Method determining earth albedo

FIELD: physics; astronautics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes consecutive arrangement of equipment sensitive to registered radiation not less than in two spatial standings and determination of the moments of the Sun location in a zenithal field over spacecraft (SC) supplied with two or more solar batteries (SB) over catopter. At the moment of passage of under-sun point of the orbit pass at the Sun location in zenithal field over the SC the first SB is turned into position, corresponding to normal line combination to its effective area with direction on the Sun. Another SB is turned in standing corresponding to combination of normal line to its effective area with counter-sun direction. Measure values of current from every SB. Earth albedo value is determined under the formula: A=(KI2-K2I1)/(I1KK1I2) where I1, 2 - measured values of current from the SB, normal lines to which effective areas are combined, accordingly, with direction on the Sun and with counter-sun direction; K - the given coefficient of target power of effective area of the first SB concerning target power of an effective area of the second SB; K1, 2-set coefficients of target power of back surface, accordingly, the first and the second SB concerning target power of effective area corresponding SB.

EFFECT: determination simplification of Earth albedo.

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The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used to determine and control the integral parameters of the radiant heat of the planet, around which turns the spacecraft (SC).

Solar radiation coming to the Earth, is reflected from its surface, clouds, scattered by the atmosphere. The albedo of the Earth's surface is the ratio of the radiant flux reflected from this surface into the surrounding space, to the stream, fallen on it (see[1]-[4]).

In theoretical calculation values of the albedo of the Earth can be taken that the optical characteristics of the Earth are the same as in a homogeneous diffuse reflective surface of the reflection coefficient of 0.34 (see [2], str). Determination of the albedo of the Earth can also be made at the average meteorological data and using data on seasonal and geographical distribution of clouds and reflective abilities of different types of clouds and the underlying surface (see [3], p.49-50). Thus obtained average value of the albedo of the Earth is considered equal to 0.35 (see [3], p.47).

Called "classical" method of determining the value of the albedo of the Earth is the registration of the so-called "earth light", i.e. the measurement of the brightness of the Earth those areas that are not illuminated by the Sun. Metering the TES thus albedo is between 32 and 52% (see [3], p.50).

Planetary and seasonal characteristics of the albedo can be determined by approximate calculations on the distribution of meteorological elements (see [4]), for example, according to the following dependence (see [3], p.50):

where Asthe albedo of the system "earth surface-atmosphere";

Anthe albedo of the earth surface;

Anda- albedo cloudless atmosphere;

Aabout- albedo clouds;

- albedo layer of the atmosphere above the clouds;

nabout- the amount of clouds.

As can be seen from the above, the question about the exact determination of the albedo of the Earth is far from the final solution. Used in the calculation models have limited accuracy that is not possible to obtain accurate data about the current value of the albedo of the Earth and its geographical distribution.

There is a method of determining albedo [5]adopted for the prototype, related to non-destructive methods of control integral parameters of radiant heat exchange mobile and stationary objects in the environment. The essence of the method consists in the following. When determining albedo limited fragment containing characteristic of the object reflecting surface and at least one foreign inclusions, the studied fragment and/or foreign inclusion is sustenna give a circular shape or form at least one ring, above the center of the circle or ring is placed successively at least two selected heights device sensitive to the measured radiation sensor and produce a measure at least of reflected radiation from each of the heights, and the values of the true albedo is determined by given in [5] formulas for various variants of formation of the studied fragment. This method allows you to exclude or possible to neutralize the distortion introduced from unorganized background.

The difficulty of using this method to determine the albedo of the Earth from outer space due to the fact that its application is necessary to place the instrument on the SPACECRAFT sensitive to the measured radiation sensor and to perform expensive operations maneuvering SPACECRAFT, as well as perform special training studied the reflective surface.

