Railroad vehicle braking block

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: braking block comprises metal carcass, composite material friction element and two solid inserts arranged symmetrically relative to the block horizontal axis and overlapping its friction part over the width. The said metal carcass represents a wire carcass representing two closed frames press-fitted into the block rear part friction material and perforated tin press-fitted into the block rear part composite friction material. Inner parts of the said frames are partially interoverlapped and bent outwards from the block rear part to form an ear designed to pass the cotter. Rear nonoperating part of every cotter has consoles arranged on each side of the aforesaid inserts all along their length. One of the said consoles is bent towards the block rear surface and arranged in the central boss, the other one being located between the central and auxiliary bosses. Each of the inserts is fitted into one of the wire carcass frames and jammed therein. The inserts, along with the carcass, are pressed in the composite friction material so that the insert console rear surfaces are located in one plate with the perforated tin of the block rear side.

EFFECT: higher durability and safety, longer service life, sable braking capacity and wheel surface recovery in braking.

3 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to brake devices, namely to the brake pads for rail vehicles.

The prior art commercially produced at present cast-iron brake pads, for example, produced according to GOST 1205-73 "Pads cast-iron brake for cars and tenders Railways. Design and basic dimensions and composition brake blocks for railway wagons.

Composite brake blocks for railway cars manufactured in Russia of two types:

with a metal frame made of a steel strip with a U-shaped ledge and welded to reinforcing plate;

- wire mesh-wire frame.

(see Baserev. Production of brake pads made of composite materials for railroad cars. M.: Chemistry, 1982, p.8-14).

Known block of a rail vehicle copyright svidetelstvo of the USSR №518403 (IPC VN 7/02, 1976), consisting of friction material and metal frame. Metal frame is tylenol made in the form shrunk in the friction material on the perimeter pads two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing the checks. Tylenol equipped with a metal mesh is th or perforated sheet, shrunk in the friction material. This frame is received at the serial production name mesh-wire, because it consists of wire and mesh frames.

The main significant external and constructive difference of composite pads with mesh wire frame of composite pads with steel metal frame is that the Central boss these pads are made of a composite material with internal reinforcement and usually with a rubber binder, which increases upregulations properties pads and, as a consequence, vibration pads, eliminates separation of a composite material from the frame and the destruction of the skeleton in place a U-shaped ledge.

These pads compared to the composite with a metal frame also have a longer service life, lower cost and metal.

Brake composite block compared to cast iron has become significantly more widespread use, as they have a higher coefficient of friction, less clicking and durability, several times higher service life, less weight, cost, and provide quiet and smooth braking of the train.

However, during the operation of composite brake blocks can occur separate defects, including:thermal cracks on the rolling surface of the wheels, the wear of the rolling surface of the wheels, reducing braking efficiency of the brake pads in contact with water in the friction zone (rain, snow), and in the presence of coal or peat dust and leaves on the surface of the rail.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose as the claimed and has shared with him the essential features: "composite friction material", "the wire frame, made in the form shrunk in the friction material rear pads on the perimeter of the pads of two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing checks", "Central boss with a hole for the pin and two side lugs made from a friction composite material and perforated steel tape (tin), plated in friction material rear surface pads".

The prior art composite brake pads containing one or more solid inserts designed to reduce the aforementioned disadvantages of composite brake blocks.

Known brake pad for patent for invention №2309072 (F16D 65/04, 2007), containing a metal frame with a U-shaped ledge in the Central part of the composite friction element and one solid box, the location is ing in the Central part of the pad and welded to the metal frame. Solid insert is made of ductile or malleable iron, and the ratio of the area of the working surface of a solid insert to the total area of the working surface of the pad is from 4 to 20%. Composite coleosperma brake pads with an insert of special ductile or malleable cast iron allow you to increase the resource, as used type of cast iron has a ferritic structure and graphite in the form of spherical or flaky inclusions, high mechanical properties, including tensile strength and elongation, resulting in the braking process at high temperatures, the iron melts and fills microcracks on the surface of the wheel, thus preventing further development of these cracks, improves the running surface of the wheel and increase the resistance of the wheels to the formation of fishermen and other defects. In addition, insertion of special cast iron due to its inherent abrasiveness has at normal and low temperatures cleansing effect on the wheel, increases the roughness of the running surface of the wheel and increases the traction wheels with the rail and stability, braking performance, especially in autumn and spring.

