rotation. The fluid flow is limited by the external shell and the insulator.

Figure 1F shows a cross-section of the TE module 101 and heat exchangers 102,103.

The heat exchangers 102, 103 are shown as folded edges, made according to a well-known technology, but may have any other suitable design, such as any preferred construction described in Kays, William M., and London, Alexander L, Compact Heat Changers, 3rd Edition, 1984, McGraw-Hill, Inc. To improve heat transfer, can be applied to heat pipes, and some other technology.

Figure 1G illustrates an additional implementation details of the collector node for the transmission of electric energy produced by thermoelectric module 101, to external systems. The site consists of wires 123, located in the insulator 109, one of which is electrically connected to the inner shaft 119, and the second external shaft 117. Electrical insulation 142 is mechanically connects the inner and outer shafts 117 and 19.

Mainly, the outer shaft 119 is mechanically connected to the rotor 110 of the engine and a support 144. The contact 118 of the current collector electrically connected to the inner shaft 119 and the contact 120 of the current collector electrically connected to the outer shaft 117.

Figure 1H depicts an alternative design of a thermoelectric generator that uses the flow and pressure of the working fluid to rotate the site of the generator, thus precluding the need to use the motor shown in figures 1D and 1E.

As shown in figure 1H, TE 101, the heat exchangers 102, 103 and related parts containing rotating elements of thermoelectric generator are such as those shown in fige, except that the fan 150 and the insulator 109 is bonded in such a way as to form a single rotating unit. Supports 152, the shaft 130 and the spokes 116, 151 form a suspension for rotating parts.

At work working environment 105 drives the fan 150. Energy from the fan rotates the rotating parts. In this example implementation of the invention, rotation is used to draw cold working environment 107, and realize other benefits of rotation are considered in the description of the figures 2-7 and 9.

The fan 150 is shown as a separate part. The same functionality can be achieved by using other is onstructi, are the heat exchangers, or in addition to them, and the other part having a shape and an arrangement to make use of useful energy in hot and cold and/or exhaust flow of fluid to initiate rotation. For example, such a system may be used in the exhaust stream of a combustion engine such as an automobile engine. In this example, otherwise will be used in the heat loss, which is converted into electricity, and the exhaust flow rotates the rotating thermoelectric node.

The rotor 110 of the engine, insulators 109, 142, and shafts 117, 119 rotate as a single unit and are supported by the support 144. The annular current collector 118, 120 transmit electrical energy formed inside the rotating unit in an external electric circuit. The annular current collector 118, 120 can be of any design known to the professionals, and the shafts 117, 119 can be of any design, which is conductive or includes electrically conductive wires or parts. Transmitting electrical energy to the components and configuration can be of any design, which transfers energy from the rotating unit to the external schema.

It should be noted that although the figures 1D-1G depict a single rotating unit may also be provided and composite rotating the array.

Figure 2A depicts the Popper is offered by the section of the rotor node 200 for thermoelectric power generator, having the form shown in General form in figure 1. Rotary node 200 consists of having the ring shape of the TE module 201, which is in good thermal contact with the annular array of outer heat pipes 202 and the annular array of internal heat pipes 203. Located on the hot side heat exchanger 204 is in good thermal contact with an external heat pipes 202 and located on the cold side heat exchanger 205 has good thermal contact with the internal heat pipes 203. The node 200 of the rotor is usually symmetric with respect to its axis of rotation 211.

During operation, the node 200 rotor rotates around its rotation axis 211. Hot liquid (not shown) is in contact with the hot side heat exchanger 204, which passes the flow of heat external heat pipes 202, and the outer surface of the TE module 201. Part of the heat flux is converted into electrical energy TE module 201. Waste heat flow passing through the internal heat pipes 203, and then to being on the cold side heat exchanger 205 and, ultimately, to the coolant (not shown)in contact with the cold side heat exchanger 205.

Figure 2B is a more detailed view of the cross-section of the rotor node 200 through the heat pipe. As in figure 2A, heat pipes 202 and 203 is ahadada in thermal contact with the TE module 201. Thermoelectric elements 208 and the electrical circuit 209 complete TE module 201. In one preferred examples of implementation of heat pipes 202, 203 consist of sealed housings 214, 215, containing transmitting heat to the fluid. During operation, when the rotary node 200 is rotated around the axis 211, the force of rotation of the pushing liquid phase heat transfer fluid outward from the axis of rotation of the individual heat pipes 202, 203. Direction oriented outward force induced by rotation, shown by arrow 210. For example, in a heat pipe 202 liquid phase 206 forms the border section 212 with the gaseous phase. Located on the hot side heat exchanger 204 has a good thermal contact with the shell 214 heat pipe located on the hot side. Similarly, located on the cold side of the heat pipe 203, 215 are transmitting heat to the fluid 207 in the liquid phase and the interface 213 with a gas phase. The heat exchanger 205, located on the cold side, has good thermal contact with the shell 215 heat pipes located on the cold side.

External force 210 caused by the rotation of the rotor node 100 operates in such a way that forces the liquid phase 206 and 207 to occupy the position shown in figure 2B. Hot gas (not shown) transfers the heat from the fins of the external heat exchanger 204 to the outer shell 214 heat pipes. Heat the pot is to cause the evaporation of part of the liquid phase 206 on the hot side. Couples moves inwards, in the direction opposite to the arrow 210 direction, as it is replaced by a more dense liquid phase 206. Fluid in vapor phase heat pipe 202 in contact with the interface between the TE module 201 and located on the hot side of the shell of the heat pipe 214, transfers part of its heat to the TE module 201 and condenses to form a liquid phase. The force caused by the rotation, pushes the dense liquid phase in the direction shown by the arrow 210. Cycles of fluid are repeated with increasing heat that is absorbed by being on the hot side heat exchanger 204, passed the outer shells of the heat pipe 214 and then the outer surface of the TE module 201.

Similarly, the heat exhaust from the inner side of the TE module 201, causes boiling of the liquid phase 207 fluid internal heat pipe and convection inside, the inside of the shells 215 internal heat pipes. Cold flow medium (not shown) removes heat from being on the cold side heat exchanger 205 and adjacent parts of the shell 215 heat pipes located on the cold side. This causes condensation of the liquid 207. The liquid phase is directed by centrifugal force in the direction shown by the arrow 210, and accumulates at the interface between the TE module 201 and the shell and 215 internal heat pipe. This cycle is constantly repeated, and fluid evaporate in one place, is condensed in another, and goes back to the original place by centrifugal force.

Force caused by the rotation of the rotor node 201 may exceed the force of gravity in the range from several times to thousands of times depending on the size of the rotor and the speed of its rotation. Such centrifugal force can enhance the transfer of heat by the heat pipe, allowing, thus, the rotary node 200 to operate with less heat loss and more hot heat fluxes.

Figure 2C shows visible along the axis of rotation 211 cross-section of the rotor of the node 200, depicted in figure 2A. TE module 201 is in good thermal contact with an external heat pipes 202 and internal heat pipes 203. The heat exchangers 204, 205, such as shown here repatria the heat exchangers are in good thermal contact with the heat pipes 202, 203.

Figure 2C shows the individual segments of the heat pipes 202, 203 and TE module 201. Hot working medium (not shown) flows through the holes 216 between the ribs 204 external heat exchanger and the external heat pipes 202. Similarly, cold working medium (not shown) flows through the inner bore 217 between the ribs 205 internal heat exchanger and internal heat pipes 203.

Figure 3 and which opens an alternative rotary node 300 for thermoelectric power generator. In this embodiment, the rotor of the site, the working medium flows in the General case in the radial direction. A view in section showing the disc-shaped thermoelectric module 301, which has good thermal contact with the hot side heat pipes 302 and located on the cold side heat pipes 303. The heat exchanger 304 is in good thermal contact with located on the hot side heat pipes 302 and the heat exchanger 305 is in good thermal contact with located on the cold side heat pipes 303. Rotary node 300 is rotated around the Central line 310 and is generally symmetric with respect to it.

