Method of open pit completion

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes transporting of ore mass from entry of working horizons to transfer point in open pit along exits and from sump of transfer point to surface. Also out-sized rock mass, left after exposing and excavating works with high contents of mineral, is transported to the transfer point in chutes arranged on exits; out-sized rock mass collected at the transfer point is preliminary crumbled with profiled cumulative charges of directional effect to fractions of 1000-100 mm and 60-100 mm, and then it is directed to the sump, wherefrom it is transported to separating at crumbling-concentration plant. Also in the sump and during transportation there are formed two flows of ore, one - from rich oxidised, crushed to fraction more 100 mm and 60-100 mm ore, while another - from non-conditional and poor ore of wastes of crumbling-concentration plant with fraction 0-10 mm and 10-25 mm; notably that before separation there is formed a common ore flow with maintaining specified quality.

EFFECT: increased extraction of mineral due to inclusion earlier lost mineral and wastes of crumbling-concentrating plant after processing of minerals into extraction.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for open development of mineral deposits, namely the revision of the quarry.

A known way of completion of steep deposits of minerals in the career (see A.S. USSR №875038, AS 41/00), including the development of a rock mass in the trench, haulage and maintenance of vertical slopes of trenches through the installation of piles placed in the drilled vertical wells.

The disadvantage of this method is a significant loss of minerals.

Closest to the proposed technical solution is the way Refine career (see A.S. USSR №697720, AS 41/02), including haulage from slaughtering business horizons to the TRANS-shipment point in the career of the rolling congresses and transshipment point made in the form of a pit on the horizon design depth of the quarry, on the surface.

The disadvantage of this method is incomplete extraction of minerals due to the abandonment of oversized rock business horizons, lack of opportunities of engaging waste crushing and processing plants in production.

Unified technical result of the proposed technical solutions to increase the extraction of minerals for which there is no involvement in the extraction of previously lost and waste crushing and beneficiation plant from processing fossil.

Unified technical result is achieved by the known method of completion career, including haulage from slaughtering business horizons to the TRANS-shipment point in the career of the rolling congresses and transshipment point made in the form of a pit on the horizon design depth of the quarry, on the surface, oversized rock mass with a high content of minerals transported to the TRANS-shipment point for special trays located at congresses, placed at the transshipment point of oversized rock mass pre-crush profiled shaped charges directed action to fraction 1000 - 100 mm 60 - 100 mm, and then sent to the pit, followed shipping on separation at the crushing and processing plant, and in the pit and during transportation to the crushing and beneficiation plant consists of two ore flow: one of the rich oxidized fragmented to fraction 1000 - 100 mm 60 - 100 mm ore oversized pieces, and the other of substandard and poor ore waste crushing and beneficiation plant fractions of 0 - 10 mm 10 - 25 mm, while before separation form the total ore flow with maintaining a given quality of ore.

Delivery of oversized rock mass with a high content of minerals to transshipment point for specifications is determined as being the trays, located at congresses, improves the extraction of minerals by reducing losses, resulting in the abandonment of the oversized ore in the pit. Crushing of oversized rock mass to the optimum dimensions of 1000 - 100 mm 60 - 100 mm with profiled shaped charges contributes to the creation of Nabal fractured rock mass, eliminates the scattering of pieces and thereby reduces the loss of minerals.

Forming in the pit and when transporting two threads ore: rich - larger and poor is smaller, allows further as the common thread to adjust the ore quality, ensuring the completeness of extraction of minerals by crushing and concentration plant.

The proposed method improvement career is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a vertical section of the quarry, figure 2 - plan careers in figure 3 - diagram of the destruction of oversized rock.

The proposed method is as follows.

On the desktop Board 1 career are special exit 2, on which is placed a special trays 3, on the lower horizon 4 career perform the sump 5. Oversized rock mass 6 left in the overburden and mining, with the help of a bulldozer 7 on the desktop horizon 8 delivered to specially covered with the zda 2 and tray 3 take the lower horizon 4. Oversized mountain mass of 6 on the lower horizon 4 is subjected to grinding using profiled shaped charges 9 to fraction 100 - 100 mm 60 - 100 mm Crushing of oversized 6 using profiled shaped charges is carried out simultaneously for several pieces, which are placed on the oversized 6 profiled shaped charges are mounted in one explosive network. Then fragmented rock mass send in specially equipped sump 5. In the pit 5 ore is divided into poor and rich, forming two streams. When transporting further crushing and beneficiation plant flow poor ore doformirovyvat waste crushing and beneficiation plant fractions of 0 - 10 mm 10 - 25 mm Before the separation of the streams of rich ore, obtained from the fractured rock mass oversized pieces, and the poor, razboieni waste crushing and beneficiation plant, mix, getting the total ore stream. Adjusting the volume of the portions of each of the threads, you can get the General flow of a given quality required at the moment for separation at the crushing and processing plant.

