Method of development of buried water-flooded placers
SUBSTANCE: method of development of buried water-flooded placers includes preliminary concentration of useful component of sands in lower portion of placer by means of excitation of elastic oscillations in placer sands and successive stoped excavation. A tubular shell is inserted into the placer; the height of the shell exceeds the distance from the surface to the float of the spacer. Excitation of elastic oscillations in spacer sands is performed by means of their transmitting from the surface via the tubular shell. After compressive force has been formed from interior surface of the shell onto contacting surface of covering volume of barren material and after completion of vibratory processing the hydraulic stoped excavation of lower part of the placer is carried out; washing water is supplied via sprayers assembled at walls of the tubular shell and pulp is withdrawn via soil intake openings located at walls of the tubular shell between the sprayers. Also after completion of stoped excavation of lower part of the placer the stoped space is backfilled by supplied backfilling pulp and water withdrawal. Further backfilling pulp is formed from mixture of water with barren rock, for instance, with tailings of sand concentration. After backfilling of excavated space pressure onto surface of covering volume of waste material contacting with interior surface of the shell is dropped to zero and the shell is extracted.
EFFECT: increased selectivity of excavation.
The invention can be used in the design of buried placer deposits of solid minerals, preferably beach deposits of the shelf.
Known methods of hydraulic mining, including sand erosion jet, gravity transported to the sump and hydroelevators rise jetting device (Smokov. Technology and complex mechanization of placer developments, M.: Nedra, 1973, 766 S., p.260-307).
The disadvantages of the known methods is the limited use due to the large consumption of water resources and significant ecological impact on the environment.
More close analog of the method according to technical essence is a way of developing the buried flooded fields, including pre-concentration of the useful component of sand in the lower part of the placers by excitation in the Sands of scattering of elastic waves and subsequent treatment notch (patent 2106495, CL IS 41/00, 1998).
The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of mining due to testing of the prepared land in traditional ways, while not minimizing the recess covering the waste rock, because it is not guaranteed that the verticality of the walls of the sewage extraction, formed in the process of development and is for nervoznost material).
The basis of the invention is the task of increasing the selectivity of the extraction.
Technical result achieved when solving a task, expressed as the exception excavation volumes covering the waste rock, the exception dilution Sands, the decrease in recoverable Sands and the decrease in the volume of tailings to be disposed.
To solve the problem how to develop buried flooded fields, including pre-concentration of the useful component of sand in the lower part of the placers by excitation in the Sands of scattering of elastic waves and the subsequent clean the recess, characterized in that the scattering of implementing the tubular shell, the height of which exceeds the distance from the surface to the raft scattering, excitation in the Sands of scattering of elastic waves carry their transfer from the surface through the tubular shell, after the inner surface of the shell is formed by the compressive force on the contacting surface covering of the empty volume of the material upon completion of the vibrating processing carried out hydraulic dredging the bottom of the slope, with submission to lose water through nozzles placed at the walls of the tubular shell, and the removal of the pulp through grutsamaria holes placed at the walls of the tubular shell between the force is with Russia, upon completion of the excavation bottom placers are mined-out space feed him backfill slurry and water drainage and backfill slurry formed from a mixture of water with waste rock, for example, tailings sand, then after laying-out space is reduced to zero pressure contact with the inner surface of the shell surface covering of the empty volume of the material and remove the shell.
Comparison of the characteristics of the claimed solution with signs analogues and prototype demonstrates its compliance with the criterion of "novelty".
The characteristics of the characterizing portion of the claims, solves the following functional tasks:
Signs: "...in the scattering of implementing the tubular shell, the height of which exceeds the distance from the surface to float, placer..." - exclude mixing of sand and covering the load when removing the cladding, and, in addition, provides isolation of the working volume from the rest of the array. In addition, when using at least two of such devices is provided by the deposition of tailings in mined-out space of one of them, which eliminates the discharge of tailings into the environment. In addition, it is possible to implement further methods and operations of the method.
Signs: "...opened the giving in the Sands of scattering of elastic waves carry their transfer from the surface through the tubular shell..." - simplify the transmission of elastic waves in the volume of sand.