During operation of the rotary Assembly 300 rotates around the Central line 310 under the action of the engine, for example as shown in figure 1A. Hot working medium (not shown), passing in a generally radially outward between being on the hot side heat exchanger 304 (edges in this image) is on the hot side heat pipes 302, transmits heat to the heat exchanger 304, an external heat pipes 302 and then the TE module 301. Similarly, the cold flow medium (not shown), passing in a generally radially outward through located in the center of the heat exchanger 305 and located on the cold side heat pipes 303, takes the heat, konvertirovanie located on Jolo the Noah side heat pipes 305 from the TE module 301. The portion of the heat flow passing from the one on the hotter side heat pipes 304 to the TE module 301 and out through being more on the cold side of the heat pipe 303 is converted into electrical energy TE module 301.

The rotation of the heat pipes 302, 303 (constructed in this example implementation of the invention in the form of a tapered tubular sections) mainly acts as fan blades, which pump out hot and cold running environment (not shown). Mainly exchangers 304, 305 and heat pipes 302, 303 is configured so as to maximize heat transfer and the effect of pumping fluid with a fan. Thus, the rotary node 300 functions as a power generator, and as the pump fluid.

Figure 3B shows a more detailed view of the rotor of the node 300 shown in figure 3A, section 311 through the heat pipe. TE module 301 is composed of thermoelectric elements 309 and electric circuit 310. TE module 301 has a good thermal contact with heat pipes 302, 303. According to the design in figure 2, located on the hot side heat pipes 302 contain hermetic shell 312 with a fluid medium having a liquid phase 306 and the vapor phase, and the interface 314. Similarly, located on the cold side heat pipes 303 consists of a sealed casings 31, containing the fluid with the liquid phase 307 and vapor phase, the interface 315. Fin heat exchangers 304, 305 are in good thermal contact with the heat pipes 302, 303. Arrow 308 shows the direction of the force, oriented outwards and formed by the rotation of the rotor around the axis 310.

When the work is directed from the center of force pushing the liquid phase 306, 307 teplonasosy the fluid within the heat pipes 302, 303 to the outside, forming a liquid phase 306, 307 and interface 314, 315. Heat flow from the hot side fluid (not shown), passing by are on the hot side of the heat exchanger 304, vaporizes a portion of the fluid 306, which condenses on the hot side of the shell of the heat pipe 312 on the surface of the TE module 301. Similarly, the portion of the heat flow passes through the TE module 301 to its boundary with being on the cooler side of the membrane heat pipes 313 and the fluid 307 heat pipes more than the cold side, causing these boiling fluid medium 307. Vapor phase condenses on the inside of the shells heat pipes 313 located on the cold side, because the heat is dissipated by transfer to being on the cold side of the heat exchanger 305 and located on the cold side of the flowing medium (not shown). This process of heat transfer is as similar which is described in detail in the notes to figures 2A, 2B and 2C.

Figure 4 shows in cross section one of the parties otherwise rotating power generator 400.

TE module 401 is thermally connected with being on the cold side heat exchanger 402 and located on the hot side heat exchanger 403. In the example implementation of the invention located on the cold side of the heat exchanger 402 is a segment of the heat pipe 404 and the ribs 406. Similarly, located on the hot side of the heat exchanger 403 has the segments of the heat pipe 405 and ribs 407. Cooler running environment 408, 410 is enclosed in the chamber formed by the insulator 416, 423, 424 and the channel 412. Similarly, hotter running environment 414 and 415 are limited insulators 423, 424 and outer channel 411. Rotary insulator 416 rigidly connected to the rotor 417 of the engine, the interior of the heat exchanger 402 and, in this regard, and with the TE module 401 and the heat exchanger 403. Wire 420 and the casing 425 rigidly connected with the TE module 401. Similarly, blade fan site 413 rigidly attached to the TE module 401. Node 419 shaft attached to the rotor 417 of the engine and to the supports 418. The site of the current collector 421 has electrical contact with the node 419 shaft. Insulators 423 and 424 is constructed so as to form a labyrinth seal 422. Spokes 409 connects the left support 418 with an insulator 424 and channel 411.

Node, formed by the rotor 417, insulators 416, 423, heat pipes 402, 403, TE module 401, the fan blades 413, wires 420, the shaft 419 and casing 425 rotates as a single unit. The rotation of the fan blades 413 provides the driving force for hot and cold running environments 408, 410, 414, 415.

Hot flow environment 414 includes left and transmits heat energy located on the hot side of the heat exchanger 402 and then the TE module 401. The flow of hot flow medium 414 is directed by the rotation of the fan blades 413. Similarly, cooler running environment 408 includes left and retrieves the prayers thermal energy from being on the cooler side heat exchanger 403 and TE module 401. Educated electrical energy passes through the wire 420 and outward from the rotating parts through the hub shaft 419 and the current collector node 421, as described in more detail in the notes to the figure 1F.

Heat pipes 402, 403 segmented to isolate one part from the other in accordance with the variant proposed in U.S. patent No. 6539725 priority from April 27, 2001, entitled "Efficient thermoelectrics utilizing thermal isolation", included in the present description by reference. The heat transfer inside the heat pipes 402, 403 strengthened the centrifugal acceleration, as explained above, and therefore increases the efficiency is the means of transport of thermal energy and the allowable power density, in which the system can operate. Using centrifugal force to enhance heat transfer, the assembled product can be more compact and can be used thermoelectric materials, which mainly operate at high density heat capacity.

Gate 422 is a typical specimen of any design shutter, which properly separates the hot fluid environment 414 from the cold fluid 408 moves to the fixed boundary. In some designs the suction energy of the fan 413 in combination with the geometry of the inlet can eliminate the need to use shutter 422. Alternatively, the shutter 422 may perform the function of securing the separation of hot and cold running environments 408, 422, if the external alternative mechanism (not shown) for fan blades 413 provides power for pumping the flowing media 408, 422 through the coils 402, 403. In this example implementation, the fan 413 may not be included in the design, or its function can be replaced by the standby mechanism for pumping a fluid medium.

Figure 5 depicts the construction of the power generator, in which heat exchangers function as fan blades. Thermoelectric module and the heat exchangers generally have a construction similar to that shown in figure 3. Rotary node 500 consists of the TE modes is lei 501, heat exchanger 502 cold fluid, the heat exchanger 503 hot fluid medium, insulators 515, 517, spokes 508 and rotor 509 motor, all of said parts rigidly connected to each other to form a rigid unit that is rotated around the axis 510. The heat exchanger 502 cold fluid has heat pipes, are in good thermal contact with the ribs 504. Similarly, the heat exchanger 503 hot fluid has a heat pipe, which is in good thermal contact with the fins 505. Insulators 515, 517 and channel 507 form a chamber which encloses hot flowing medium 511, 512. Similarly, isolation, 515, 517, and channel 506 form a chamber which encloses the cold flow environment 513, 514. Gate 516 is formed in the insulation 515, 517, to separate hot 511 and cold 513 workers running environment.

The node 500 acts through the rotor 509 engine providing motive force for rotating heat exchangers 502, 503, which, in turn, cause a suction action to push the hot and cold flow medium through the heat exchangers 502, 503 to create a temperature gradient at the edges of the TE module 501. Created in connection with this electric energy is extracted and transmitted to the external circuit construction shown in figures 1A-1E, or otherwise transfer, appropriate to the conditions surrounding the Reda.

Mainly, some of the flowing media can be used within a single node. Generator similar to that shown in figure 4A, may have several sources located on the hot side flow environments, with different composition and/or temperature. This condition may occur, for example, in the system of electricity generation, based on the use of waste and having several sources of exhaust gas, which should work together with waste heated fluid medium from the boiler, the drying apparatus or similar device. Such composite sources of fluid may be introduced through the wall 411 of place along the axis of rotation, where located on the hot side flow environment 422 was cooled to such a temperature that, being connected with added running environment that produces electricity. In these circumstances, the heat flux can change some of the heat pipes 402, 407 and edges 405, 409 so that the TE modules 101, a heat pipe 402, 207 and ribs 405, 409 may have a different design, size, shape, and/or materials from one section to the other in the direction of the fluid flow. In addition, the insulation and the design of the ribs can be used for separating a heterogeneous fluid. Finally, more than one are on the cold side flow environment 409, 410 b can the be used in combination with at least one being on the hot side of the flowing medium.

