Treatment method of zinc-bearing golden-silver cyanic sediments

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to noble metals metallurgy and can be used for technology of desilverisation and gold extraction from zinc-bearing golden-silver cyanic sediments with increased content of silver. Initial zinc-bearing golden-silver cyanic sediment is leached, at first, in nitric acid solution and then into received pulp excluding filtration it is added caustic soda solution till achieving the concentration NaOH, equal to 100-140 g/l. After it alkaline solution is separated from non-solved sediment. The latter is washed by alkaline solution, dried, molten with fluxes on golden-silver alloy. Received alloy is settled, slag is separated from silver gold-bearing alloy, which is directed to silver refining by means of electrolysis in nitro-acid electrolyte. Electrolysis products are refined cathodic silver and golden sludge, which is refined by well-known methods.

EFFECT: removing of detrimental impurities, essentially, zinc, selenium and tellurium made of initial cyanic sediment.

1 ex


The invention relates to the metallurgy of noble metals (BM) and can be used in the technology of extracting gold and silver from zinc-containing gold-silver cyanide sediments with high content of silver.

One of the most widely used methods of extracting silver and gold from raw ore is cyanidation.

The essence of this process is the leaching of precious metals with cyanide salts of alkaline or alkaline earth metals in the presence of oxygen. Passed into a solution of silver and gold is then precipitated by cementation with metallic zinc. Resulting zinc-containing gold-silver cyanide precipitation after separation from cyanide solutions are processed to extract silver and gold.

In the deposition of noble metals zinc dust get cyanide precipitation of very complex material composition. Along with silver and gold they contain an excess of metallic zinc, metallic lead, hydroxide and carbonate of zinc, simple cyanide zinc, carbonate and sulphate of calcium, copper, iron, arsenic, selenium, tellurium. In addition, the sediments are the oxides of silicon, calcium, aluminum and other [Intellence, Lview, Vfront and other metals precious metals. - 2nd ed., - M.: Metallurgist who I am, 1987, s].

Compounds cyanide precipitation received at various gold extraction plants, very significantly different, due to different types of source of mineral raw materials and the characteristics of the technologies used to cyanide leaching and cementation.

So, cyanide zinc precipitation received at the processing enterprises of the Magadan region, are characterized by an extremely high content of silver (30-80%), relatively low gold content (0.2 to 4%) and zinc (5-15%), the presence of selenium and tellurium (up to 2%), lead (up to 30%), copper (0.1 to 5.0%), oxides of silicon, calcium, aluminum.

The choice of processing methods cyanide precipitation is determined by the composition of the sediments, their quantity and the requirements for the degree of extraction of precious metals.

A method of refining gold-silver cyanide precipitation, consisting in the direct smelting of precipitation in the crucible with flux without any pre-processing. As fluxes are used soda, borax, silica sand and fluorspar. With the direct smelting of zinc cyanide precipitation of the formed slag contains oxides, highly corrosive crucible. At fusion releases a significant amount of oxides of zinc, cyanide and other substances. The fusion often turns out badly polluted base zolotas repany alloy. The slag produced during this operation, contain significant amounts of precious metals and must be subjected to special treatment. [Innplace. Metallurgy of noble metals. A textbook for colleges. - M, Metallurgizdat, 1943, SS-304].

This method is used rarely and only for processing very clean sediments that do not contain harmful impurities. In particular, this method cannot be used for processing cyanide sediments with high content of silver contaminated with selenium and tellurium produced at the enterprises of the Magadan region, since the presence of these impurities in the gold-silver alloy complicates subsequent refining and makes it difficult to use for this electrolysis in nitric acid environments (contained in the anode alloy chalcogen contaminate the cathode silver).

The most widespread method for processing of zinc-containing gold-silver cyanide precipitation, consisting of acid treatment sludge, separating the solution from nerastvorimogo precipitate, washing the precipitate with water, drying and subsequent heat with flux with the purpose of obtaining a gold-silver alloy, suitable for further refining [Intellence, Lview, Vfront and other metals precious metals. - 2nd ed., - M.: metallurgy, 1987, s-188 and s-327].