The temporal reference of the vibrating processing - signs: "...after the inner surface of the shell is formed by the compressive force on the contacting surface, the coating amount of blank material..." - eliminate excessive destruction of volume cap rocks in the process of vibrating processing of sand, as against her shell "works" and as a shock absorber and as a means of providing compression of the vertical walls of the array of material cut out of the hull, and thereby eliminate the destruction of the "tube" of cover rocks during extraction layer of sand.
Signs: "...implement hydraulic dredging the bottom of the slope, with submission to lose water through nozzles placed at the walls of the tubular shell, and the removal of the pulp through grutsamaria holes placed at the walls of the tubular shell between the nozzles..." - provide a localized technological impact in the lower layer of sand layer, to be hollow, thus providing a uniform and high-quality erosion material, isolated case, and the quality of his destruction.
Signs: "...implement the mined-out space feed him backfill slurry and water drainage and backfill slurry formed from a mixture of water with waste rock is th, for example, tailings sand, then after laying-out space is reduced to zero pressure contact with the inner surface of the shell surface covering of the empty volume of the material and extract the shell...provide for the reuse of the tubular shell and preclude violation of the surface.
The essence of the proposed solution is illustrated by drawings. Figure 1 presents the scheme of arrangement providing for the implementation of the claimed method in the implementation phase of the tubular sheath, figure 2 shows the same, at the stage of excavation of sand, figure 3 shows a cross-section of the tubular shell
In the drawings shown groundsamine device, ensuring implementation of the inventive method, comprising a housing 1, made in the form of a tubular shell, the height of which exceeds the distance from the surface 2 to the float buried placers 3. The cross-sectional shape of the housing 1 can be arbitrary, but for the qualitative gap bridging between the walls of buildings and, thereby, increase the weight a notch better rectangular cross-section. The weight of the housing must meet the capabilities of handling equipment (not shown)available. While the transverse dimensions of the housing 1 does not exceed twice the radius of blur is their nozzles 4, placed at equal distances from each other around an interior cavity of the housing, while the suction nozzles 5 are placed at equal distances from each other around an interior cavity of the housing, between scour nozzles 4. Scour nozzles 4 are oriented horizontally. Thus advisable to bargain their output holes forms a horizontal slit. Besides, the vibrator 6 (it is advisable to use a removable vibrators fixed on the housing 1 in the necessary quantities for the period of its introduction into the soil and vibrating processing of the array). The weight and size parameters and performance characteristics of the vibrator is determined in a known manner with regard to weight and size of the housing 1 and the desired vibration intensity array processing (usually with increasing size of the corps named parameters increase). The inner wall 7 of the housing 1 provided with a means of formation of force perpendicular to the inner surface of the housing made in the form of toroidal hollow shell 8, is bonded to the inner surface of the wall 7 of the housing 1 and provided with a reversible hydraulic pump 9. In the case of giving a cross-section housing square shape of scour nozzles 4 are placed on the sides of the square, and the suction nozzles 5 placed at its corners. To provide with the rennosti toroidal hollow shell 8 in the implementation of the housing 1 into the ground, it is advisable that the edge 10 of the body 1 was provided with a hollow annular Shoe 11 (cross-section which is triangular in shape and which is placed in the inner cavity of the body). In the cavity of the Shoe 11 have to lose nozzle 4 and the suction nozzle 5 so that they do not go beyond the walls of the Shoe facing the edge 10 of the body 1. It is advisable that the toroidal cavity of the hollow shell 8 has been linked with reversible hydraulic pump 9 through a check valve (not shown), providing the ability to turn off the pump after the introduction to the work of the toroidal hollow shell 8 and use it on another gruntsgabalam device.
It is advisable to scour nozzles 4 have been associated with the pressure means 12 is placed on the surface of the individual vodopodayuschih channels 13, designed as a longitudinal structural elements of the housing 1. In addition, it is advisable that the suction nozzles 5 were associated with receiving tank 14, for example, the containers placed on the surface of the individual outlet channels 15, designed as a longitudinal structural elements of the housing 1. While the total area of these channels should be equal, although the diameter of the channels 15 must be greater than the diameter of the channels 13 to avoid testimonianza. In the drawings, the raft is 16 and the array Sands 17.
The inventive method is implemented as follows.
