Circuit with double-stage throttling by capillary tubes and with receiver

FIELD: heating; refrigerating or freezing plants.

SUBSTANCE: closed refrigerating circuit comprises compressor (1), condenser (2), evaporator (4), receiver (9), capillary tube (8) between condenser and receiver, capillary tube (10) between receiver and evaporator and thermal contact (11) between suction pipeline and receiver. Suction pipeline is oriented so that sucked gas passes through receiver from its lower part to upper part. Cooling agent in receiver flows from its upper part to lower part. There is thermal contact (12) between suction pipeline and capillary tube (8), which connects condenser and receiver.

EFFECT: superheating of sucked gas, prevention of water condensation in suction pipeline and increased efficiency factor.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the cooling scheme described in the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims. This scheme is designed to regulate the flow of refrigerant from the receiver to the evaporator through a pressure in the receiver and so that was the flooding of the evaporator.

Schemes of this type are known from many patent applications. In all these known approaches use direct stream in the heat exchanger. Due to the direct flow of the outlet temperature of these objects are committed to the total temperature, and this means that the exchanger can cool the receiver to a temperature close to the temperature of the evaporator, causing boiling of the refrigerant when it is throttling in the evaporator. Boiling of the liquid in the capillary tube strongly influences the mass flow rate. Figure 3 shows a plot of the calculated mass flow rate through a capillary tube under the assumption that the refrigerant at the entrance it has a boiling temperature. From the graph it is seen that the mass flow rate increases with the pressure drop at a pressure drop of less than 5 Kelvin, but almost does not change when the differential pressure above 5 Kelvin. The schedule is designed for R134a refrigerant at the evaporator temperature -20°C, but the same trend is observed for other temperatures of the evaporator and for other refrigerants such as R404a, R600a is R22. From this it follows that the ow cannot be regulated directly by changing the differential pressure, if the pressure differential is greater than 5 Kelvin, however, there are several ways to solve this problem, three of which are the following.

In the US 250045 pressure drop between the evaporator and the receiver is less than 5 Kelvin, and therefore the pressure drop can be used to regulate the flow, but a small temperature difference between the suction gas and receiver leads to two disadvantages. First, the heat exchange surface must be large, and secondly, even a small change in temperature causes a large change in mass flow, which creates a risk of resonance.

In the US 2871680 the suction pipe and the receiver form a heat exchanger with direct stream, coming from the bottom up. The problem with boiling of the refrigerant in the capillary tube is solved by separation of refrigerant in liquid and gas throttle and the subsequent expansion of these two components in separate capillary tubes.

The refrigerant enters the lower part of the receiver in the form of a throttle gas moves to its upper part, exchanging heat with the suction gas, and out through the capillary tube at the top of the receiver. Throttle gas when the throttle is only slightly boiling, and mass flow b the children grow with increasing pressure drop across the capillary tube. Part of the liquid under the action of gravity will fall to the bottom of the receiver and go from there through a separate capillary tube. The fluid throttling is boiling hard, and mass flow rate will be constant, as shown in figure 3.

This solution has two advantages: the flooded evaporator and the heat exchange surface can be small. Two factors reduce demands on the heat exchange surface: first, the large temperature difference at the heat exchanger and, secondly, from the receiver leaves a lot of gas by not uploading the heat exchanger.

This method has two shortcomings, one of which is that required additional capillary tube, and the second is that the flow control is limited due to the constancy of flow.

In DK 174179 this problem is solved by supercooling of the refrigerant immediately before its entrance into the capillary tube. Subcooling is accomplished using a separate heat exchanger, which transfers heat to the evaporator.

In this way there is no problem with the refrigerant in the capillary tube no matter how great the pressure difference between the evaporator and the receiver. However, one of the main objectives of this scheme is to ensure flooding of the evaporator, and this imposes a limitation on the amount of pressure drop that m is should be shown in the following way. The first step of throttling, from the condenser to the receiver, makes heat in the receiver, which increases the temperature and consequently the pressure. Suction gas carries away heat from the receiver and thereby reduces the temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature in the receiver aim for a balance between input and exhaust heat, and the balance point is just the expression R1:

where

CP is the heat capacity of the refrigerant (index specified gaseous or liquid state),

RT - heat of vaporization,

Y - velocity of the refrigerant in the liquid state to the evaporator outlet.

Since the main purpose of the scheme is to maintain the evaporator is flooded, then Y will be positive. By substituting this condition in R1 R2 obtained:

The expression R2 sets an upper limit on what part of the total pressure drop can take place on the second throttling, in comparison with the first throttling because the pressure drop in the second throttling determines the temperature difference at the heat exchanger. It is important that this pressure drop was as much as possible to ensure as low as possible heat exchange surface.

