Method for protection of building earth foundations against suffosion processes

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction, namely to fighting suffosion processes that occur during flooding of earth foundations in buildings, which are for instance, located in high-water bed. In method for protection of building earth foundations against suffosion processes that occur as a result of building flooding, wells are drilled in building foundations, soil in wells is sampled, specimens obtained are used to determine value of critical head gradient and critical seepage path. Water impermeable wall is erected in building earth foundation around the base, at that distance between the base and water impermeable wall, as well as depth of water impermeable wall location from daylight is selected depending on values of critical gradient and critical seepage path. Space between building base and water impermeable wall is filled with water permeable material consisting of single-size particles, and space between the base in the level of its underside and water impermeable wall is filled with the layer of water impermeable material. Drainage holes with meshes are arranged at internal edge of water impermeable wall in water impermeable layer, and filling with layer of water impermeable material is done with layer separation into sections, in every of which surface is arranged with slope to drainage hole providing water drain into hole.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of building protection against suffosion processes, and also increase of operational reliability of buildings, reduction of material intensity.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction, namely to combat suffusion processes arising from the flooding of buildings, for example, located in the floodplain of the rivers.

There is a method of drying rocks or decrease the velocity of water movement through the rock to a safe value. (Handbook of engineering Geology, edited Mview. - Moscow, NEDRA, 1981, s). To reduce the velocity of groundwater flow in the area of its discharge arrange return filters, i.e. filling permeable rock layers in the order of gradual increase of particle size from small to large in the direction of filtration flow (Wedelstedt - Engineering Geology. Engineering geodynamics. - Leningrad, Nedra, 1977, s).

The disadvantages of this method lie in the impossibility of drying rocks and the reduced speed of movement of water in the flooded conditions of the building, i.e. the impossibility of applying for buildings exposed to flooding.

A known way of dealing with sufosia, consisting in artificial cementation of rocks (Handbook of engineering Geology, edited Mview. - Moscow, NEDRA, 1981 s).

The disadvantages of this method are the high complexity and significant cost of implementation due to the large volume of work and the necessity to use special equipment for prigotovleniya injection of cement into the subgrade of the building, as well as the impossibility of creating a continuous artificial Geomatica with low filtration properties in total water saturation of soil during flooding of the territory.

The technical result of the invention to provide an efficient and reliable way to protect buildings from suffosion processes arising from the flooding of the building.

The essence of the invention is that the way to protect soil foundations of buildings from suffusion processes that manifest as a result of flooding of the building, carry out drilling at the base of the building, carry out soil sampling in wells, on the received samples to determine the value of the critical pressure gradient and critical path filtering, erected in the soil around the base of the building Foundation waterproof wall, the distance between the Foundation and waterproof the wall and the depth waterproof wall surface is selected depending on the value of the critical gradient and critical path filter, fill the space between the building Foundation and waterproof wall permeable a material consisting of particles of the same size, and the space between the Foundation at the level of the sole and waterproof wall is filled with a layer of waterproof Mat is the Rial, at the inner edge of the waterproof wall in a waterproof layer carry out the drainage holes with screens and filling with a layer of waterproof material is performed with the separation layer into sections, in each of which the surface is performed with a bias to the drain hole, providing a flow of water into the hole.

The claimed method differs from known helps to protect the building from suffosion processes in case of flooding, increases the operational reliability of buildings, reduces the cost of implementation of the method.

To do this, use:

- drilling of wells near the outer edge of the Foundation to the depth of the active zone;

- soil sampling;

- testing soil samples to determine the critical pressure gradient;

- calculations on the obtained results with the aim of obtaining the critical path filtering;

- the construction of the waterproof wall around the perimeter of the building at a distance from him more than received critical path filtering;

- filling the space between the building Foundation and waterproof wall permeable material consisting of particles of the same size;

- placing a layer of waterproof material, evenly divided in the horizontal direction on areas with slopes to drainage holes;

- mouth is free drainage holes with mesh at the inner edge of the waterproof wall.

The process of securing buildings from suffosion processes can be explained as follows.

As you know, one of the ways to protect buildings from suffosion processes is artificial cementation of the soil, while there are difficulties with the creation of continuous artificial waterproof Geomatica. Due to the heterogeneous structure of the soil, differences in their filtration properties of the injection of cement into the soil may not lead to the creation of a continuous waterproof array. The cost of implementation of the method can be extremely high in case of insufficient reliability.

In this case there is a need for objective evaluation of properties of soils, grounds, namely filtration and suffusion over the entire area occupied by the building. In the proposed method the valuation of similar properties is performed only in areas of the base, directly threatening the sustainability of the building in case of manifestation of suffosion processes. To do this, make drilling near the outer edge of the Foundation to a depth of compressible zone. This is due to the need for soil sampling to assess suffosion processes at the base of the building, as well as for subsequent tests to determine the critical pressure gradient. Then perform calculations to determine the depth of the floor under the Ala of the building, as its lowest marks, surface soil, flooded by the flood, and depth of flooding. Then make a study of the suffusion process in the soil. For this test the obtained soil samples in the instrument to determine the values of the critical pressure gradient, which will begin suffusion process, and acceptable gradients of pressure and the allowable percentage of vymyv small particles. This allows reasonable to choose constructive activities, providing filtration strength of the soil at the base of the building. Tests should be subjected samples of the same soil, since the magnitude of the gradient is equal to 1 (one), increasing to a critical pressure gradient, which begins the process of removal of fine particles in a water stream.