To the place of work deliver the above groundsamine device, place it on the area designated for excavation. Next carry out the implementation of the suction head; it is in the array, applying to the upper end of the body 1 a pressing force, with the possible inclusion of the vibrators 6, and/or scour nozzles 4, to speed up the process of immersion. When the Shoe 11 of the housing 1 at the level of the float 16 into the work include toroidal hollow shell 8. Pumped water into it through a reversible hydraulic pump 9 to the formation of compressive forces (on the order of 5 kg/cm2) addressed to them on the surface of the array covering the waste rock in the volume, which is in the cavity of the housing 1. Then hold the vibration treatment of the array is surrounded by a housing 1, while previously this array should be watered for beach placers is "automatically" due to water filtration). Next include the vibrator 6 (or vibrators 6), temporarily fixed on the upper part of the housing 1, and start the vibration treatment of an array by passing the vibrations and wave propagation on hydric array. With the passage of the waves through the array of particles composing this array come in an oscillatory motion. Particles of ore minerals in the sand layer is bladud higher density compared with the enclosing rock particles. Therefore, when the oscillating movements as the propagation of waves on hydric solid particles of ore minerals fall in the lower part of the layer of sand and aggregate off of the float 16. At the end of the process vibrating processing, begin the clean-out recess enriched layer of sand. While working water is pumped under pressure through the channels 13, where through the scour injector 4 expires in removing the array Sands 17, blurring it and saturating with water. The resulting impact on the Sands of the water jets emanating from the scour nozzles 4, the slurry is sucked through the suction pipe 5 and through the outlet channels 15 is given to the place of storage to the surface and placed in the receiving tank 14. As excavation of sand overlying volumes obrushayutsya on the raft 16, where Sands are removed as described. While covering the rocks, compressed toroidal hollow shell 8 are fairly stable tube, moreover, that the direct impacts of scour jet does not have a layer of sand eroded them, is like a protective cushion for them). On the surface in a known manner control the content of useful component in the issued pulp. After removal of the enriched layer of sand content of useful component in the pulp begins to fall sharply. When you commit this is the clean-out recess stop (stop water flow and drainage of the pulp). This is followed by a tab formed goaf feed him backfill slurry and water drainage and backfill slurry formed from a mixture of water with waste rock, preferably, the tailings extracted before the amount of enriched Sands. In the process of bookmarks for filing use of scour injector 4 (reducing the pressure), and to divert water use suction nozzles 5. After the process is complete, the pressure in the cavity toroidal hollow shell 8 discharge (preferably by pumping from water - pump on the reverse), then case 1 is raised on the surface of the lifting mechanisms (not shown). Then use it again in the previously described manner.
The use of the proposed solution leads to the exclusion of dredging volumes covering the waste rock, the exception dilution Sands, to reduce the extracted sand and reduce the volume of tailings to be disposed.
The way to develop buried flooded fields, including pre-concentration of the useful component of sand in the lower part of the placers by excitation in the Sands of scattering of elastic waves and the subsequent clean the recess, characterized in that the scattering of implementing the tubular shell, the height of which exceeds the distance from the surface the STI to the float, placer, the excitement in the Sands of scattering of elastic waves carry their transfer from the surface through the tubular shell after the inner surface of the shell is formed by the compressive force on the contacting surface covering of the empty volume of the material upon completion of the vibrating processing carried out hydraulic dredging the bottom of the mash feed to lose water through nozzles placed at the walls of the tubular shell and the discharge of the pulp through grutsamaria holes placed at the walls of the tubular shell between the nozzles, while upon completion of the excavation bottom placers are mined-out space feed him backfill slurry and water drainage and backfill slurry formed of a mixture of water with waste rock, such as tailings Sands, then after laying-out space is reduced to zero pressure contact with the inner surface of the shell surface covering of the empty volume of the material and remove the shell.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to excavation of mineral deposits, and particularly to gravel deposits, and can be used in the mining industry. The method involves pre-formation of a basin, formation of a dry zone on the productive stratum and basin in the stripped area, fitting interconnected, mining, transport and dump systems into the basin. Formation of the basin in the stripped area is done after piling up sand in it, with further extraction of the latter using a subsurface technique. The minimum distance from the basin to the heap of sand, as well as the depth of the basin, is determined from the maximum degree of weakening of the latter and technological parameters of the mining equipment.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of excavating high-clayey alluvial deposits.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to mining and can be used in excavating deep-seated deposits of minerals, formed by layers with different strength. The method of excavating deep-seated deposits of minerals involves excavating a mining horizon, hydraulic mining of wells on the mining horizon, when mining waterlogged minerals, lying under the mining horizon. From the heading to the deposit of the mineral, dewatering wells are drilled and the head of ground water, in the productive stratum of the deposit, is lowered to a level lower than the sill of the mining horizon. To lower the head of ground water over the deposit to a level safe for mining, in the water bearing bed from the mining horizon, rising, inclined-rising, horizontal guide holes are made, and from the surface to the heading, wells with cased hole filters are made. All these wells are hydraulically linked to each other and to a pump system, from which water is supplied to a domestic water head works, undergoing preliminary purification. The invention can also be used for washing out mineral deposits when hydromining and for water collection in underground water catch basins.