The design, shown in figure 6, also uses heat pipes, as shown in figure 4. The node 600, shown in Fig. 6, uses a counter flow, as explained in the application for U.S. patent No. 09/844818 included in the present description by reference. Figure 6 depicts the cross-section of one rotary thermoelectric power generator. Mainly, this is an example implementation of the invention also uses thermal insulation. Design generator 600 includes rotating the node formed by the TE module 601, a pair of thermally isolated heat exchanger 602, 603, nodes 610, 613 fan housings 607, 614, insulation 615, 616, 619, 620, 624, rotor 617 engine and node 618 of the shaft.

Located on the hot side of the flowing medium 611, 612 limited insulation 609, 615, 619, 620, 621. Located on the cold side flow environment 604, 606 is limited by the insulation 609, 615, 616, 619, 621, and the channel 608. Spokes connect 605 support 622 insulated 615.

Located on the cold side of the flowing medium 604 is left, absorbs thermal energy from the heat exchanger 602, thanks to which cools them, and is pumped radially outward by the centrifugal action of the blades 610 fan. Blades 610 fan can contain or not contain the inner casing 607, which can serve to provide structural support and acts, to the partial shutter for to maintain the separation between the hot running environment 611 and cold running environment 606 and help to manage the flow of cold flow medium 606. Hot flow environment 611 is inside in the radial direction, transfers thermal energy being on the hot side heat exchangers 603 and then is pumped radially outward by the action of rotating blades 613 fan. The cover 614 may be used to add structural rigidity to the blades 613 fan. The casing acts as a partial shutter to separate cold running environment 604 coming from running hot environment 612 and helps to control the flow of hot flow medium 612.

Figure 7 depicts the cross-section of one rotary thermoelectric power generator. The design, shown in figure 7, is designed to work in the opposite course. The heat exchangers may contain or not contain heat pipes to enhance heat transfer.

Figure 7 depicts the centrifugal generator 700 energy. The rotating Assembly consists of a TE module 701, heat exchanger 702, 703 with edges 704, 705, isolation 720, blades 723 fan rotor 718 motor and shaft 719. Support 721 attach node 719 shaft to the non-rotating channel 717, internal support 707, the spokes 722 and the channel 710. Hot flowing medium 706, 709 limited internal support 707, to the cash 710, insulation 720, the TE module 701 and exhaust pipe 711. Cold flow medium 712, 713, 714 restricted exhaust pipes/channels 711, 716, insulation 720, the TE module 701 and the channel/pipe 717. The shutter 715 separates the hot flowing environment 709 from cold flow medium 712.

The node 700 operates using a countercurrent flow is basically the same type, which are described in the notes to figure 6. The node 700 works in the General case in the radial direction, with the hot side heat exchanger 702 with its edges 704, working as a rotating fan blades for pumping hot flow medium 706, 709. Cold flow medium 712, 713, 714 responds to the resulting action is directed radially outward force formed by heat pipes of the heat exchanger 703 and edges 704 and of larger magnitude directed radially outward force formed by the rotation of the blades 723 fan operating in cold running environment 713, 714. The net effect of the opposing forces intended to force the fluid 712, 713, 714 to proceed in the direction shown in figure 7. That the force of the blades is greater, caused by the position of the blades 723 fan, which are longer and extend radially outward farther than the heat exchangers 703 with their ribs 705. As an alternative, any moving fluid 706, 709, 712, 713, 714 may call the external fans or pumps. In such construction the fan 723 can be removed, but not required.

Electrical energy is produced and transmitted to the methods and structures described in figure 1 and figures 5-6 or any other effective method.

Figure 8 depicts the power generator, which combines radial and axial geometry. The main mechanism 800 includes a rotating part, consisting of a TE module 801, heat exchangers 802, 803 thermal shunt 804, isolation, 811, nodes 808 and 809 fan channel/pipe 807, rotor 817 engine and node 818 shaft. Cooler running environment is limited by the shunt 804, casing 807, insulation 811, 816 and wall 814. Bearing 819 connects the rotating shaft 818 with spokes 806 and wall 810.

The action of the generator is similar to the effect shown in figure 7, except that the cold flow medium 805 flows through the heat exchanger 802 in the General case in the axial longitudinal direction. As shown in the present description, the heat shunt 804 and the coils 802, 803 may contain or not contain heat pipes. Moreover, the coils 802, 803, TE module 801 and a thermal shunt 804 may be, but not necessarily, constructed from a thermally isolated elements according to patent application U.S. 09/844,818, entitled "Enhanced thermoelectrics with the use of thermal insulation with priority dated 27 April 2001, which is included in this the General description in the form of links.

Figure 9 depicts the integrated thermoelectric module to the heat exchanger. The node 900 is a segment of the annular array of thermoelectric modules 901 with the center of rotation 909, heat exchanger 902 with ribs 904, heat exchanger 903 with ribs 905 and thermal insulation 908.

Gaps 906, 907 electrically isolate sections of the ribs 904, 905, which are connected with the individual parts of the heat exchanger 902, 903. During operation, one heat exchanger 903, for example, is cooled, and the other heat exchanger 902 is heated, creating a temperature gradient along the TE module 901. Electrical energy is generated resulting heat flow.

In this configuration, the TE module 901 may be a separate thermoelectric element 901 with current 910, flowing generally in a circular direction around the ring, part of which is the node 900. In part, in which the TE modules 901 are separate thermoelectric elements, so that the current 910 proceeded as shown, the elements 901 are alternately N and P type conductivity. Mostly, the heat exchanger 902, 903 are electrical conductors in the area between adjacent TE elements. If ribs 904, 905 are electrically conductive and are in electrical contact with the heat exchangers 902, 903, adjacent edges must be electrically isolated from each other by gaps 906, 907, as shown. The electrical energy which may be obtained by breaking the circular electric current in one or more locations and connection in these places break the electric circuit according to the notes to figure 7.

Groups of elements can alternately be positioned between adjacent heat exchangers, thus forming a thermoelectric module 901. Such thermoelectric modules 901 can be electrically connected in series or in parallel and can have internal tools for electrical insulation so that the gaps 906, 907 is not necessary. Thermal isolation between the hot and cold sides can be supported by the isolation 1008.

If the heat exchanger 902, 903 contain heat pipes, mainly flowing medium is cooled internal heat exchangers 903 and external heat exchangers 902.

Figure 10 illustrates a block diagram of a thermoelectric system 1000 energy generation. As shown, the system has a source more hot flow medium 1002, source more cold flow medium 1004, site 1006 generator device 1008 o wastewater flow medium and the output 1010 of electrical energy. Site 1006 generator configured to use any of the example implementation of the invention disclosed above or any similar example implementation using the principles explained in the present description. Source more hot flow medium 1002 provides the heat source for the site 1006 generator. Source more cold flow medium 1004 provides the source colder temperature of the flowing medium, d is enough for to create a useful temperature gradient along thermo-electrics node 1006 generator. Proven flowing medium exits the node generator through the output 1008. The electrical energy of the node generator 1006 is formed on the output 1010 of energy. The system 1000 is the only example of a widespread system and is not a limitation of the method, according to which the nodes of the generator in accordance with the present invention can be used in the system of energy generation.

Figure 11 depicts the convective thermoelectric system 1120 energy generation. TE elements 1121, 1122 on one end, with a constant temperature T 1125, are in good thermal contact with the hotter plate 1123 and, consequently, a heat source Q 1124. TE elements 1121, 1122, having on the other end of the constant temperature Tc 1128, are in thermal contact with cold plate or heat sink 1126, which removes excess heat QC 1127. Channels 1136, 1139 frame TE elements 1121, 1122 and the hood 1140. Load 1131 is connected to thermoelectric elements 1121, 1122 wires 1130. Convective fluid 1133, 1134 and 1135 limited channels 1136 and 1139 until the desired flow and passes through the power generator 1120. The temperature difference between the plate 1123 on the hot side and the plate 1126 on the cold side is ΔT 129.