According to the invention proposed a closed refrigeration circuit containing a compressor, a condenser, operitel is, receiver, capillary tube between the condenser and the receiver, the capillary tube between the receiver and the evaporator and thermal contact between the suction pipe and the receiver, and the suction pipe is oriented so that the intake gas passes through the receiver from its lower part to the upper part, and the refrigerant in the receiver flows from the top to the bottom.

Preferably, between the suction pipe and the capillary tube connecting the condenser and the receiver, there was thermal contact.

The invention differs from the above decisions by the presence of a counter flow heat exchanger. Suction gas passes into the receiver from its lower part to the upper and pereohlazhden refrigerant in the lower part of the receiver, with the result that he can pass the capillary tube without boiling.

According to the invention has a tubular receiver, continued at each end of the capillary tube. The refrigerant is throttled twice: first, on the way from the condenser to the top of the receiver, and then from the bottom of the receiver to the evaporator. The suction pipe is in thermal contact with the tubular receiver is oriented such that the intake gas passes from the lower part to the upper part, forming a heat exchanger with counter-flow. The liquid in the lower part of the receiver Pharaoh adatsa approximately to the temperature of the evaporator, and the intake gas is superheated to approximately the temperature of the receiver. When the balance between the input and exhaust of warmth is true the expression R3:

The main purpose of the scheme is to maintain a flooded evaporator, which means that Y is greater than zero. By substituting this condition in R3 we get R4:

The heat capacity of the liquid is always greater than the heat capacity of the gas. With this in mind, from R4 obtained R5:

The expression R5 is true always, and the evaporator will always be completely submerged without any limitation on the temperature in the receiver, in contrast to the scheme described in DK 174179, where there is a limit defined by R2. This means that the temperature in the receiver may be higher, and the heat exchanger surface is reduced accordingly.

Since the liquid in the lower part of the receiver pereohlajdenia, it is possible to throttle directly to the evaporator without further cooling, but it is important that the condition of the cooling fluid was performed. This condition occurs when the evaporator is flooded because of the flooding from it will flow the liquid refrigerant. Dependence R5 provides the fact that the evaporator is flooded at equilibrium, it is therefore important to ensure that flooding of the evaporator is going on the ILO to establish equilibrium. If the evaporator is located in its lower part, a large part of the refrigerant will accumulate in the evaporator when idle, and therefore, at start-up of the evaporator is to be submerged.

In a small home freezers and refrigerators as a throttling device is commonly used capillary tube with a thermal contact with the suction pipe, as shown in figure 1. In such construction occurs suction gas overheating, which gives two advantages: efficiency (coefficient of performance) increases (for most refrigerants), and warm the intake gas prevents the condensation of water on the suction pipeline, which otherwise might damage the freezers and refrigerators. When using the invention, the same advantages can be achieved by placing the first capillary tube in thermal contact with the suction pipe, as shown in figure 2 position 12.

Description of the drawings

1 schematically shows the diagram is usually used for small freezers and refrigerators. The schema contains the compressor (1), a condenser (2), a liquid conduit (3), an evaporator (4), the suction pipe (5), capillary tube (6), thermal contact (7) between the capillary tube and the suction pipeline.

Figure 2 schematically image is on the scheme according to the invention, different from the schema shown in figure 1, only the tubular receiver, which divides the capillary tube into two parts.

The scheme according to the invention contains a compressor (1), a condenser (2), a liquid conduit (3), an evaporator (4), the suction pipe (5), capillary tube (8), the receiver (9), capillary tube (10), thermal contact (11) between the receiver and the suction pipe, thermal contact (12) between the capillary tube and the suction pipeline.

Figure 3 shows a graph of calculated mass flow rate of refrigerant R134a capillary tube. The temperature at the outlet of the capillary tube is constant and equal to -20°C and the inlet temperature varies from -20°C to +25°C. Flowing the refrigerant has a boiling point.

The implementation of the invention:

The scheme according to the invention consists of four elements: the suction pipe, the tubular receiver and two capillary tubes. As an example presents the calculation of suitable size for freezers with a capacity of 100 Watts with compressor NLY9KK by Danfoss. The temperature in the receiver is equal to +10°C.

Technical data compressor NLY9KK have:

Refrigerant: R600A.

- Cooling effect at 30°C/-30°C (condenser/evaporator): 100 watts.