EFFECT: safer mining when flooding minerals and layers above them, as well as increased efficiency of mining and improvement of environmental conservation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering and can be used directly in development of subsea mineral deposits, where mineral components are pumped out by airlift. Method for starting and stopping of offshore airlift, where starting process includes compressed air supply via pressure pipeline from compressor to mixer of lifting pipe, while stopping process includes stopping of compressed air supply via pressure pipeline from compressor to mixer of lifting pipe, compressed air supply from compressor to upper part of said offshore airlift's lifting pipe and its discharging to atmosphere, as well as compressor stopping. In the course of offshore airlift starting process amount of sea water supply to lifting pipe of offshore airlift is pre-defined, connection between upper part of lifting pipe and atmosphere is closed, compressed air is supplied into upper part of lifting pipe of offshore airlift, sea water is displaced from lifting pipe to ocean through connecting pipe, compressed air supply into upper part of lifting pipe is stopped after the required air pressure in said pipe is achieved, connection of lifting pipe with ocean through connecting pipe is closed, connection between upper part of lifting pipe with atmosphere is restored with simultaneous supply of compressed air into mixer of lifting pipe. After that, connection between lifting pipe and ocean is provided through connecting pipe, amount of sea water supplied into lifting pipe is monitored, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined target value and balanced with it through adjustment of sea water flowrate in said connecting pipe. And when water-air mix is spread over the entire length of lifting pipe, unrestricted supply of sea water through connecting pipe to lifting pipe is restored. And in the course of offshore airlift stopping process, pressure value in upper part of lifting pipe is pre-defined, then this value is monitored during compressed air supply from compressor to upper part of offshore airlift's lifting pipe, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined value and as soon as they become equal said compressor is stopped. After that, connection between lifting pipe and ocean through connecting pipe is closed and connection of upper part of lifting pipe with atmosphere is opened again.
EFFECT: improvement of offshore airlift starting and stopping method.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering and can be used directly in development of subsea mineral deposits, where mineral components are pumped out by airlift. Method for starting and operating of offshore airlift includes pumping out of components from subsea mineral deposits as a part of hydromixture, supply of compressed air into mixer of lifting pipe, creation of multicomponent mixture after the compressed air is injected into hydromixture flow, and transporting of multicomponent mixture flow in lifting pipe of offshore airlift. In this method pressure value of air-water mixture is pre-defined in operating mixer of lifting pipe, where compressed air is supplied from compressor during airlift operation at its operating performance rate. Then compressed air is supplied from compressor into lifting pipe mixer, which is located above operating mixer, the air localised in accumulator is additionally compressed up to the pressure in operating mixer by supplying sea water into said accumulator under its static pressure. Then this additionally compressed air is supplied into operating mixer, pressure of sea water in operating mixer is monitored during the process of compressed air supply into it, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined target value and as soon as they become equal supply of compressed air into said mixer is stopped, as well as supply of sea water into accumulator, while compressed air from compressor is supplied simultaneously into operating mixer through accumulator. After that, during offshore airlift operation, accumulator is charged with compressed air from compressor by means of parallel supply of sea water from said accumulator into operating mixer, when a difference is established between supply of compressed air from compressor to accumulator and supply of compressed air from accumulator to operating mixer.