When working the e fluid 1133, 1134, such as air, is pumped by the fan 1132 through the plate 1126 cold side through apertures 1137 (or through the pores, if the porous plate, or through both), and then through the TE elements 1121, 1122 (through holes or pores, if TE porous) and, ultimately, through the plate 1123 hot side (through holes 1138, through the pores, if the porous plate, or a combination of both). As fluid 1133, 1134 passes from the plate 1126 cold side to the plate 1123 hot side, it is heated by heat transfer from thermoelectric elements 1121, 1122. Fluid 1135 comes at a temperature Tn1125 through the exhaust pipe 1140. Heat QH1124 reported system 1120 located on the hot side plate 1123 and partially converted into electrical energy at the load 1131. The remainder of the heat is removed the heated fluid medium 1135 or goes through the plate 1126 cold side as the heat release Qc1127. Electric energy to the load 1131 is supplied through wires 1130. The conversion efficiency of electric power generally increases with ΔT 1129. The details of the operation of the generator of this type can be found in U.S. patent No. 6598405.

An important characteristic of this design is that part of thermal energy Q 1124 is used to heat the fluid 1133, 1134, instead, capture the ing through the plate 1126 cold side in the form of heat loss Qc 1127. Thus, the heated fluid medium 1135 may be used as part of the second cycle, which produces electric energy, in addition to that which was already created on the load 1131 generator 1120. For example, the heated fluid exiting through the hood 1140 may be used with generator a different configuration, such as shown in figures 13-17. In addition, the power generator 1120 in addition to energy production can produce hot fluid environment 1135, such as air, which may be partially or fully used for combustion to provide a source of warm fluid, the combustion process is more complete and more efficient by pre-heating.

In order to better understand the following examples of the invention increase the efficiency and use of convective heat transfer, as shown later in figures 13-17, the example of figure 12 summarizes the performance and efficiency of the power generator 160 during the actual use of it in practical terms. This description explains why the efficiency is sharply reduced compared to theoretically possible when used in real-world environments.

Figure 12A depicts the generator 1200 energy, in which thermal energy Q 1205 working in cf is de 1214 is at the initial temperature T 1204. Plate 1202 hot parties, usually at a constant temperature T 1212, is in good thermal contact with the medium 1214 and hot side of the TE module 1201. The cold side of the TE module 1201 is in good thermal contact with the heat sink 1208 at a temperature Tc 1209. The loss of heat Qc 1210 out of the power generator 1200 through the heat sink 1208. Electric energy for the load 1221 produced by the power generator 1200. The difference between the temperature T 1204, in which the convective environment 1214 included in the power generator, and a temperature Tm1212, in which, according to thermal energy QM1203 the hot side of the TE module 1201. The temperature gradient along the TE module 1201 is equal to δ twith1211. The total temperature difference is ΔT 1213. Wednesday 1214 initially is at a temperature Tc1206 and heated enclosed thermal energy Q 1205, as shown by vertical line 1207.

Working environment 1214 at a temperature Tn1204 transfers part of Qm1203 thermal energy plate 1202 hot side. Working environment 1214 then leaves the system at a temperature Tm. The difference of thermal energy from a temperature Tmto Tcwasted or is waste.

Efficiency φTHOSEregulated expression of Carnot, enclosed in brackets in equation (9).

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The energy conversion efficiency is zero when Tm1212 is equal to Tc1204, and increases with Tm1212. In addition, the part of QM1203 input power QH1205, which is converted into electrical energy part of QM1206, decreases to zero when Tm1212 is equal to Tn1204. Thus, for a given temperature Tm1212 having a value between Tc1211 and Tn1204, the maximum efficiency. The analysis showed that for the conventional practical assumptions, the efficiency of the power generator 1200 is 32% of theoretically possible efficiency of the generator 160 energy, shown in figure 1A. Consequently, it is absolutely obvious that the real efficiency of the power generator placed in practical terms, much lower than theoretically possible.

The difference is connected with the heating of the working medium 1214 temperature Tc1206 up to Tn1204 and the fact that only part of the input heat energy Qn1205 equal to Qm1203, which passes to TE 1201.

Figure 12B depicts the generator 1220 energy, similar to the generator 1200, but with the working environment 1239, which is cooled δ tn1232 from Tnto Tmn1231 by passing over the plate 1202 hot side. This environment informs thermal energy Q 1223 TE element 1201, which is in good thermal contact with the plate 1202 hot side on one side and the plate 1228 cold side on the other side. Working environment 1238, which is initially at a temperature Tc1209, absorbs waste heat

QMS1223 during the passage plate 1225 cold side and lifts Δ 1234 to a temperature TMS1233. Electric energy for the load 1214 generates the TE module 1201. Working environment 1207 enters the system at a temperature Tc1206 is heated by the source of input power Qn1205 to a temperature Tn1204.

When using external heat energy Qn1205 created, such as combustion air, produces a hot working environment 1239, which informs thermal energy Qmn1223 hot side of the TE module 1201. Thermal energy Qwith1229, not converted into electrical energy for load 1221 heats a working environment 1238 to a temperature TMS1233, while convective environment leaves the generator 1220 energy. Thus, the total input power Qn1205 and part of Qmn1223 more limited than in the generator 1200 energy, as the plate 1228 cold side is at a temperature TMS1233, which is greater than Tc1209. If the working environment 1238 and 1239 are made of the same material and of nahodatsa equal amounts or in other words, have the same thermal capacity, the temperature Delta twith1234 will be a little less than δ tn1232. None of these two values should not be zero, otherwise the heat energy Qmn1223 or QMS1229 will be zero. Similarly, the difference of Qmn1231 minus QMS1233 must not be equal to zero, or efficiency

will be zero. Calculations for typical conditions show that efficiency2B15% theoretical efficiency of the generator 160. Efficiency is low, because the fact that the convective environment transfers thermal energy from thermoelectric module and thermoelectric module can significantly reduce the temperature difference at the edges TE 1201 and, consequently, the efficiency of Carnot. Later this this fact will reduce the useful part of the total heat input.

Figure 12C depicts the generator 1240 energy, similar to the generator 1220 energy, depicted in figure 12B. Explanations remain the same, except that the working environment 1238 having a temperature TMS1233, heat source Qn1205 due to the temperature difference δ tMR1242 to a temperature Tn1204.

When working waste heat1229, penetrating into the working environment 1238, COI the box is used for pre-heating environment 1238 to a temperature T OSso that thermal energy1205 may transfer less heat to achieve the same operation and output of electric power to the load 1221. As a result, the working efficiency of this method is 23% efficiency of the generator 160. Thus, in this case, the efficiency is significantly greater than the efficiency of the generator 1220, but nevertheless sufficiently small compared with theoretical efficiency of the generator 160.

Accordingly, since it is established that in practical terms the energy generators operate at such low efficiencies, it is desirable to identify other structures that can be used convective environment as in figure 11, such as loss of hot fluid, in order to produce electrical energy with higher efficiency and at high power levels. Figure 13A depicts a block design generator 1300 energy. The type of construction of the generator 1300 energy matches the type discussed in U.S. patent No. 10/227398 entitled "Compact high-performance thermoelectric system, configured to operate as an auxiliary fuel generator, remote power generator or similar device.

Mainly, the generator is 1300 energy contains the TE elements 1301 of one conductivity type, alternating with the TE elements 1304 opposite type conductivity. TE material is in good electrical and thermal contact with the heat exchanger 1302, 1305, and is to them an angle of 90°, in addition to other heat exchangers 1306, 1303. This is illustrated in figure 13C in the future. The heat exchanger 1302 are connected by tubes 1309, the majority of which are electrical insulators and are of very low conductivity. Similarly, tube 1314 connect the heat exchangers 1303. The air or other fluid medium 1307 included in the input pipe 1308 and out of the output tube 1310. Similarly, the exhaust gas 1316 enters through inlet pipe 1320 and the heat exchanger 1306 and exits through the outlet pipe 1315. The main direction of fluid 1307 arrows 1307, 1321. The main direction of the exhaust gas 1316 arrows 1313. Load 1317 is connected to a smaller heat exchangers 1302 and 1306 wire 1322. Tube 1310 is connected to the nozzle 1311, through which passes the operating environment, such as air 1312, and fuel 1323 comes from the fuel tank 1318. Valve 1319 regulates the flow of fuel. The figure does not show the fan or pump to supply air generator 1307 1300. It is desirable that the valve could be adjusted by the management feedback system for use in a variety of conditions.