The obtained results are analysed. Using the known formula of the pressure gradient I=(H1-H2)/L, when the value of I (first) critical received in the device, for known values of H1 and H2 in the laboratory and in the field, get the numerical value of the path length of the filter L, the corresponding I is critical in natural conditions. On the basis of the received data erected in soil Foundation waterproof wall around the perimeter of the building at a distance from him more than the received path filtering, soo is concerned, I is critical. Additionally, the calculation of the waterproof wall may be recessed substantially below the soles of the Foundation to increase the path length of the filter.

Make filling the space between the building wall and waterproof wall permeable material consisting of particles of the same size. This decision is justified by the following considerations:

- it is known that large particles form the skeleton of the soil, and are small in its pores in the free state. If the sizes of the fine particles are less than the pore size of the skeleton of the soil, they freely taken out of the skeleton. On the other hand, transmission of external distributed load on these soils contribute to the creation in soils busy, i.e. the "fixed" state, when the soil particles are trapped in the filtration flow. Therefore, filling the space between the building wall and waterproof wall permeable material consisting of particles of the same size, solves the above-mentioned tasks, namely:

- eliminates the possibility of suffosion processes in permeable material, for example sand;

- reduces the likelihood sufoziya in the earthen Foundation of the building, under a load of permeable material consisting of particles of the same size.

Between the sole is of undament and waterproof wall place a layer of waterproof material, uniformly in the horizontal direction is divided into sections with gradients in the longitudinal and transverse directions to the drain hole. When exposed to atmospheric water in the space between the building Foundation and waterproof wall filled with permeable material consisting of particles of the same size, it is necessary to provide filtered water to the surface. With the rise of the groundwater level below, in the case of flooding of the building should be able to smooth filtering water in a vertical direction up and down (lowering of the groundwater in the above space. Otherwise it creates hydrodynamic pressure, which will negatively affect the overall stability of the building. A seamless filtering is implemented through the use of permeable material consisting of particles of the same size. To ensure an organized drainage from the space between the Foundation and waterproof wall place a layer of waterproof material, such as concrete, uniformly in the horizontal direction is divided into sections with gradients in the longitudinal and transverse directions to the drain holes with screens, which serves for the passage of water. Assigning nets to protect the holes from driving the particles vocopro zemoga material.

The dimensions of the waterproof layer in the horizontal direction, starting from the drainage holes must exceed the critical path filtering for its horizontal section. This provides a protective zone around the perimeter of the building. The width of this zone should be greater than the path length of the filter corresponding to the critical gradient. Under this condition and in accordance with the expected mark floods and mark the floor of the basement development suffosion processes will be stopped.

Using data from long-term observations for river floods in a specific region, you can be forecast table marks the flooding of the territory. On the basis of this table can be calculated critical path filtering for the most adverse conditions.

Figure 1 and 2 shows: basement 1, basement floor 2, building wall 3, the overlap of the 4, waterproof wall 5, the water level at flood 6, permeable material consisting of particles of one size 7, the water level in the basement, resulting from flooding 8, the conditional path length of the filter 9, the active zone (compression) 10, a layer of waterproof material 11, the drain opening 12, the mesh over the drainage holes 13, the gradients in the longitudinal and transverse directions 14.

The implementation of how the protection of soil foundations of buildings from suppose is the R process is performed in the following sequence:

near the outer edge of the Foundation 1 in its base produce drilling to a depth of active zone 10 for soil sampling;

- calculate the depth of the basement floor 2 of the building and the water level during flooding 6, marks the surface of the soil flooded by the flood territory;

- conduct testing of soil samples to determine the critical pressure gradient I;

- using the famous formula of the pressure gradient I=(H1-H2)/L at the critical value of I obtained in the device, for known values of H1 and H2 in the laboratory and in the field get the numerical value of the path length of the filter 9, the corresponding critical I;

- build in soil Foundation waterproof wall around the perimeter of the building at a distance from him more than the received path filter, the corresponding I-critical. Additionally, the calculation of the waterproof wall may be recessed substantially below the soles of the Foundation to increase the path length of the filter 9;

is placed between the sole of the Foundation 1 and the waterproof wall 5 layer waterproof material 11, is divided into areas having slopes 14 in the longitudinal and transverse directions. At the inner edge of the waterproof wall 5 in a waterproof layer 11 is satisfied with drainage holes 12, covered by a net 13;

- C is discharging space between the building wall and waterproof wall 5 permeable material with particles of the same size 7. On top of permeable material 7 is closed by overlapping 4.

The present invention improves the efficiency of the protection of buildings from suffosion processes, as well as to increase the operational reliability of the buildings at a low cost of implementation of the method.

The way to protect soil foundations of buildings from suffosion processes, manifested in the flooding of a building, characterized in that the carry out drilling at the base of the building, carry out soil sampling in wells, on the received samples to determine the value of the critical pressure gradient and critical path filtering, erected in the soil around the base of the building Foundation waterproof wall, the distance between the Foundation and waterproof the wall and the depth waterproof wall surface is selected depending on the value of the critical gradient and critical path filter, fill the space between the building Foundation and waterproof wall permeable material consisting of particles the same size, and the space between the Foundation at the level of the sole and waterproof wall is filled with a layer of waterproof material, the inner edge of the waterproof wall waterproof layer perform drain grids, and C is the execution layer of waterproof material is performed with the separation layer, in each of which the surface is performed with a bias to the drain hole, providing a flow of water into the hole.



 

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