EFFECT: improvement of method for starting and operating of offshore airlift, as well as system for its implementation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used in dredging of thawed placers. Method includes removal of dead ground from dredging site, digging of drainage trench, pre-dredging of sand layer, removal of boulders, flooding and dredging of sands. Pre-dredging is performed over the uncovered area through sand blading by backhoe excavator, which draws transverse juds in travelling trench.
EFFECT: improved dredger performance, reduced loss of mineral in the soil, and lower unit costs of dredging of hard-dredging placers.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to combined development of gold placers using mini-dredges. Complex consists of a dredge with a stacker and installations meant for deep processing of sandy and clay rock of gold placers, a high-head hydromonitor device with a system controlling the barrel movement in a vertical plane, and a hydraulic transport free-flow system. Complex is equipped with a bridge rigidly fixed in the dredge nose part. Bridge is provided with a round divertor intended for movement, and a round divertor meant for a support, which are rigidly fixed on the bridge posts. High-head hydromonitor device is installed on a base rotated by means of a drive. Rotary base is hinged to the platform and equipped with linear guideways. Platform is equipped with a drive of linear guideways which are connected with a round divertor intended for movement, and provided with an additional support connected with round divertor meant for the support.
EFFECT: intensifying mining process including development of terrace high-level placers.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of closely cemented and high plasticity sandy and clay rocks of terrace gold placers combined with development of the dredge range. Complex consists of a dredge with a stacker and installations meant for deep processing of sandy and clay rock of gold placers, a high-head hydromonitor device with a system controlling the barrel turn in a vertical plane, and a hydraulic transport pressure system. Complex is equipped with a bridge one end of which is hinged to a cross member of the dredge nose part posts and connected with a bridge turn drive, and free end is equipped with a linear guideway moving in a horizontal plane by means of a drive. Free end of the bridge by means of guides and sliding supports is telescoped with a crossbar with a stable support, which moves by means of a drive, and bridge is equipped with an additional stable support adjustable as per position relative to the hinge and movable linear guideway. Bridge is provided with longitudinal holes and guides. Additional stable support comes into contact with the bridge longitudinal holes, and is equipped with linear guideways coming into contact with the bridge guides. High-head hydromonitor device is installed on the end of the movable crossbar so that it can move in a vertical plane by means of a drive. The bridge turn drive is installed on a movable base connected via linear guideways to the guides.
EFFECT: intensifying mining process.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of congealed high-plasticity sandy and clay rocks of terrace gold placers combined with development of the dredge range. Complex with a hydromonitor laser system consists of a dredge with a stacker and installations meant for deep processing of sandy and clay rock of gold placers, a high-head hydromonitor device with a system controlling the barrel turn in a vertical plane, and a hydraulic transport pressure system. Laser infrared-radiation system is installed on a rotating platform angle-wise to high-head hydromonitor device with the possibility of simultaneous movement in vertical and horizontal planes. Rotating platform is installed on linear guideways, and hinged to the base, and to its swing drive. Base is connected to the guide posts by means of sliding supports and installed so that it can move in a vertical plane via a system of drive.
EFFECT: intensifying mining process of the dredge range including development of terrace high-level placers with congealed and high-plasticity sandy and clay rocks.