- Mass flow rate: 1,37 kg/h=0.34 g/s

Heat is transferred inlet pipe in three places:

1. From Kapil is Arnau tube:

Qcapill.=Flow·CFgas·20K=0.34 g/s·of 1.7 j/g/K·20K=12 watts

2. From condensation of gas in the upper part of the receiver:

Qgas=Flow·CFfluidly.·20K-Qcapill.=0.34 g/s·of 2.3 j/g/K·20 K-12 W=16 W-12 W=4 W

3. From the cooling of the fluid in the lower part of the receiver: Qfluidly.=Flow·CFfluidly.·40=0.34 g/s·of 2.3 j/g/K·40=31 watts

The heat exchanger can transfer the following amount of heat:

where

U - heat transfer coefficient,

A - surface heat transfer,

LMTD is the log mean temperature difference.

For tubular heat exchanger are:

U=0.1 W/cm2/To

LMTD=(dT1-dT2)/ln(dT1/dT2),

where

dT1and dT2temperature difference at the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger.

For simplicity, the temperature difference at the heat exchanger output here chosen equal to:

dT2=1K.

The bottleneck heat transfer is the inner surface of the suction pipe; and the minimum area of this surface is calculated by converting R6 to R7;

By substituting in R7 is possible to calculate the minimum surface thermal contact for these three locations on the suction line:

1. Along the capillary tube, see figure 2, item 12:

dT1=[20K·(1-CPgas/CPfluidly.)]=5,5 To Λ (dT2 =1K)⇒LMTD=(dT1-dT2)/ln(dT1/dT2)=4,5K/ln(5,5)=2,6

Andcapill.≥Qcapill./(U·LMTD)=12 W/(0.1 W/cm2/·2,6)=46 cm2

The length of the heat exchanger capillary tube must be at least

than:

Lcapill.>46 cm2/1.5 cm=31 cm

2. Condensation in the upper part of the receiver:

(dT1=40 K)Λ(dT2=1K)⇒LMTD=(dT1-dT2)/ln(dT1/dT2)=39/ln(40)=10,6

Andcondens.≥Qcondens./(U·LMTD)=4 W/0.1 W/cm2/·10,6)=4 cm2

From this it follows that the contact of the suction pipe with the upper part of the receiver must be not less than:

Lthe top of Prien.>4 cm2/1.5 cm=3 cm

3. For hypothermia at the bottom of the receiver:

(dT1=40 K)Λ(dT2=1)⇒LMTD=(dT1-dT2)/ln(dT1/dT2)=39/ln(40)=10,6

Andcondens.≥Qcondens./(U·LMTD)=31 W/0.1 W/cm2/·11)=28 cm2

and thus, the contact of the suction pipe to the bottom of the sink must be not less than:

Lthe bottom of Prien.>28 cm2/150 cm2/m=19 cm

Calculations show that:

1. Thermal contact between the capillary tube and the suction pipe should be not less than 31 cm2.

2. The contact between the receiver and the suction pipe must have a length of not less than (3 cm+19 cm)=22 see

When choosing a receiver 50 with the level of the refrigerant can be changed by 28 cm, and still satisfied the basic requirement, which is that the heat had at least 22 see If the diameter of the receiver is chosen equal to 22 mm, the volume of the refrigerant can be changed to 75 ml, which corresponds to 45 g of refrigerant. The constituent elements of the schema (see figure 2) will have the following dimensions:

- suction pipe (5): copper tube 6 mm × 120 cm;

receiver (9): 22 mm × 50 cm;

the first choke: capillary tube of 0.7 mm × 90 cm, with with a suction pipe thermal contact (12) length not less than 31 cm;

the second throttle: capillary tube (10) 0.7 mm × 90 cm

The invention provides an efficient and cheap controller as an alternative to the traditional throttling capillary tube used in small home freezers and refrigerators. The controller increases the efficiency of freezers and refrigerators and allows them to work better in terms of temperature change. For manufacturers of refrigerators will not be difficult to use the invention, as seen in figures 1 and 2, the only difference is a small receiver mounted in the middle of the capillary tube.

1. A closed refrigeration circuit containing the compressor (1), a condenser (2), an evaporator (4), a receiver (9), capillary tube (8) between the condenser and the receiver, to Villeroy tube (10) between the receiver and the evaporator and thermal contact (11) between the suction pipe and the receiver, moreover, the suction pipe is oriented so that the intake gas passes through the receiver from its lower part to the upper part, characterized in that the refrigerant in the receiver flows from the top to the bottom.

2. A closed refrigeration circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that between the suction pipe and the capillary tube (8)connecting the condenser and the receiver, there is a thermal contact (12).



 

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