The proposed solution is used when finalizing the quarries Sheregesh Deposit and takogo mines. The proposed solution is allowed to increase the completeness of extraction of minerals by engaging in what abotu previously left on business horizons oversized pieces with a high content of minerals, and use of substandard poor ore, waste crushing and beneficiation plant. Economic impact using the proposed technical solutions in Sheregesh Deposit mine amounted to 1.3 million rubles, and on TASCAM mine 0.9 million rubles

Way of completion career, including haulage from slaughtering business horizons to the TRANS-shipment point in his career congresses and transshipment point, containing a pit on the surface, characterized in that oversized rock mass left as a result of overburden and mining with a high content of minerals, transported to the TRANS-shipment point for trays located at congresses, placed at the transshipment point of oversized rock mass pre-crush profiled shaped charges directed action to fraction 1000 - 100 mm 60 - 100 mm, and then sent to the pit with subsequent delivery to the separation crushing and processing plant, and in the pit and during transportation to the crushing and beneficiation plant consists of two ore flow, one from a rich oxidized, fractured to a fraction of more than 100 mm 60 - 100 mm ore, and the other of substandard and poor ore waste crushing and beneficiation plant fractions of 0 - 10 mm 10 - 25 mm, while before separation form is the overall ore flow with maintaining a given quality of ore.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: motors and pumps; mining engineering.

SUBSTANCE: geo-technological complex with aero-hydrodynamic activation includes bottom-hole hydraulic washing-out module, rocks fraction separation system, force-feed hydro transportation system, processing complex with dumping system. The geo-technological complex is provided with the mechanical activation module for coarse fractions with movable initiating plant and aero hydrodynamic activation module for middle-size fractions. The aero hydrodynamic activation module is provided with pressurized air supply system being installed in the place of rock bulk material feeding. The pressurized air supply system nozzles are installed shifted and horizontally in a staggered manner. The stationary flat reflecting elements are installed at aero hydrodynamic activation module pit edges and tilted in vertical plane. The above elements are also shifted in horizontal plane with regard to each other. The aero hydrodynamic activation module is linked with fine fraction accumulation module. Radial reflecting elements are installed symmetrically to the stationary flat reflecting elements but shifted horizontally with regard to them along rock mass feeding direction and from the opposite side of pit edge.

EFFECT: increased effectiveness of sandy and clay rocks state and properties change.

6 dwg

FIELD: motors and pumps; mining engineering.

SUBSTANCE: geo-technological complex with hydrodynamic and laser initiation includes hydro washing-out module for bottom hole, rocks fraction separation system, force-feed hydro transportation system, processing complex with dumping system. The complex is provided with electro-thermal release module for structural links in large extra-heavy rocks fractions. The electro-thermal module releases the above structural links by the laser initiation plant and module for hydrodynamic crashing of middle-size and small-size fractions. The structural links are released by the laser initiation plant, which is movable in vertical direction due to swing drive and movable in horizontal direction due to displacement drive along the gantry. Module for hydrodynamic crashing of middle-size and small-size fractions is installed on the gantry so that it can displace along the above gantry. It is provided with periodic pressurised water supply system and flat rotary reflecting elements. The pressurised water supply system nozzles are installed rigidly and at an angle to the vertical plane regarding each other. The nozzles are shifted in the horizontal plane. The flat rotary reflecting elements are linked in pairs with the displacement system and installed between the pressurised water supply system nozzles so that they can turn around axis in the vertical direction.

EFFECT: increased effectiveness of sandy and clay rocks state and properties change.

6 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly open cast mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating large coarse mineral blocks by cutting slots with load-cutters; transporting mineral blocks to loadout level. Breakage face is advanced along strike. Mineral blocks are excavated in down-top direction to the rise by block sliding on trays along face ground to lower horizon with block movement by means of winches to loading area. Blocks laid on trays are loaded so that the trays are retained with rope and case mountings or without it if not required with the use of high-capacity truck-mounted crane. To develop seams having thickness exceeding maximal cutting depth of load-cutter mineral is cut in top-down direction with following cutting of layers each having thickness of not more than 2.2 m. Lower horizon provided with rail track is located at seam floor. The rail track is erected on lower horizon. Here blocks are loaded into cars. Cut mineral blocks are independently lowered from breakage faces at each layer to lower load horizon along movable mechanized metal structures provided with smooth metal descend having rounded ends, hoisting winch and bypassing block installed on vertical post. Vertical post height provides free snake line movement for cut mineral block movement. Blocks are separately loaded in cars from each layer.

EFFECT: increased output, improved operational and environmental safety and economical efficiency.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.

SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and from pit bottom; performing explosions in wells surrounding kimberlite pipe perimeter and carrying-out hydraulic fracturing from wells drilled from pit bottom to create jointed subvertical and subhorizontal rock fissured zones, which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.

EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.

FIELD: mining, particularly mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.

SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and performing explosions through regular system from pit bottom to create joined subvertical annular and subhorizontal rock fissured zones which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.

EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.

FIELD: mining, particularly to perform stripping and mining in pits with 6-8 crushing index.

SUBSTANCE: method involves filling previously created trench with rock loosened with milling machine, wherein loosened rock is poured in the trench from which said rock had been excavated. In the case of conveyer deactivation device usage rock is left in open trench just after rock cutting with milling means. After that rock is scooped with scrapers following pit machine without pit machine stopping.

EFFECT: increased open-pit work efficiency due to decreased milling machine downtime during rock mining.

2 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: open-cast mining, particularly for mineral mining in the case of vertical ore body confined in plane view, particularly kimberlite pipes.

SUBSTANCE: method involves spacing common pit edges at intermediate stage along with new edges creation, wherein the new edges are formed of triple ledges with stability provision parameters so that the ledges are separated one from another with safety berms; creating transport descent for double-path large dump truck movement; creating U-turn platform and annular transport descends at finishing stage, wherein annular transport descends provide opposite single-path dump truck movement and are joined one to another at U-turn platform; constructing pit edges in superhigh ledges in steep ore body pitch areas; transporting ore to plant and conveying gob to extreme refuse heaps. At pit finishing stage U-turn plate forming is accompanied by transfer platform creation. Steeply inclined descent and U-turn platform are created below transfer platform along rock pillar between pits. The descent is created through the full pillar depth. Ore bodies are alternately cut with steeply inclined end descents having thicknesses providing double-path crawler dump movement. Ore and gob of the first pit are transported to transfer platform. Then ore is loaded in dump trucks. Gob is piled on the second pit edge. After total the first pit excavation gob of the first and the second pits is arranged in the worked-out space of the first pit. Inclined galleries are cut along rock pillar base to provide drain water passage from the first pit into another one.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and mineral mining completeness.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly excavation of hard rock in confined environment demanding prevention of blasted rock cuttings falling under high ledge slopes, namely during re-activation of temporarily unworked edges of deep pits, spacing sides of deep rock excavations in road building and so on.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separating high ledge into layers so that each layer has height not exceeding excavation equipment digging height; preparing the layers for following blasting by arranging light-weight woven mat with weight on side slope of high ledge below layer to be blasted; drilling blast-holes in each layer; filling blast-holes with charges, wherein blast-holes, which are outermost from side slope, are filled with decreased charge; arranging two-layer gas-permeable covering on all opened surfaces of area to be blasted, wherein lower end of the covering is made of metal mesh, upper one is created of mats formed of worn-out car tires; inserting lower covering part under mat for distance of not less than tire diameter; blasting rock; removing covering and excavating cut rock.

EFFECT: prevention of rock fragment dispersion under high ledge slopes during blasting works performing and rock excavation.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly open cast kimberlite pipe mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mining ore body by hydromining device of floating dredger; supplying diamond-containing pulp to floating dressing plant, recovering diamonds and transporting reject material from pit to preliminarily prepared plate for following utilization thereof. Ore body is developed by hydromining device reciprocation across total ore body area. Diamonds are recovered by serial pump decomposition, sizing, dressing and conditioning. Residual material is utilized by dewatering thereof in centrifuge and stacking for following usage for building material production.

EFFECT: simplified method and rig and decreased power inputs for kimberlite pipe development.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly for underground mining of steeply-dipping and inclined ore bodies having low and high thickness, as well as streaks.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separating stages and substeps in pit side slope; constructing deep pit with steeply-dipping side slopes in hanging and lying ore deposit walls, wherein side slope direction vary up to vertical direction at final stage; cutting zones in upper horizons and constructing the first continuous transportation path made as conveyer lifting means in trenches as pit is excavated; moving upper conveyer lifting means to new pit side point of upper stage when shifting to other mining stages at central and deep horizons and constructing conveyer system in trench located in central horizon; mounting conveyer lifting means at vertical side slope reinforced with polymers, bolts and mesh along with deep horizon excavation so that curvature of formed stable side sections correspond to surface and path of continuous ore and capping rock transportation from lower horizons to upper ones, wherein increasing shear loads in material to be transported are accommodated in conveyer structure by control of pull system and pressing means of tape drive mechanism. Device for said method realization is also disclosed.

EFFECT: increased operational efficiency, decreased costs of ore and capping rock delivery from deep pit.

2 cl, 1 ex, 10 dwg

FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

Up!