SUBSTANCE: method of development of thick flat-lying coal bed on clots of irregular shape is intended for extraction of coal from sections with limited resources which for economic reasons can not be extracted by means of complex mechanisation. The method includes preparing an extraction pillar by making transport and ventilation entries at a bed roof and a hydro-transport entry at a bed floor with the axis of the hydro-transport entry set-off against the axis of the transport entry to the direction of massif. The extraction pillar is divided into strips with stopes; simultaneously there is assembled a roof bolting while leaving between-stopes massifs virgin. The stopes are made at the bed roof from the transport to ventilation entry. Neighbour stopes are linked with connections. A borehole is drilled approximately along the axis of the stope from the hydro-transport entry to each stope. A hydro-transport slit is cut with a hydro-monitored jet from the head of the borehole to the ventilation entry along the axis of the stope till the bed floor, and in the reverse direction coal is extracted with a hydro-monitor below the stope floor and partially under the massif from the flank side. Transporting of loose coal in mine workings above the stope floor is performed with traditional means, for example with self-propelled car and conveyer, while below the stope floor it is transported in form of pulp. After extraction of coal in stopes there is performed extraction of massif under the transport entry and further - under the ventilation entry by the similar method.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety of development.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex method of hydro excavation of minerals consists of development mining, of equipping with ventilation system and system of heating of mine working, of hydraulic breaking up of bed with an automated mining combine in a continuous mode of operation with installation of face supports, of hydraulic transporting of broken rock, of concentration of obtained mass and its further dehydration, of drying of water encroached beds, and of purifying of process liquid with its recirculation. Hydraulic breaking up of a bed is carried out simultaneously with its impulse mechanical destruction by means of introducing an abrasive material of upgraded hardness into a liquid jet; further abrasive material is separated from broken rock at the time of its hydraulic transporting and concentrating; concentration of broken rock and partial separation of liquid pulp with abrasive material from broken rock are performed by means of transporting and mixing them at the roller type facility; flowing down pulp with abrasive material is driven to purification by means of a pumping system wherein solid particles of abrasive material are separated from the rest of the pulp and where abrasive material is saturated with solid particles of broken rock of specified dimension. Saturated abrasive material is directed to recirculation, while partially purified process liquid is mixed with the liquid obtained at drying of water saturated beds; then process liquid is finally purified by cold evaporation and is brought to recirculation. A portion of purified process liquid is supplied to the ventilation system of mine working and is dispersed in air in form of fine dispersed particles; continuous control measurements of air temperature, of explosion hazardous particles and coal dust contents in air are carried out during mine working operations.
EFFECT: upgraded versatility, efficiency, automaton, quality and reliability of process behavior in constraint conditions of mine working, improvement of ecological situation at mine.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, particularly to development of steep ore bodies by underground method. After driving workings of discharge along the center of the block there is arranged a recess on thickness of the ore body transversely to the strike of deposit. Descending complexes of boreholes are drilled from the recess with symmetrically arranged horizontal bores in a hanging layer of the ore body parallel to the plane of ore body occurring. Drilling, charging and blasting of bores is performed stage-by-stage in the upward direction leaving a temporary massif of height h; further descending fan-like complexes of bores are drilled in the temporary massif, then they are charged and blasted. After each cycle of drilling, charging and blasting partial discharge of muck is performed. Then a canopy is formed in a hanging wall of the ore body by means of filling the produced space with hardening backfilling material through the recess; when the material has hardened, under protection of the formed canopy there is performed working of the block store; also height h of the temporary massif is accepted as minimal radius Rmin of a boring rod curve.
EFFECT: reduced impoverishment at working chamber stores; increased efficiency of block during mining excavation and reduced general labour intensiveness at working of chamber stores.
SUBSTANCE: method includes development of blind ore deposit under guarded object located on earth surface. Before commencement of works there are defined parameters of developed area which facilitates a uniform stress field. Ore body is divided into stories; preparing-cutting, drilling and under-cutting mine workings are performed on the stories; then there is performed excavation of stores of an upper story within the boundaries of the defined contour by system with open developed area. A preventing cushion is left in funnels of outlet. Stores of a lower story are worked out with chambers where temporary stoops are left. Stores of the chamber are destroyed onto compensation slot worked out in the central part of the chamber. The chamber is undercut with a high trench undercutting the tilt angles of borders of which are equal to not less, than natural ore slope value. Ore massif is drilled around with rows of boreholes arranged in a fan shape. By explosion of not charged upper parts of boreholes the upper part of the chamber is arc shaped.