However, in the process of operating shoes of this design under the action of vibration, shock loads, especially at low temperatures (IOE the call), takes place a separation of the friction element from the metal frame, and sometimes the destruction of a metal frame in place of the N-shaped protrusion. In some cases, based on the operating conditions, design features separate pads and the difference of the friction properties of properties of a solid insert and composite friction element is advisable to use two inserts. However, this design pads provides only one solid insert that reduces the functionality of this block using the insert of ductile or malleable iron.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose and has in common with the claimed nuts essential features: "composite friction element", "solid insert of ductile or malleable iron welded to the metallic frame".

Known brake Shoe on the author's certificate of the USSR No. 159186 (20f.l, IPC b61h, 1963). Brake Shoe for railway rolling stock, mostly composite, comprises a pair of rigid inserts on the friction part. To increase the effectiveness of interactions pads with the wheel rim, a pair of rigid inserts, symmetrically located about the horizontal axis pads and covers her frictional portion across the entire width. In Tawke held by friction forces, arise between them and the friction material pads. In the description of the author's certificate of the invention figure 1 shows a brake Shoe containing the back part of the metal frame.

The design of these pads do not provide the required reliability, as with long-term and emergency braking, especially in hot weather, there is an intensive heat transfer from the zone of friction on the surface of solid inserts, moreover, insertion, usually metal, have a higher thermal conductivity, so that the temperature of the composite material on the surfaces which are in contact with solid inserts, increases sharply and is fading and melting of organic materials including a binder included in a composite block, and therefore the fastening inserts weaken, they fail to fulfill its purpose and may fall on the pad.

The essential features is the closest equivalent of "two solid insert, symmetrically located relative to the horizontal axis of the pad cover its frictional part width", "metal frame" are shared with the essential features of the claimed pads.

The challenge which seeks inventive brake pad is increased strength and reliability tormoznoy the pads, consequently, resource exploitation, as well as improved stability in braking performance, vosstanavlivaya the surface of the wheel during braking, that is, increasing the service life of the wheel.

The task solves offer brake pad for rail vehicles, comprising:

- composite friction element;

two solid insert, symmetrically located relative to the horizontal axis of the pad overlying its frictional portion width;

- the wire frame representing shrunk in composite friction material rear pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing cheques;

metal mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated in composite friction element back surface of the pad.

Solid inserts are made and placed in the block as follows:

- back off each of the two solid inserts has a groove along the length of the insert and four console, located two on each side of the insert along its length, and two console each of the inserts are bent toward the back surface of the pad and placed in the Central boss, and two opposite console o f the s between the main and auxiliary base;

each of the inserts is inserted into one of the part of the wire frame and has at the rear outside portion equal to or less than the frame width and provided with protrusions and/or grooves to further restrict movement of the inserts in the wire frame height and/or length and/or width, and the length and/or width of the insert in place of the protrusions is greater than the length and/or width of the frame;

each of the inserts clamped in the wire frame and insert together with the frame is pressed into the composite friction element so that the rear surface of the console inserts are in the same plane with the surface of the perforated sheet, the back side of the pad.

The Central boss on its upper part, pressed frictional material has a groove for passing the checks.

Solid inserts made of ductile or malleable iron, and the ratio of the total area of the working surface to the working surface of the pad ranges from 8 to 30%.

The essential features of the claimed pads:

- "the wire frame representing shrunk in composite friction material rear pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing cheques;

- "metal mesh sludge is perforated tin, shrunk in the composite friction element back surface pads";

- "back off each of the two solid inserts has a groove along the length of the insert and four console, located two on each side of the insert along its length, and two console each of the inserts are bent toward the back surface of the pad and placed in the Central boss, and the other two console located between the Central and auxiliary bosses";

- "each of the inserts is inserted into one of the part of the wire frame and has at the rear outside portion equal to or less than the frame width and provided with protrusions and/or grooves to further restrict movement of the inserts in the wire frame height and/or length and/or width, and the length and/or width of the insert in place of the protrusions is greater than the length and/or width of the frame";

- "each of the inserts clamped in the wire frame and insert together with the frame is pressed into the composite element in such a manner that the rear surface of the console inserts are in the same plane with the surface of the perforated sheet, the back side pads";

- "solid insert is made of ductile or malleable iron, and the ratio of the total area of the working surface to the working surface of the pad ranges from 8 to 30%, are substantially distinctive from the x signs the closest analogue.

In the inventive design of the pads is provided by the following:

- Central and auxiliary lugs made of composite friction material with internal reinforcement, which provides a high strength properties pads because of the ability of a material to upregulations deformation;

- provided a small distance between the two solid inserts that allows you to minimize the destructive effect of the pad due to shock and vibration loads;

- fastening of inserts by crushing in a wire skeleton compared with welding, soldering and other rigid fastening allows to provide the opportunity and ability of the pad to upregulations deformation within those capabilities, which allows to provide himself up composite friction material;

- fastening bent consoles inserts into the Central boss, which has a height greater than on the sides of the pads, by pinching a wire-frame and driving in composite friction material provides additional reinforcement of the Central boss, and, most importantly, high strength design of the pad and the maximum resource, as in this embodiment, the fastening is provided by the maximum permissible thickness of the pad in use.