During operation, the air 1312 burned with t Pliva 1323, the valve 1319 controls the rate of fuel flow 1323. When the mixture is burned, it heats the air 1312 to the desired temperature. The exhaust gas passes in heat exchangers 1306, where part of the heat energy of the air passes through the TE elements 1301, 1304, generating electrical energy in accordance with Equation (2). In this process, the incoming air 1321 heated rise before getting into the combustion chamber 1311 through the tube 1310. While passing through other heat exchangers 1303 exhaust gas 1316 gradually cools, giving its heat to thermoelectric elements 1301, 1304 and increasing at each step of the way energy is generated at the load 1317. Part of the waste heat from this process gradually heats the incoming air 1307, as it passes through the heat exchanger 1302.

Valve 1323 can be used together with is not shown here, the air supply regulator to control the temperature of the exhaust gas 1312 to adjust electric power on the load 1317 and efficiency of the generator 1300.

Can be used with any other fuel, such as hydrogen or oxygen. In addition, along with the air 1307 such gas as propane, may be included in the second generator of the same type. After combustion exhaust gas can be appropriately divided, that is to provide a heat source for both generators. In addition, the heat source may occur from the collapse of nuclear isotopes, solar energy or any other source of heat. Generator 1300 may have more or less than shown, heat exchanger 1302, 1303 and TE elements 1301, 1304. Similarly, the TE elements 1301, 1304 may be replaced by TE modules or any other suitable solid-state energy converters. In this case, the electric wiring 1322 and load parameters 1317 changes accordingly and must be defined by the system designer for a particular application. If for transferring thermal energy system were used solar, nuclear or system external combustion air 1307, 1312, 1316 can be replaced with any suitable fluid medium, which may be in this case designed as a system or an open or closed loop. If the heat exchanger 1302, 1303, 1306 electrically isolated from the TE elements 1301, 1304, the medium can be a liquid metal such as mercury, or, preferably, less toxic replacement mercury alloy suitable for use at high temperatures, such as NaK, metal wood (Wood's metal), or any other suitable liquid metal.

Figure 13C depicts a diagram 1323 generator 1300. Exhaust gas from the combustion chamber 1311 is at a temperature Tcm1324 and is in good heat the Ohm contact with the heat exchangers 1303, 1306, which in turn have good thermal contact with the TE elements 1301, 1304. Exhaust gas 1316 comes at a temperature Tmn1324. Similarly, the air 1307, 1321 1310 and at a temperature Tc1326 gradually heated to a temperature Tcm1324. Part of the waste heat from the exhaust, not converted into electrical energy (not shown), passes through the TE elements 1301, 1304 in the heat exchanger 1302, 1305, and the air 1307. The heat source in the form of the combustion chamber 1311 and fuel 1318 provides a thermal power generator 1320.

The flow of heat between the temperature differences, for example between Tmn1324 and Tc1302, between Tn1325 and Tcm1324, or anywhere else on the chart 1320, produces electrical energy at each TE 1301, 1304 in accordance with Equation (2). The ratio of the produced thermoelectric elements 1301, 1304 generator 1300 total amount of such electric energy to thermal energy of the combustion chamber is equal to the efficiency of the system. For this design, detailed calculations show that the efficiency can be in the range of up to 130% of the efficiency of the generator 160, if the losses of the system and capacity of the fan or compressor) can be neglected. Actual results may be significantly below the range of 40% to 70% of the generator 160. However, as explained previously, if the actual practical working efficiency GE is erator 160 is 12%-25%, generator 1300 energy can operate at an efficiency several times higher than the efficiency of the generator 160 for practical applications. Thus, efficiency can be significantly higher than the efficiency demonstrated by generators 1220 and 1240.

Figure 14A depicts the generator 1400, which uses the repetition of the present invention in the configuration of the linear one-dimensional array and thermal insulation, as described in U.S. patent No. 6539725. Generator 1400 is TE element 1401 or arrays of thermoelectric elements, which are in good thermal contact with the heat exchanger 1402 hot side and the heat exchanger 1403 cold side. Air 1407 included in the fan 1408 and then passes to the inlet 1406 heat exchangers 1403, located on the cold side. The heated air 1410 in the chamber 1411 mixed with high-temperature products 1412 burning or other hot fluid medium, which is let up through the tube 1413.

The heated air mixture 1410 passes through the heat exchangers 1402 hot side and air mixture 1414 leaves the housing 1409 through the exhaust pipe 1416. The housing 1409 surrounds the unit. Load 1415 is connected to TE 1401. Gaps 1405 separated and thermally isolated individual shell thermoelectric elements 1401 and heat exchangers 1402 and 1403.

This generator is similar to the operation of the generator is 1300, except for the fact that TE 1401 with dual heat exchangers 1402 and 1403 hot and cold sides to achieve thermal isolation. During operation, the temperature difference at the edges of thermoelectric elements or modules produces electricity, which is collected and transmitted to the load 1415. This system has almost the same efficiency as a generator 1300 depicted in figure 13A.

Air 1407, 1410 and 1414 may be replaced by liquid, solid, any combination of gaseous, liquid and solid media, such as suspension, foamy substances, nanoparticles suspended in a fluid environment, or any other suitable means. Exactly the same as for generator 1300, any source of heat may be used to supply thermal energy in the mixing chamber 1411. Ultimately, the convective environment can operate in closed circuit type pump or motor and drive system instead of the fan 1408. In the system with a closed loop exhaust gases 1414 return some way back to the entrance after some cooling.

Figure 14B depicts the circuit 1420 generator 1400 energy, depicted in figure 14A. Hot gas 1412 having a temperature TG, converges thermal energyin the mixing chamber 1411, rising so is the cold temperature of the convective environment 1421 using δ t m1428 from the values of TMS1425-value of Tmn1426. Hot fluid medium 1410 is cooled and exits at a temperature Tmn1426. TE elements 1401 have good thermal contact with the hot side 1410 and cold side 1406 of the convective environment. Fluid cold side 1406 inlet has a temperature Tc1424, a temperature TMS1425. Load 1415 electrically connected with TE 1401.

During operation, if at least 40 thermally isolated heat exchangers thus associated with twenty-TE elements 1401, temperature distribution 1421, 1422 in convective environment 1406,1410 will look almost as gentle sloping line, as shown in figure 14C.

Under these conditions, the efficiency can be quite high, and each thermally isolated segment 1401 contributes to the production of electricity in accordance with Equation (2), and their individual temperatures of the hot and cold side replace Tnand Tcin this Equation. Can be used with smaller number of elements TE 1401, and, in General, they show somewhat lower efficiency.

Figure 15A describes the joint system 1500 energy generation, which has a section convective generation and isolated single partition generation. Generator 1500 has a fan 1511, taloot the od 1512, convective TE 1502, convective environment 1504, the electrode 1505 hot side, the source 1506 heat, hot fluid environment 1511, 1508, many thermally isolated heat exchangers 1507, United with many TE 1501, the output 1509 and the casing 1510. Fan 1511 pumps out a convective environment 1503 outside heat sink 1512, which is in good thermal contact with the cold side convective TE 1502, which passes through a convective environment 1504. This can be accomplished with the help of porous thermoelectric material or holes in thermoelectric material, or any other similar method. Convective environment 1504 passes through a convective element TE 1502, exits through the electrode 1505 hot side and crosses the heat source 1506. The electrode 1505 hot side may be porous or have holes to ensure the passage of the convective environment 1504. The heated fluid medium 1511, 1508 passes through many thermally isolated heat exchangers 1507 and exits at the outlet 1509. The cold side of the TE 1501 is in good thermal contact with the heat sink 1512. The node generator is covered by a casing 1510 generator.