The task of the proposed method is the determination of the albedo of the Earth is equipped with solar batteries (SB) orbital SPACECRAFT without performing expensive operations for placement on the SPACECRAFT for more devices and maneuvering of the SPACECRAFT.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of determining the albedo of the Earth, including the consistent placement on the reflecting surface in at least two spatial Polo is aniah sensitive to the recorded radiation equipment and the determination of the albedo values in formulas additionally determine the points of location of the Sun in the Zenith region above containing two or more solar panels spacecraft moving in a near-circular orbit around the Earth, and in the passage of the seed point orbits the orbit when the Sun is in the Zenith region over the spacecraft expand the first solar panel in its working position, corresponding to the combination of the normal to its working surface with the direction to the Sun, and another solar battery unfold in a position corresponding to the combination of the normal to its working surface with the sun direction, the measured current value from each of the solar battery and determine the value of the albedo of the Earth And the formula

A=(KI2-K2I1)/(I1-KK1I2),

where I1, 2- current from solar cells, normal to the working surface which are aligned respectively with the direction to the Sun and with the sun direction, measured at the moment of passing seed point orbits orbit;

K - specified ratio of the output power of the working surface panel, the first solar panels relative to the output power of the working surface panel of the second solar panels;

K1- specified coefficient output power of the back surface of the first panel with the solar battery relative to the output power of its working surface;

K2- specified coefficient output power of the back surface of the second panel solar panels relative to the output power of its working surface.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in figures 1 and 2, are presented: figure 1 is a diagram of the lighting SAT sun and reflected from the Earth radiation; figure 2 - block diagram implementing the proposed method system.

Figure 1 is a typed notation:

Z - Land;

About the center of the Earth;

S is the direction vector of the Sun;

L - orbit SATELLITES;

N1is normal to the working surface of the first SB, combined with the direction to the Sun;

N2is normal to the working surface of the second SAT, aligned with the sun direction;

Ps- solar irradiance;

Pabout- flux reflected from the Earth radiation;

Rs- sunflower point of the current loop orbit;

Bs- sub-satellite point at the time of passage of the seed points of the current loop orbit.

Explain proposed mode of action.

In the proposed technical solution uses the fact that the energy reflected from the Earth radiation concentrated in the spectral range of the field of sensitivity of the solar cells SB KA, perceived SA KA to generate additional electrical energy. In contrast to submit the built prototype, where to check radiation levels using the sensor directly measuring the amount of radiation in the proposed technical solution, the determination of the albedo is the amount of current generated by SB KA - parameter that is not a direct characteristic of the detected radiation. Thus, it is not directly the desired level of radiation, and the additional, newly attracted to accomplish this, the parameter is the amount of current generated by SB SC under its influence.

Consider the coils, which in moments of passing KA seed point, the Sun is in the Zenith region over KA (a surface area above the KA is interpreted relative to the surface of the earth the direction of the Zenith corresponds to the direction along the radius-vector KA). The location of the Sun in the Zenith region over KA corresponds to the condition when the angle between the direction of the Sun and the direction of the radius vector of the SPACECRAFT does not exceed the specified value is close to zero and is defined as the accuracy of the measurement of this angle, and requirements of the target requirements.

When the position of the Sun in the Zenith region over the AC coming on the AC threads radiation - solar radiation Psand flux reflected from the Earth radiation Rabout- directed oppositely.

As the rights of the lo in flight SA KA oriented normal to the working surface SB in the direction of the Sun. In the proposed method at the time of passage of the seed point orbits the orbit when the Sun is in the Zenith region over KA expand the first SAT in working position, corresponding to the combination of the normal to its working surface with the direction to the Sun (N1=S), and the second SB deploy in a position corresponding to the combination of the normal to its working surface with the sun direction (N2=-S).

At the moment of passing KA sunflower point orbits orbit on the working surface of the panel first SAT flows in solar radiation Ps(the angle of incidence measured from the normal to the plane of the working surface SB, the angle between the N1and-Ps- 0°), and on the back surface of the panel first SAT flows reflected from the Earth radiation Ro(the angle of incidence measured from the normal to the plane of the back surface SB, the angle between the-N1and-Raboutis also equal to 0°). Let us denote the measured current value from the first SAT as I1.