With the aim of slimming is tresino education at the place of junction of the hard insert of cast iron and composite friction material and prevent the formation of a single vertical fracture and subsequent fracture pads on this joint design each of the two rigid inserts in the back outside end is provided with a groove along the length of the insert and four console, located two on each side of the insert along its length.

By providing fastening composite brake block two inserts of ductile or malleable cast iron on the basis of structural and technological considerations as well as physical-mechanical and friction-ignostic properties of composite friction element and the insert of ductile or malleable cast iron has managed to increase the General working surface of the inserts to the total area of the working surface of the brake pads.

For the claimed design pads this ratio ranges from 8 to 30% (analog 4 to 20%), which in turn can significantly reduce the coefficient of friction without changing the code of the composition, and, most importantly, to increase the service life of the wheel, due to the ability of the insert to restore the rolling surface of the wheel during normal braking.

The placement of the inserts provided directly under the contact pad surfaces of the brake Shoe, which also increases the durability of the pad.

Figure 1 shows the brake pad of a rail vehicle, where

1 - composite friction element consisting of one or two continue the different layers depending on the production version of the pad;

2 - wire frame, which is a plated

composite friction material rear pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing cheques;

3 - metal mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated

in the composite friction element back surface

pads;

4, 5 - two solid insert, symmetrically located relative to the horizontal axis of the pad overlying its frictional portion width;

6 - Central boss;

7 - supporting lugs;

8 - pin hole in the Central boss;

9 - groove side of the working surface of the pad (only for

the production version of the pad with groove);

10 - retention curves of the wire.

Figure 2 shows a General view of a rigid insert, where

4, 5 - two solid inserts differing in size, as frameworks differ from each other in width;

11 - console curved;

12 - direct console;

13 is a transverse protrusions in curved brackets;

14 is a longitudinal ledges in the solid paste;

15 is a longitudinal tabs on direct consoles;

16 - groove along the length of the insert in the back outside part.

Figure 3 shows a General view of the mesh-wire frame with fixed not in the solid inserts.

The technology of manufacture of brake pads includes the following steps (operations):

- production (casting) inserts of ductile or malleable iron;

- production of blanks from a perforated sheet;

- fabrication and welding wire frame wire;

- build wire frame with solid inserts by crushing;

- manufacturing composite friction materials for working and non-working layers;

- alternate laying in the press-form the workpieces from a perforated sheet, wire frame with a solid insert, hanging outside layer with leveling and working layer with leveling composite friction materials and followed by molding under pressure in the press;

- vulcanization pads in the mold under pressure and at a temperature of;

- drilling holes for the pin in the brake Shoe.

In exceptional cases, when you use a rusty or dirty metal reinforcement and inserts made of cast iron or when specific requirements on the durability of the pad can be cleaned up reinforcement and inserts degreasing or sandblasting machines and impregnation of adhesive in the usual well-known technologies in order to improve the adhesion and fixing of the metal reinforcement with composite element.

All operations except offer the Assembly wire frame with inserts is described in detail in the technical literature (see Baserev. Production of brake pads made of composite materials for railroad cars. M.: Chemistry, 1982, and presents equivalents.

Solid inserts can be made of special cast iron, such as ductile or malleable by casting of the desired shape, for example, by the method of precision casting in accordance with the image of figure 2, does not require further machining.

To ensure the cleaning, polishing and restoring the rolling surface of the wheel impact on the wheel on the entire surface area of the contact pads with the wheel cross-section of the pad with insert has a shape not dissimilar from the shape of the pads in the other cross sections. To avoid breakage of the mold envelope insert in cross-section may be provided by 1-3 mm less than the composite friction element.

When collecting inserts with a wire frame of each of the solid inserts manually rotate 90° with respect to the wire frame, that is, transversely of the frame and bottom frame having a rectangular console insert, leaving the curved console under the frame. Then in this position, rotate the insert in a longitudinal position approximately at an angle of 45° to the horizontal so that the longitudinal protrusions direct consoles remain over a wire frame. After that the iPod is turned to approximately 0° to the horizon and manually move the transverse wire frame so that wire is placed on the transverse tabs bent consoles. Then, using a pneumatic press stamp or any other way to perform the locking bend the wire frame with simultaneous jamming it two solid inserts together or alternately.

In addition to jamming inserts in a wire skeleton Pets binding inserts together with wire, synthetic cord, etc. in the Central boss, which in the inserts can be provided for special notches.