This method is n is the most closest to the technical nature of the claimed method and adopted as a prototype.

In the method prototype source leached residue (10-15)%sulfuric acid solution to remove in the solution of the main mass of the zinc and other soluble compounds. After leaching is separated by filtering the solution from nerastvorimogo precipitate, washed with water, dried and smelted with fluxes on the gold-silver alloy. As fluxes using soda, borax, silica sand, fluorspar.

The purpose of melting an additional office in slag base impurities and obtaining the gold-silver alloy, which is suitable for further refining. For melting can be used in furnaces of various designs. Melting lead to full recordigns slag. After melting, the melt defend and separate the produced slag from gold-silver alloy. Upon receipt of a rich gold-silver alloy (950-980 samples) it is sent for recycling (including electrolysis). If smelted metal is not clean, then it is subjected to repeated melting with the aim of refining.

The main disadvantage of the prototype method, when it is used for processing of zinc-containing gold-silver cyanide sediments with high content of silver (including precipitation received at the enterprises of the Magadan region), as follows:

- allocation of explosive hydrogen is ri interaction of zinc with sulfuric acid;

low extraction of selenium and tellurium in sulfuric acid solution from sediments enriched with silver, which during subsequent melting leads to obtaining contaminated chalcogenide silver gold alloy and does not allow its refining for one stage of electrolysis in nitric acid electrolyte without the use of additional cleanup operations;

- education is difficult filtered slurries that require the use of sophisticated filtration equipment.

The technical result, which sent the proposed method for processing zinc-containing gold-silver cyanide sediments with high content of silver, is to use the set of hydrometallurgical processing techniques, which allow to cleanse your source sediment from harmful impurities (mainly zinc and halogeno) and, however, do not have the above drawbacks inherent in the method prototype.

The task, which directed the alleged invention is the obtaining of the original cyanide precipitation of such a product, which, after washing, drying, melting with flux and separation from the slag would be a silver-gold alloy, suitable for refining (including for the electrolytic production of refined silver in nitric acid is electrolyte).

The achievement of the technical result is ensured by the fact that the original zinc-containing gold-silver cyanide leached residue first in a solution of nitric acid, then the resulting slurry (without filter) add a solution of caustic soda and then separate the alkaline solution from nerastvorimogo sediment. The latter is washed with an alkaline solution, dried, melted with flux on the gold-silver alloy. Melting lead to full recordigns slag. The resulting melt defend, separate the dross from the silver gold alloy, which is sent for refining silver by electrolysis in nitric acid electrolyte.

The essence of the method consists in the following. In the leaching of the raw product in nitric acid in the solution is transferred zinc, a large part of the acid-soluble impurities, and silver (the formation of explosive air-hydrogen mixture in this process excluded). In the insoluble residue concentrate gold, oxides of silicon and aluminum. The resulting slurry then, without filtering, is treated with a solution of caustic soda. In alkaline silver nitrate turns into practically insoluble oxides and precipitates. Admixture of copper and lead are also deposited in the form of hydroxides. Selenium and tellurium in an alkaline medium to form a soluble acid (H2SeO 3N2Teo3and remain in solution. Zinc is an amphoteric metal. When alkalization nitrate solution until pH=(8-10) zinc enters the sediment in the form of hydroxide. However, in the excess of alkali precipitate of zinc hydroxide is dissolved with the formation of zincate sodium (Na2ZnO24H2O). Experiments have shown that the complete dissolution of Zn(OH)2is achieved when the NaOH concentration in the slurry is greater than 100 g/L. Above 140 g/l concentration of sodium hydroxide to raise is not advisable, as the complete dissolution of zinc compounds is not increased, and the costs increase significantly.

As a result of this combination of chemical transformations form a slurry, solid base which are well filtered, silver oxide, gold, silica. Subsequent filtering and washing the precipitate allow to achieve the desired degree of separation passed into a solution of zinc, selenium and tellurium from nerastvorimogo sediment. The residual content of zinc and halogeno in nerastvorim sediment is small and does not affect performance, followed by melting.