At the same time on the working surface of the second panel SB flows reflected radiation Roand on the back surface of the second panel SB flows in solar radiation Ps. Let us denote the measured current value from the second SB as I2.

Along with this, it is known that the effective value of the flux density from the solar radiation, coming to the surface of the SAT, as well as the current produced by the SAT, is proportional to the cosine of the angle of radiation incidence measured from the normal to the plane SAT (see [2], p.57; [6], p.109) (in this case, the angles of incidence of the radiation on the surface SB is equal to zero).

Considering the above the albedo of the Earth And is determined by the ratio

Because the radiation used SB to generate a current proportional to the current generated by SB,

where Ioi, i=1, 2 - the current produced by the working surface of the panel first (i=1) and second (i=2) SAT under the influence of the reflected from the Earth radiation with its orientation perpendicular to the flow of Rabout(normal to the working surface panel SAT opposite direction of the vector Rabout),

Isi, i=1, 2 - the current produced by the working surface of the panel first (i=1) and second (i=2) SAT under the influence of direct solar radiation is at its orientation perpendicular to the flow of Ps(normal to the working surface panel SAT opposite to the direction vector of the Ps).

When SA KA performed unilaterally with the output power of the rear surface of the panels SAT, equal to zero, the current values of I1and I2equal to the following values:

<> where K - the coefficient of the output power of the working surface panel first SAT relative to the output power of the working surface of the second panel SS, which given the technical characteristics of SAT.

Taking into account (2)-(3) ratio to determine And takes the form

After substituting (4)-(5) (6), we obtain

Now consider the case of bilateral SAT and SAT with positive output power them back surface (for example, the panels SAT µs, TC "Progress", "Union", which is not formally sided output power them back surface is not zero and 25% of the output power of the working surface).

In this case, the values of the currents I1and I2generated under the influence of radiation coming to work and back surfaces of the panels of the first and second security Council, are

where K1- the ratio of output power to the back surface of the panel first SAT relative to the output power of its working surface;

To2- the ratio of output power the back surface of the second panel SB relative to the output power of its working surface.

The coefficients K1To2are set technical characteristics SAT.

Omnoi is (8) and (9) respectively I 2/Is1and I1/Is2and we will substitute instead of Io1obtained from (6) the expression

In the end, we get the system of two equations with equal left parts

Multiply the first equation (11) and To insert in it the value of Is1=KIs2. Then, by equating the right hand sides of the equations system, we obtain the equation

Solving the resulting equation for And get

Formulas (7) and (13) when K1=K2=0 coincide, so the relation (13) is a General formula for determining the albedo of the Earth by this method.

Note that the proposed method is applicable to a SPACECRAFT with two or more SAT. With SB KA can be arbitrarily divided into two groups and use each group SAT as one SAT.

In figure 2, represents the block diagram of the implementation of this method indicated:

1 - unit time determination of the location of the Sun in the Zenith region over KA (BASSO);

2 - the block of management of system of power supply (BUSES);

3 - power supply system (PSS);

4 - computing unit (BV).

The system works as follows.

In the initial state command from BUSES (2) SES (3) provides orientation SB KA normal to the working surface SB n the Sun.

In block BASSO (1) determines the points of location of the Sun in the Zenith region over the AC on the current orbit satellite orbit, and this information is transmitted in BUSES (2). This information BUSES (2) generates and transmits to the SES (3) teams for which SES (3) shall turn first SAT in the position in which the normal to the working surface of the first SB coincides with the direction to the Sun, and turn the second SAT in the position in which the normal to the working surface of the second SA is combined with tinted direction.

Measure current generated by the first and second SAT at the points of location of the Sun in the Zenith region over the KA, in the form of values of I1and I2of SES (3) act in BV (4). In BV (4) according to the formula (13) computes the Earth's albedo A.

BASSO (1) and NI (4) can be made on the basis of sensors and instrumentation Systems for motion control and navigation (AIRCRAFT) and on-Board digital computer system (BCS) KA (see [7], [8]). BUSES (2) and SES (3) can be made on the basis of elements SES KA (see[9], [10]).