EFFECT: facilitating more complete ore excavation at development and facilitating safety of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to underground development of ore edge seams, particularly of thick and medium deposits. The method includes underground development of deposits 8 with excavation of ore in stope blocks and complete dressing of excavated ores at a concentration plant located underground, transportation and lifting of ore to a receiving hopper of the plant. Rejects of underground dressing are placed in open areas as fill, while produced concentrate is surfaced. To provide construction and operational conditions of underground concentration plant there is performed driving of mine shafts 1 for ventilation, lifting (lowering) of service personnel, of dressing equipment, materials, rejects, concentrates, transport, ventilation and auxiliary mine excavations for relocation of mineral raw material along the process stages of concentrating, for fresh air supply to work places and for withdrawal of polluted air. Process chambers 2, 3 are erected wherein dressing equipment is installed; also there are constructed storage chambers 9 for intermediate storage of current rejects. Location of the underground concentration plant is chosen from the side of the bottom layer of the deposit beyond influence area of seismic loads caused by blasting at ore excavation, along the directions of strike of deposit, transversely the strike and on specified depth after detailed geo-mechanic prospecting and considering minimum of costs. Depending on the output, rejects of concentration are placed in open areas in form of fills, the rest part is lifted to the surface. In order to significantly reduce volumes of the storage chambers, treatment of stope blocks is performed in layers with stowing of each processed layer with concentration rejects. The rational sphere of this invention implementation is underground development of ore deposits, particularly in mountainous areas, in densely populated areas, in regions with adverse climate, and also for deposits occurring at a considerable depth.
EFFECT: upgraded efficiency of underground development of edge seam thick and medium ore deposits and safe operation of underground concentration plant within long period.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to mining in particular, to underground mining of steep mineral deposits. The method includes penetrating of development workings and temporary workings, working off in limits of mine section of a mineral stocks from primordial chambers and chamberlets using drilling-and-blasting technique, infilling of the fulfilled room of primordial chambers and chamberlets with lagging. Breakage of stocks of 4 primordial and 3 secondary chambers is performed using general series of hole fans. Breakage of stocks of 4 primordial chambers is performed using a method of holes undercharge with water soluble gel tamping. Then partial discharge of ore from 4 primordial chambers in the conduit is performed followed by lagging of 4 primordial chambers with a hardening mixture. After reaching standard hardness by lagging, washover of the remained holes and/or their parts with water is performed followed by discharge of the remained ore from the conduit of discharge 5, and chambers 3 of the second sequential queue are worked off. Width b of primary 4 chambers is defined from the formula: b = hva 2×ρd ×sinα/1800×σt, where hbl - vertical altitude of the block, m; ρd - density of the filling material of primordial chamber, kg/m3; σt - tension strength of the filling material of the primordial chamber, MPa; a - degree of dip of an ore body, grades.
EFFECT: increased range of application on steep and high-dipping fields, in ores of mean and small stability, higher performance of working off of the operational block during clearing excavation of chambers of the second sequential queue.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and can be used in mining ore bodies under protection of flexible covering. The method involves creating niches in the ore body, making down holes at the level of ore occurrence up to the lowest mark of a block, placing guideways and lag ropes, fastening them in the upper part. The method further involves boring a fan in the top wall of the ore body, in a parallel plane to occurrence of an ore body. On one charged fan of holes located in the centre against other fans, two single fans After loading the holes with explosive and detonations release of muck pile is performed. Further on, winches are mounted in the top niches, attaching lag cables, then the directing cables in the conduit are pull and used together with lag cables for stretching flexible cover in an upward direction. After stretching the covering is fixed in the top part of the block performing workout of stocks of the block.
EFFECT: increased productivity of the block during second mining, decreased labour iousness of flexible covering installation and decreased impoverishment while mining chamber stocks.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to the field mining using thermal fragmentation for the extraction of ore from narrow veins. The method of ore extraction from a vein with opposite side walls involves drilling of pilot holes in the vein directly, with certain pitch along the vein, reaming of the pilot holes by thermal fragmentation until the vein is fragmented, and removal of fragmented ore along the vein. The pitch is determined by the vein width. Along a part of the vein, the pilot holes are reamed gradually according to the given configuration, each second pilot hole is reamed in a greater degree, for its connection to the opposite adjacent pilot holes reamed earlier. The pilot holes are drilled and reamed in a given sequence, starting from drilling of the first group of three pilot holes, the first and third holes from the first group are reamed before reaming the second hole from this group. After the first group of holes, a group of two holes is drilled, the second hole from the second group being reamed before reaming the first hole from the second group. Fragmented ore is removed by suction.
EFFECT: profitable mining of narrow ore veins.