When working convective environment 1503, at cold temperature, is pumped through the generator 1500 fan or pump 1511. First it passes through the details of the heat sink 1512 (through holes Il the porous portion of the heat sink), and then through convective TE 1502. Convective element TE 1502 works, as briefly described in the notes to figure 11. Convective fluid 1504 extends through the electrode 1505 hot side and, mainly, through the heat source 1506. The heat source 1506 may be a catalytic combustion chamber or any other suitable heat source. Part of the produced thermal energy is given to the element TE 1502 and produces electricity in that part of the generator 1500. The remainder of thermal energy produced by a heat source 1506, passes through the heat exchangers 1507 and comes after as part of its thermal energy (or preferably almost all) was extracted and passed through the heat exchangers 1507, the TE elements 1501. TE elements 1501 also produce electricity, which can be combined with electricity generated convective TE element 1502.

In addition to air 1503, other convective environment can be used. In particular, the joint generator 1500 may use mostly oil with low viscosity, such as for example low molecular weight saturated silicone oil, in a system with a closed loop, in which the fan 1511 replaced the pump. In addition, convective TE element 1502 may be replaced by solid-state thermoelectric element with the possibilities of effective external heat transfer to the a u se, similar to that described in U.S. patent No. 6598405, or using any other method of internal or external heat transfer. If convective TE element 1502 is electrically isolated from the convective environment, can be used liquid metal or solid convective environment.

Figure 15 describes the schema of the joint generator 1500. THE 1501 denotes a single node of the TE elements operating as a stand-alone array of thermoelectric elements with its heated side 1521 with the temperature decreasing from values of Tn1522 left to Tnm1525 right down, and with his cold side, which is at a temperature TC 1523. A second thermoelectric generator TE 1502 uses convective energy production according to U.S. patent No. 6598405 and has a temperature Tn1522 hot side and the temperature Tc1523 cold side. The source of heat1524 informs thermal energy of the convective environment 1503, included through convective TE 1502 and out like a hot environment 1511, 1508 for passing through thermally insulated elements TE 1501.

If essentially all of thermal energy extracted from the convective environment 1521 through thermally insulated THE 1501 and both THE 1501 and convective TE2 1502 work almost optimum efficiency, the efficiency of the joint generator 1500 is almost W is the value as is theoretically possible for the generator 160 for thermoelectric materials with ZTNfrom 1.0 to 2.5.

Figure 16 describes the generator 1600 energy, which uses solid convective environment for the production of electricity. Generator 1600 energy has many TA, load 1614, the first and second conductive environment 1602, 1606, the first fixing shaft 1605, the second mounting shaft 1608, thermally insulated plate 1604, the source 1611 thermal energy, the heat exchanger 1613 hot side and the heat exchanger 1609 cold side. Preferably, the anchor elements TE 1601 were electrically connected to the load 1614 and electrically isolated, but were in good thermal contact with the first and second moving environment 1602, 1606.

For the implementation of the invention shown in figure 16, the first and second moving environment 1602, 1606 disk-shaped, as shown. It is desirable that the TE elements 1601 formed blocks of thermoelectric material, which extends from almost the external diameter of up to almost the inner diameter of the disks of the first and second moving environments. In a preferred example implementation of TE elements 1601 is just slightly smaller than the width of the disks, so as not to completely reach the outer circumference or the inner circumference of the disks of the first and second moving media 1602, 1606. Located on the first side in the l 1605, driven by electric motor or other control mechanism (not shown)attached to thermally insulated plate 1604, which in turn is attached to the first moving convective environment 1602 so that all three parts form a single moving node. The second rotating shaft 1608 in the same way connected to the second insulating plate (not shown) and the second moving convective environment 1606. Arrow 1603 and 1607 indicate the direction of motion of the moving medium 1602 and 1606, respectively. Heat source 1611 summarizes thermal energy QH1612 the hot side of the heat exchanger 1613, which is in good thermal contact with the first and second moving environment 1602, 1606, and informs thermal energy of the first and second moving environment 1602, 1606. Similarly, the heat exchanger 1609 cold side is in good thermal contact with the first and second moving environment 1602, 1606 an angle of about 180° from the heat exchanger 1613 hot side.

The heat exchanger 1609 cold side extracts waste heat Qc1610 from moving environment 1602 and 1606. Mainly moving environment 1602, 1606 have very good thermal conductivity in the vertical and axial direction, as shown in figure 16, and have low thermal conductivity in directions 1603 and 1607 rotation. Nevertheless the method can be achieved thermal insulation according to the explanations in U.S. patent No. 6539725. This can be achieved by the formation of small layers as layers of cake) copper, bonded together with epoxy fixing material so that the layers of copper was formed by the first and second moving environment and were thinner in the direction of motion than the gaps between the TE elements 1601. In this way, any conduction of heat from thermoelectric element to the TE element is minimized.

In addition, the conductive medium 1602 and 1606 is made of a layered material consisting of a material with high conductivity, such as copper plates, oriented along the width and length in the axial and radial planes separated by layers nizkoprudove epoxy adhesive in order to reduce thermal conductivity in the radial direction. Thermal grease, a thin layer of liquid metal or any other suitable heat-conducting material (not shown) can thermally connect the moving environment 1602 and 1606 with heat exchangers 1609 and 1613.

The operation is similar to the scheme shown in figure 14C, except moving environment 1602, 1606, which transmits thermal energy directly to the TE 1601. Terminology and scheme of operation of the generator in figure 14 is used to describe the action of the generator 1600.

During operation, thermal energy Qnreceived from the heat source 1611, passed p renewaldate environment 1602 heat exchanger 1613, raising the temperature of the moving medium to a value of Tnby the time of its exit from the contact area with the heat exchanger 1613, which moves in the direction shown by the arrow 1603. Moving environment 1602, leaving the heat exchanger 1613, transfers thermal energy to the SOFC elements 1601, as it is cooled to a temperature Tmn1426 before is in thermal contact with the heat exchanger 1609, at a temperature Tc1424. Moving environment 1602 after cooling to Tccontinues to move in the direction shown by the arrow 1603, to the heat exchanger 1613 hot side. At the same time the second moving environment 1606 is also cooled to Tc1424 due to contact with heat exchanger 1609 cold side. Due to the fact that the second moving environment 1606 rotates, it is in good thermal contact with the TE 1601 and extracts waste heat energy from the cold side. In this process, the second moving environment 1606 is heated to a temperature Tc1415. The heat exchanger 1613 hot side then heats the environment of the second party to a temperature Tn1427. Therefore, temperature distribution moving media 1602, 1606 and TE 1601 similar temperature profiles 1422 and 1421. When moving environment 1602 passes backward point and is cooled by heat exchangers 1609 what about the T c1424 moving environment 1602 becomes part of the cold side of the second section of the generator 1600, and when the plot on the second moving environment 1606 heated to Tn1427 heat exchanger 1613, it becomes the hot side of the generator 1600. Thermal energy QH1612 may occur from the heat source 1611, which may be any suitable heat source, such as isotope heat source, a catalytic combustor or combustion. The heat exchanger 1613 hot side and the source 1611 thermal energy can be replaced by an external source of thermal energy QH1612, such as increased solar radiation or any other suitable non-contact source QH1612. If thermal energy QH1612 varies in time, the speed of rotation of the shafts 1605, 1608 may vary in order to maintain the temperature Tn1427 at the required level. In addition, the rotation speed can be varied to alter the efficiency by controlling the difference between the temperatures TMS1425 and Tmn1426. It is obvious that the disks moving media 1602, 1606 can also be designed from the molten metal, as described above.