Received nerastvorim precipitate is dried to remove free moisture and then smelted with fluxes in an electric or fuel furnace. In the process of melting fluxes interact with silica and other components of the mixture, forming a fluid is lacquer. The silver oxide is recovered due to thermal dissociation and together with the gold forms a silver-gold alloy, which is due to insolubility in the slag and higher density settles to the bottom of the melting furnace. After settling melt and separate the slag from the silver gold alloy latter is subjected to refining.

Due to the high content of silver and minor amounts of impurities (selenium and tellurium) refining of the alloy is carried out by electrolysis of silver nitrate solutions. The products of electrolysis are refined cathode silver and gold sludge that officeroute known methods.


A glass was placed 400 g of the raw product - zinc-containing gold-silver cyanide precipitate one of the gold extraction plants of the Magadan region. The original product (humidity - 5%) had the following contents of the analyzed elements, %: gold - 0,25; silver - 78,1; zinc - 6,0; selenium - 0,74; tellurium - 0,2.

The original product was added to 400 ml of water, the resulting slurry was added nitric acid to pH=0.5 to 1.0. Spent leaching of the raw product in a solution of nitric acid, which stirred the resulting slurry at a temperature of 70C for 30 minutes.

Then added to the slurry a solution of caustic soda in amount of 500 ml (density, R is the target - of 1.46 g/cm3) and kept under stirring for 60 minutes titration Method was determined that the concentration of free NaOH solution and 120 g/L. Then separated by filtration of the alkaline solution from nerastvorimogo sediment. The volume of the alkaline solution was 1000 ml with the following concentrations of the analyzed elements, g/l: Zn - 16,1; Se - 2,14; Te - 0, 6; Ag - 0,003; Au is less than 0.002 g/L.

Nerastvorim precipitate was washed on the filter with a solution of NaOH, resulting in a received 600 ml of wash water, which contained, in g/l: Zn - 7,9; Se - 1,03; Those -0,2; Ag - no; Au - no, and 593 g of wet nerastvorimogo sediment. The latter was placed in a drying oven and dried for 4 hours at 110C. the result was 374,9 g dry nerastvorimogo sediment, which by results of the analysis contained in%: Ag - 79,16; Au - 0,25; Zn - 0,51; Se - 0,013; no.

Obtained after drying nerastvorim residue was subjected to melting with flux with the aim of obtaining silver gold alloy. For this 360,0 g dry nerastvorimogo sediment (the rest of the sediment was used for analyses) was mixed with 30.0 g of quicklime (Cao) and 60.0 g of crushed silicate glass. All components of the mixture are thoroughly mixed and placed in a melting fireclay crucible, which was loaded in the shaft of the electric resistance. After isothermal aging in an oven at same time is the temperature value of 1250C for 60 minutes, the crucible with the melt was unloaded from the furnace and allowed to settle and cool to room temperature. Then the products of melting were extracted from the crucible, the slag was separated from the silver gold alloy on a natural phase boundary. Received 90,5 g of slag and 287,04 g silver gold alloy. According to the results of the analysis of the alloy contained in %: Ag - 98,80; Au - 0,31; Zn - 0,0020; Se - 0,0032; no.

From the obtained alloy was manufactured anodes and conducted successfully refining silver by electrolysis in nitric acid electrolyte. The resulting cathode refined silver, corresponding in chemical composition to the requirements of GOST 28595-90, and gold sludge that can affinitatis known methods.

Method for processing of zinc-containing gold-silver cyanide precipitation, including leaching of the raw product in the acid solution, separating the solution from nerastvorimogo sediment, leaching of nerastvorimogo precipitate, drying and melting with fluxes, sedimentation melt, the Department received dross from the silver gold alloy and refining the latest electrolysis in nitric acid electrolyte, characterized in that the acid leaching of the original product, nitric acid, resulting slurry is added a solution of caustic soda to achieve the concentration of NaOH equal to 100-140 g/l, and then spend the separation of the alkaline solution from nerastvorim is gosia sediment, which is subjected to washing, drying and melting with flux.


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 // 2350667

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3 dwg

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4 cl, 1 ex

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EFFECT: increasing of sulfides oxidation rate and expansion of manufacturing capabilities of the method.

1 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

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4 cl, 6 tbl, 6 ex

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2 ex