7 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes the subterranean development of field with use of the chamber systems with the solid stowing and following refinement of the ore mass at the ore mill in the following stages. At the beginning, the ore recovering from the first-stage chamber (4) is performed. The ore pickings from the first-stage chamber (4) are processed to concentrate and final tailings. The tailings are processed to pellets. From the pellets, two workflows are formed, the first pellet flow is exposed to the heap leaching, and the second pellet flow is conditioned until the required mechanical characteristics. On completion of the leaching process, the pellets of the first workflow are mixed with binding agent and water, to receive the fill mixture, the fill mixture is sent to the first-stage chambers (4) until filling; after the fill mixture is solidified, the ore recovering from the second-stage chamber (5) is performed, the chamber's bottom is strengthened and prepared with the solidifying mixture which is prepared using the waste from the heap leaching; pellets of the second workflow are sent to the chamber with their following subterranean leaching.
EFFECT: comprehensive and complex development of minerals and ecologic-economic effects are provided.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: working method includes drifting of preparatory breakoffs, slicing of stope inclined strips, inclined according to sloping angle of ore body, beginning with hanging layer directed to bottom wall, ore breaking with explosive holes. Breakage, transportation and formation releasing from rocky bands in ore body are carried out separately through the flanking debris chute. Previous slice after corresponding preparation is filled with weak solid stowing, which provides hardiness of its walls, at that interblock pillars are eliminated with leaving of free technological space between ore mining face roof and horizontal surface of previous slice filling mass. At first one excavates low layer of the block with entry ways at whole its length, fills worked entry ways with hard solidifying mixture in particular order with preliminary armature setting up, so that after the complete excavation of the layer in-situ concrete slab is appeared. It performs the functions of ceiling while debugging of underlying block reservoir.
EFFECT: effectiveness improvement of ore excavation and safety of stopes working.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: said method implies development and temporary drifting, horizon reserves hole drilling down to pillar bottom, hole 13 charging and blasting, loading of dumped ore from the block through loading workings 5. After loading workings drifting, stables 2 are worked out in the block corners, cutting across thickness of the ore body, fanned ring is drilled in the ore body hanger in parallel to the ore body bed. Per single charged fan, which is central as regards to other fans, four empty fans are drilled, after charging and blowing dumped ore is loaded, and then canopy 12 is created in the ore body hanger by stowing the resulting space with consolidating stowing material. After consolidation, block reserves are processed under canopy 12 protection, thickness h of the canopy being determined according to formula: h = L2ρ"P"/2000σ"R")sinα, where L - block slip, m; ρ"P" - canopy material density, kg/m3; σ"R"- canopy material tensile strength, MPa; α - ore body slope angle, degrees.
EFFECT: said invention provides for less labour intensity and improved output of stoping.
FIELD: mining, particularly underground thick ore body mining with chamber excavation system with goaf filling at large depths in the case of elevated rock pressure.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting unloading slot (slot raise) along ore body strike and before chamber stock excavation initiation in massifs of chambers of the first, the second and the third stages; filling the unloading slot with shrinkage ore; connecting unloading slot ends with cleavage cracks in different stages, wherein the cleavage cracks are formed by drilling wells of 100-112 mm diameters spaced apart 1-1,2 m apart along stage boundaries between sublevels so that each second well is blasted. As lying wall and hanging wall converge ore massifs of the first, the second and the third stages are shifted and slide one relatively another along with partial pillar breakage in unloading slots. To block filling material penetration through slot raise excavations passing through pillars, concrete bridges are erected in the slots. After than chambers of the first stage are cut and filled. After drilled cross-drift cutting the second and the third stage massifs are broken on previously driven slot raises.
EFFECT: increased mining safety and filler, improved stability of the first, the second and the third stage ore massifs, as well as contact massifs of lying and hanging walls.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes conditional separation of levels on chambers, which are made in form of stretched upwards hexahedron and placed in staggered order, at each lower level with displacement for half of chamber width in comparison to upper one. Preparation of each lower level is performed by driving field drift of main level, from which entries to ore deposit and orts to hanging side of deposit are driven, from orts ascending drifts are made and cut with cutting slits. For extraction of field resources a field sub-level drift is driven, entries and ore sub-level drift near lying side, from where orts are driven, from drift well fans are drilled and main resources of level are exploded through cutting slit. Outlet of ore from each chamber is performed through ends of outlet mines in main and intermediate levels. After removing main resources inter-level block is destroyed and ore from it is removed through entries of main level.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.