To control the speed in a preferred example implementation of the invention provides a controller 1640, in which at least the sensor 1642 hot the temperatures and sensor 1644 cold temperature are used as input, to adaptively adjust the speed of the shafts 1605, 1608. By using a stepper motor or servo motor shaft speed can be easily adjusted by the controller 1640 with appropriate feedback. Feedback is provided to monitor the temperature of the hot and cold sides of the disk so that the speed can be changed to maintain the correct working of the restrictions when conditions change. For example, if the heat source is waste heat, where the energy changes in time, and waste heat become hotter or colder over time, control will be provided feedback to speed up the disks with increasing waste heat and slow disks while reducing waste heat. This control system can be programmed in such a way as to maintain maximum efficiency, maximum output power, or a combination of both parameters, which creates a particularly desirable favorable work area for the operation of the power generator under specific conditions. It should be noted that a very high efficiency can be obtained at a sufficiently slow motion drives, so the value of the output temperature Tmnlower than the temperature TMSowing to what level Forero the project for a heat want to add small. In this way a large part of the heat is recycled in the system, and less is lost as waste heat. A similar control system can be used for any of the example implementation of the invention described in figures 13-17, to control the speed of movement of the working environment.

Figure 17 describes the system 1700 power generation fueled by waste heat energy. As a special case, an example of recovery of waste heat energy from the exhaust system 1706 machine engine 1705. Exhaust 1713 passes through the catalytic Converter 1707 exhaust gases, the heat exchanger 1704 with a counter-flow muffler 1708 and output 1709. Many TE 1701 are in good thermal contact with moving environment 1702 and 1703, moving in the directions shown by arrows 1714, 1715 and 1716. Moving the environment 1702, 1703 passes through the radiator 1710, pump 1711 and through the heat exchanger 1704. Load 1712 attached to TE 1701.

During operation, the exhaust from 1713 engine 1705 converted by the catalytic Converter 1707 and enters the heat exchanger counter flow 1704, where the exhaust 1713 transmits thermal energy moving environment 1702, 1703. Cooled exhaust gas 1713 goes through 1709. The heated environment 1703 transmits thermal energy to the SOFC elements 1701, cooling the heated environment 1703. Moved Wednesday even Bo is the more is cooled while passing through the radiator 1710 Mainly working environment 1702 and 1703 is a one-component fluid, which is pumped by the pump 1711 through design with a closed loop, depicted in figure 17. Produced electrical energy is transferred to the load 1712.

As noted in the description of the generator 1600, the pump speed 1711 may vary to adjust the performance and compensation of fluctuations in the output power exhaust 1713 from the engine 1705.

Figure 17B describes the schema 1720 generator 1700 depicted in figure 17A. The source of thermal energy Qn1721 is in contact with the medium 1702, 1703 in place of the heat exchanger 1704 oncoming flow. Environment 1702 hot side leaves the heat exchanger 1704 at a temperature Tn1723 and enters the radiator 1710 at temperature Tmn1724. Waste thermal energy Qc1725 at this point stands out from the system. More heated environment 1703 is cooled to a temperature Tc1726 during your adventures through TE 1701 and the radiator 1710. Then, the medium passes through the pump 1711, by TE 1701 on the cold side and enters the heat exchanger 1704 at a temperature TMS1722.

During operation environment 1702, 1703 is pumped in a closed circuit through a heat exchanger 1704, where it absorbs thermal energy QH1721, and exits at a temperature Tn1723. Environment 1702 transmits thermal energy TE 1701, cooling the same, the way the environment 1702 to a temperature T mn1724. Waste thermal energy

Qc1725 derived from system radiator 1710 and in the process cools more heated environment 1703 to Tc1726. Now chilled environment 1702 absorbs waste heat energy from the cold side element 1701 and in the process heats the environment 1702 to a temperature TMS1722. The energy produced by the flow of thermal power through the elements TE 1701, is delivered to the load 1712. This process occurs during operation constantly.

It should be noted that in addition to the gradient existing between the hot and cold side of the individual thermoelectric elements of different energy production systems depicted in figures 13-17, TE elements can operate at temperatures significantly different from one edge device to another edge device. In this regard, the TE elements mainly designed so that they work best at different operating temperatures and conditions. For example, in the case of TE cells operating at higher temperatures, TE can be made of a material different from the material from which made the SOFC operating at colder temperatures. For example, for a more heated TE elements TE can be made of materials more suitable to work at high temperature the arts, such as germanium, silicon (Silicon Germaniun) or similar materials, and for cold TE elements TE can be made from materials such as talluri, bismuth (Bismuth Telluride). Known for other materials, especially suitable for operation at high and cold temperatures.

The other primary way to tailor the TE elements of the generators of energy production, shown in figures 13-17, to work at various operating temperatures is to design the TE elements inhomogeneous so that the details of the cold side at least several thermoelectric elements made of a first material, and the details on the hot side of the same items made from the second material. In other words, individual TE elements designed at least two materials, forming what is called a thermoelectric element with a homogeneous pair. These two materials can represent one and the same substance, but having a doping level on the hot side of thermoelectric element, other than the doping level of the cold side of thermoelectric element. For example, doped to a first concentration level of the cold side of thermoelectric element, and doping to a different level of concentration of the hot side of thermoelectric element can provide characteristics that are acceptable for optimal performance.

In another example implementation of the present invention can be applied is received impurities for doping, different for the hot side and the cold side of each thermoelectric element or at least several of the TE elements. In another example implementation the design of the TE elements should vary ideally, all over from edge to edge device in accordance with changes in temperature. Practically, the TE elements will be divided into groups working ranges and will be designed the most suitable to work in the specified operating ranges. For example, in figure 17B, where the dotted line through the middle of the temperature profile indicates the operating temperature in the system from thermoelectric element to the TE element, presents one way of designing the TE elements. For the left part of the figure a small part or no part of the TE elements should not be constructed from the first thermoelectric material suitable for operation at cold temperatures, and all or most of the TE elements shall be constructed from the second thermoelectric material, which has the best characteristics during operation at high temperatures. For the right side of the device, all or most of the TE elements must be designed from thermoelectric material, the most suitable for operation at cold temperatures, and no or a very small part of each thermoelectric element must be designed from a material more suitable for RA is the notes at hot temperatures. It is obvious that the percentage or portion of each thermoelectric element at least several thermoelectric elements, which are designed from the TE material, more suitable for working on the hot side, will represent the upper part of the figure 17B, and a portion of each thermoelectric element or at least some of thermoelectric elements, which are designed from the TE material, more suitable for operation at cold temperatures, will represent the lower part of the figure 17C. The dashed line marks theoretical distribution of such materials. In practice, it is better when the TE elements are grouped into two or more categories in contrast to the gradual change in each TE element that is expensive. For example, one group of thermoelectric elements are designed with a ratio of parts of 90%/10%, the group with a ratio of parts of a 50%/50% and the group with a ratio of parts of 10%/90%, where the ratio of the percentage represents (the proportion of hot material)/(share of cold material). Possible other relationships.

Obviously, despite the fact that discussion was used an example implementation of the invention, illustrated in figure 17, the design principles of TE is applicable to any TE system, where operating temperatures vary from edge to edge of the device.

Some ideas of this application can be combined in any desired way. Such combinations are part N. the present invention. Similarly, the ideas suggested in U.S. patent No. 6539725 called "Thermoelectrics and thermal insulation improved efficiency and application U.S. No. 09/971539 entitled "Thermoelectric heat exchanger related to rotary heat exchangers can be used in combination with the present description to create variants of the invention described here. For example, the heat exchangers of hot and/or cold side in one example implementation designed from components that are thermally isolated from other parts of the heat exchanger. Similarly, the details of thermoelectric module in one example implementation thermally isolated from other parts of thermoelectric module. Moreover, different convective generators depicted in figures 13-17, can be combined together in order to create a power generator, which operates at two different levels.

Accordingly, the invention is not limited to any one of specific examples of its implementation or specific description. Moreover, the invention described by the claims, in which the terms used in its ordinary commonly used value.

1. Thermoelectric power generation system, comprising:
many of thermoelectric elements forming the device, one side of which process the e is more cold, and the other hotter, while the working environment collects waste heat from the cold side at least more of the specified set of thermoelectric elements and after collecting the waste heat of the working medium is additionally heated, and then gives at least a portion of its heat hotter side of at least a few elements from a variety of thermoelectric elements, thereby producing energy using at least some of the multiple thermoelectric elements;
at least one electrical system, which passes the specified energy from the specified device.

2. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that the working medium is heated by a heat source.

3. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 2, characterized in that the heat source is the combustion.

4. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 2, characterized in that the heat source is solar energy.

5. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 2., characterized in that the heat source is an isotope.

6. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that the working medium is solid state.

7. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, trichomania fact, the working medium is a fluid medium.

8. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that the working medium is heated by combustion of the working fluid.

9. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that the working tool is a combination of fluid and solid.

10. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that at least some of the multiple thermoelectric elements made with the possibility of passage through them of the working environment.

11. Thermoelectric power generation system according to p. 10, characterized in that at least some of the multiple thermoelectric elements are porous.

12. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that at least some of the multiple thermoelectric elements arranged to move the convective heat of the working medium in the direction of the hotter side of the device.

13. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a controller energy production.

14. Thermoelectric power generation system according to p. 13, wherein the controller energy production controls the speed at which changes the surveillance of the working environment.

15. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally contains many heat exchangers, and at least some of these heat exchangers are in thermal contact with at least several thermoelectric elements.

16. Thermoelectric power generation system according to p. 15, characterized in that at least some of the heat exchangers provide thermal isolation in the direction of movement of the working environment.

17. Thermoelectric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one of the multiple thermoelectric elements made with the possibility of convection heat transfer with the working environment in the direction of the hotter side of the device and at least a number of other thermoelectric elements arranged to provide thermal isolation in the direction of movement of the working environment.

18. Thermoelectric power generation system under item 17, characterized in that the working environment is the working fluid medium, which convective heat using at least one of the multiple thermoelectric elements and thus heated.

19. Method for the production of energy using thermoelectric system of energy production, kiuchumi the following steps:
moving working environment for the implementation of thermal interaction with a certain set of thermoelectric elements forming the device, one side of which is in the process of work is more cold and the other hot;
heat transfer to the working medium from the cooler side at least more of the specified set of thermoelectric elements;
the message of additional heat to the working environment;
the heat from the working environment hotter side of at least a few of the many thermoelectric elements to produce the energy thus with the help of at least a few of the many thermoelectric elements.

20. The method according to p. 19, wherein the step of messages includes additional heat combustion of the working environment.

21. The method according to p. 19, wherein the step of messages of additional heat includes heating the working environment through the use of solar energy.

22. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that it further includes passing the working environment at least through some of the multiple thermoelectric elements.

23. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that it further includes a convection heat with the working environment in the direction of the hotter side of at least one of thermoelectric elements.

<> 24. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that it further includes the management of the production process of energy to bring it in line with certain criteria.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the specified criterion is efficiency.

26. The method according to paragraph 24, characterized in that it further includes controlling the speed of movement of the working environment.

27. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that it further includes thermal insulation at least some of thermoelectric elements in the direction of movement of the working environment.



 

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1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: conversion of explosive material chemical energy into electrical energy using magnetocumulative or explosion-magnetic generators for magnetic cumulation of energy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed magnetocumulative generator that depends for its operation on compression of magnetic flux and is designed for use in experimental physics as off-line pulsed energy supply, as well as in studying properties of materials exposed to super-intensive magnetic fields, in experiments with plasma chambers, acceleration of liners, and the like has permanent-magnet system. Spiral magnetocumulative generator is coaxially mounted inside system. Magnetocumulative generator has magnetic flux compression cavity. This cavity is confined by external coaxial spiral conductor and internal explosive-charge conductor, as well as by initiation system. The latter is disposed on one of butt-ends. Permanent-magnet system is assembled of at least one radially magnetized external magnet and axially magnetized internal magnet provided with axial hole. External magnet is disposed on external surface of magnetocumulative generator spiral conductor. Internal magnet is mounted at butt-end of spiral conductor on initiation system side, like poles of external and internal magnets facing magnetic flux compression cavity.

EFFECT: reduced leakage fluxes beyond magnetic-flux compression loop, enhanced initial energy in compression loop of spiral magnetocumulative generator.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering; power supply systems for various fields of national economy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electrical energy generating unit has low-to-high voltage converter connected to external power supply that conveys its output voltage through diode to charging capacitor. Accumulated charge is periodically passed from capacitor through discharger to first inductance coil accommodating second inductance coil disposed coaxially therein and having greater turn number. Second coil is resonance-tuned to operating period of discharger. Voltage picked off this coil is transferred through diode to charging capacitor. Electrical energy is conveyed to power consumer by means of third inductance coil mounted coaxially with respect to two first ones. It is coupled with these coils by mutual inductance and is connected to rectifier.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: pulse equipment engineering, in particular, technology for magnetic accumulation of energy, related to problem of fast compression of magnetic flow by means of metallic casing, accelerated by air blast produced by detonation of explosive substance; technology for forming high voltage pulses, which can be used for powering high impedance loads, like, for example, electronic accelerators, lasers, plasma sources, UHF-devices, and the like.

SUBSTANCE: method for producing voltage pulse includes operations for creating starting magnetic flow, compressing it under effect from explosive substance charge explosion products in main hollow, output of magnetic flow into accumulating hollow and forming of pulse in load and, additionally, compression of magnetic flow is performed in accumulating hollow, forming of pulse is performed in additional forming hollow, and main, accumulating and forming hollows are filled with electro-durable gas. Device for realization of magnetic-cumulative method of voltage pulse production includes spiral magnetic-cumulative generator, having coaxial external spiral-shaped conductor and inner conductor with charge of explosive substance, the two forming between each other aforementioned main hollow for compressing magnetic flow, and also accumulating hollow and load. Device additionally has pulse forming hollow, positioned between additional hollow and load. Accumulating hollow is formed by additional spiral conductor, connected to spiral conductor of magnetic-cumulative generator and to portion of inner conductor. In accumulating hollow coaxially with inner conductor of magnetic-cumulative generator, ring-shaped conical dielectric element is positioned. All hollow are connected to system for pumping electric-durable gas. Ring-shaped conical dielectric element is made with outer cylindrical surface, adjacent to inner surface of additional spiral conductor, and to inner conical surface. Angle α between outer surface of portion of inner conductor, positioned in accumulating hollow, and inner surface of conical ring-shaped dielectric element is made in accordance to relation 7°≤α≤30°.

EFFECT: increased power, increased current pulse amplitude, shorter pulse duration, increased electric durability.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: explosive pulse engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for manufacturing spiral coil for magnetic explosion generator producing current pulses of mega-ampere level intended to obtain more densely wound coil of higher inductance and, hence, higher current gain of magnetic explosion generator includes winding of insulated conductors on mandrel, coil potting in compound, curing of the latter, and coil removal from mandrel. Round-section conductor is deformed prior to winding until its sectional area is enclosed by oval, then it is covered with insulation and wound so that small axis of oval is disposed in parallel with spiral coil axis.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of coil.

1 cl 2 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, of equipment for transformation of heat energy, including that of the Sun, to electric energy.

SUBSTANCE: electric generator contains stator with stator winding and rotor positioned therein, made in form of piston; stator is provided with two vessels filled with gas, connected hermetically to each other via a hollow cylinder, which is made of material with high magnetic penetrability and having two limiters on the ends of cylinder, and piston is positioned inside aforementioned cylinder, made of magnetic-hard material and provided with piston rings, while stator winding is wound on cylinder and its ends are connected to load clamps.

EFFECT: provision of high efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: technology for transformation of chemical energy of explosive substance to electromagnetic energy.

SUBSTANCE: autonomous magnetic cumulative generator consists of spiral conductor, current-conductive liner with a charge of substance and initiation system, magnetic stream compression hollow, load and a system of permanent magnets, containing at least one magnet, positioned above spiral conductor with magnetization of parallel surface of spiral conductor, system of permanent magnets contains an additional magnet, positioned above spiral conductor on the side of load with magnetization of perpendicular surface of spiral conductor, while force lines of magnetic field of a system of magnets and in the compression hollow form a closed contour.

EFFECT: decreased dissipation flows beyond limits of magnetic flow compression contour and, as a result, increased starting energy in compression contour of magnetic cumulative generator.

1 cl, 7 dwg

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