After molding with a frictional material in the press under pressure and vulcanization pads in the mold under pressure and at a temperature insert with mesh wire frame will be pressed into composite friction element so that the rear surface of the console inserts are in the same plane with the surface of the perforated sheet, the back side of the pad.

Most importantly, however, the curved solid console inserts placed in the Central boss. In this regard, significantly increasing the strength and life of the brake pads, as in this case, the Central boss with a hole for the pin, reinforced mesh wire frame and curved consoles solid inserts, together with lateral bosses made of prochnow the elastic composite friction material, with the ability to upregulations deformation.

The implementation of the inventive brake pads new design with features indicated in the characterizing part of the formula, can improve the structural strength of the pad and extend the life of brake pads and wheels in operation.

The rugged, reliable design of composite brake pads with solid inserts of special ductile or malleable cast iron, in turn, will allow to achieve stable braking performance, including icing and rain, to improve the heat dissipation in the environment, to provide cleaning, polishing and restorative effects on the rolling surface of the wheel, to fill tiny cracks on the wheel cast iron at its melting at high temperatures and prevent their further development and as a consequence, to increase the life of the wheel and the resource block.

1. Brake pad of a rail vehicle, comprising a metal frame, composite friction element and two solid insert, symmetrically located relative to the horizontal axis of the pad overlying its frictional portion width, wherein the metal frame consists of a wire frame representing shrunk in composite friction material Tylin the second part of the pads on the perimeter pads two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing checks, and perforated tin plated in composite friction material rear surface of the pad, and the back outside part of each of the inserts has a console located on each side of the insert along the length of the insert, and at least one of the consoles bent toward the back surface of the pad and placed in the Central boss, and at least one of the consoles, placed between the main and auxiliary base, and each of the inserts is inserted into one of the part of the wire frame and clamped in it, and insert together with the frame is pressed into the composite friction element so that the rear surface of the console inserts are in the same plane with the surface of the perforated sheet, the back side of the pad.

2. Brake pad railway vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the rear outside portion of each of the inserts has a groove along the length of the insert and equal to or less than the frame width and provided with protrusions and/or grooves to further restrict movement of the inserts in the wire frame height and/or length and/or width, and the length and/or width of the insert in place of the protrusions is greater than the length and/or width of the frame.

3. Tormos the I pad railway vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the rigid insert is made of ductile or malleable iron, and the ratio of the total area of the working surface to the working surface of the pad ranges from 8 to 30%.



 

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3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to brake shoes, mainly, to drum-type brake shoe units with high friction coefficient. Proposed brake shoe unit has cylindrical curved platform of brake shoe forming part of cylinder, inner support surface and outer support surface and matrix made of brake friction material. Said matrix is arranged on outer support surface of brake shoe platform forming braking surface. Great number of bosses project from outer support surface of brake shoe platform through matrix to friction surface. Said bosses engage with friction surface to create friction with opposite rotating member of vehicle wheel.

EFFECT: improved efficiency at emergency braking.

10 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; brake systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains composite friction member, metal skeleton made of steel strip and hard insert welded to skeleton and arranged in central part of shoe, wire framing, central boss and two side bosses. Wire framing consists essentially of two closed frames press-fitted into composite friction material from rear side of shoe over perimeter of shoe, whose inner parts are relatively overlapped and bent outwards relative to rear part of shoe, thus forming eye to pass cotter pin. Central boss is provided with hole for cotter, pin. Two side bosses are made of composite friction material. Metal skeleton made of steel strip has width less than width of wire framing, being bent to radius of rear surface of shoe and press-fitted into rear surface of shoe between side bosses and under central boss. Composite friction member consists of two longitudinal layers of material. Strength of layer arranged from rear side of shoe is greater than that of layer arranged from working side of shoe.

EFFECT: increased strength of shoe.

2 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; vehicle brake systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains metal skeleton and composite polymeric friction member secured on skeleton. Composite polymeric friction member is manufacture of material containing fiber-like steel particles. Material of friction member contains additionally iron powder and iron ore concentrate in form of powder. Total content of iron containing components is 40-70% of mass.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of shoe, increased service life of wheels.

1 dwg

Stop block // 2345922

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: stop block contains shoe with handle attached to runner by two rivets. Shoe has groves with antifriction material pressed-in. Groves in shoe may be made as slots in form of dovetail. Inserts may be made of powdered metal consisting of: 8-10 % Fe, 0.6-1 % Al2O3, 3.5-5 % C, 3.5-4.5 % Sn, with remaining part of Cu.

EFFECT: improvement of device performance and avoiding wheel locking.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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