Describe the technical effect of the proposed inventions.

The proposed solution allows to reduce the cost of determining the albedo of the Earth with an orbital equipped with SAT KA, namely to perform the determination of the current value of the albedo of the Earth from an orbiting SPACECRAFT without performing expensive and complex operations of the service is of at KA additional measuring equipment, maneuvering SPACECRAFT and special preparation of the surface.

Note that for interpretation and further use of the obtained values of the albedo must be fixed meteorological conditions above the underlying surface (in particular, the extent and nature of clouds) and SPACECRAFT navigation data (in particular, the height of the orbit, which was set to albedo).

The technical result is achieved by determining the current value of the albedo of the Earth on the measured current values from the two SAT SPACECRAFT moving in a near-circular orbit around the Earth that are deployed in the proposed provisions in the proposed time, using the proposed formulas for calculations.

LITERATURE

1. Dmitriev A.A. TO the question about the methods of studying the reflective properties of the earth's surface. Meteorology and hydrology. - 1952, No. 12.

2. Rauschenbach, Guide for the design of solar panels. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1983.

3. Kroskin MG Physical and technical principles of space research. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1969.

4. Kondratyev KYA Actinometry. - M.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1965.

5. Selivanov S. The method of determining the albedo. Application for invention No. 98114243/28 from 1998.08.04.

6. Griliches, VA, Orlov P.P., Popov LB Solar and space flight. M.: Nauka, 1984.

7. The system to manage movement of navigacii KA. Technical description. GC. 0000-ATO. RSC "Energia", 1998.

8. Engineering Handbook of space technology. Izd-vo MO SSR, M., 1969.

9. Kovtun V.S. Solov'ev S.V., Zaikin S.V., A.A. Gorodetsky way to control the position of the solar panels of the spacecraft and system for its implementation. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2242408 on the application 2003108114/11 from 24.03.2003.

10. The power supply system of the SPACECRAFT. Technical description. GC. 0000-ATO. RSC "Energia", 1998.

The method of determining the albedo of the Earth, including the consistent placement on the reflecting surface in at least two spatial positions sensitive to the recorded radiation equipment and the determination of the albedo values in formulas, characterized in that further define the points of location of the Sun in the Zenith region above containing two or more solar panels spacecraft moving in a near-circular orbit around the Earth, and in the passage of the seed point orbits the orbit when the Sun is in the Zenith region over the spacecraft expand the first solar panel in its working position, corresponding to the combination of the normal to its working surface with the direction to the Sun and other solar the battery unfold in a position corresponding to the combination of the normal to its working n the surface with the sun direction, measure the current from each solar battery and determine the value of the albedo of the Earth And the formula
A=(KI2-K2I1)/(I1KK1I2),
where I1,2- the measured current from the solar panels, the normal to the working surface which are aligned respectively with the direction to the Sun and with the sun direction;
K - specified ratio of the output power of the working surface panel, the first solar panels relative to the output power of the working surface panel of the second solar panels;
K1- specified coefficient output power of the back surface of the first solar panel battery relative to the output power of its working surface;
K2- specified coefficient output power of the back surface of the second panel solar panels relative to the output power of its working surface.



 

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3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics; measuring.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns to the measuring technics and can be used for operative detection of floods of oil and mineral oil in the seas and interior reservoirs. The method consists in irradiation of a surface and obtaining of the reflected signal which carry out for two corners. As parametres of the reflected radiation choose powers of the signals gained at the irradiation of a surface vertically downwards and under a corner to a vertical and presence of an oil film judge on performance simultaneously two relations: PoM>PowMw and M<Mw, where: Po, Pow - powers of signals from an explored and pure water table for a bundle guided vertically downwards, Px, Pxw and Py, Pyw - powers of signals from an explored and pure water table for a bundle guided under a corner θ to vertical, for lines of flight along an axis x and axis y, accordingly.

EFFECT: simplification of hardware embodying at high reliability of detection.

2 dwg

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