Diamond switch test stand

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to appliances intended for testing diamond switches in conditions corresponding to their operating conditions. Test stand comprises a track section making a tested specimen with its head accommodating a smaller-than-normal-size diamond switch and a rolling body that, given the normal force applied thereon, rolls on over the track section diamond switch profile.

EFFECT: probability to forecast service life of certain material for wheel/rail pairs and to define influence of geometrical linear variations, load size and cycles on results of model test series.

5 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to a device for testing crosses the arrows in the conditions corresponding to the use of cross directional arrows installed in the system track.

The railroads of the joint stock company Deutsche Bahn AG has approximately 90,000 arrows. Compared with other travel items these arrows are subjected to particularly high wear. Especially during the passage of the arrow at an acute angle beneath it in professional circles refers to the passage of the arrow from the beginning of the arrow - with the passage of the wheels of the rolling stock through the crossbar causes harsh high static and dynamic lateral and normal forces. With increasing wear is formed offset in height between the rolling surface of the guardrail and the rolling surface of the spider. Because of this shock increases even more. In addition, there are phenomena of slippage due to the difference of the radii of riding both wheels wheelset composition, which also contributes to wear. It is therefore not surprising that the first phenomenon of wear appear on the crosses after crossing approximately 3.6 million tons of cargo (at an average load of 75,000 tons of cargo per day, this corresponds to approximately 3.5 months!). After a lifetime of only 4 years many crosses already need to be replaced due to wear. As indicated in the and it is the stated purpose of the research relative to the superstructure is in order to optimize both the material and the design of turnouts.

For the preparation of a series of experiments with real arrows in the rail network that are associated with large time and financial costs, it is necessary to analyze and optimize as much as possible the number of parameters in laboratory tests. However, part loads for these model tests are still largely unclear.

Therefore, the basis of the invention lies in the task of developing a test bench crosses the arrows in the conditions corresponding to the use of cross directional arrows installed in the system track, which will allow to estimate the expected life of certain real pairs of wheel/rail. In particular, at the moment the experts it is not clear what the impact of geometric linear scaling, the magnitude and loading cycles on the results of a series of model tests.

This task in accordance with the invention is solved in connection with the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims that the test stand includes a rail segment that serves as the test sample in the cylinder, which is mounted reduced in the geometric scale of the contour of the cross. This allows a simple way in a simulated environment is the second test material, estimated for use in the crosses, arrows, and to expose it to significant research on the characteristics of wear.

As a logical complement to the idea of the invention provides that in the area of the contour of the cross, built in the rail head, there is a deepening or separation joint, filled with the weld seam. Thus, welding filler materials, which are applied on the crosses during the welding build-up on repair work or during welding, such as in the case of cross-pieces, which are assembled from a docked standard rails by electron beam welding, can also be subjected to detailed study on the characteristics of wear resistance and resistance to plastic flow. Similarly, you can evaluate all the rest of metallographic and Metallofizika aspects weld processing. For this purpose, when checking the welding direction in the rail head of the test sample in the field circuit of the cross is cut a longitudinal groove, preferably starting from the core of the spider and the parallel edge skating rail. After that, the cutout is filled with a sealing seam, which added to the test weld filler material, and then profiled.

In the dependent claims, izobreteny the other options relevant to the invention of the stand.

Particularly preferably, if appropriate to the invention, the stand has a body rolling, which under the application of normal forces rolled on the rail segment and which is made in the form of train wheels and the geometrical dimensions of which in the transverse profile find the same large-scale decrease as the path crosses built into the rail segment.

Preferably provides the current time of the process rolling device for the application of the normal force to the rolling elements, and applied in the process of rolling normal force is equal to about half the normal forces encountered on the real object. During a laborious series of experiments it was found that for this setting, the contact stress in the model and in the original comparable.

Further, it is proposed that the crank mechanism was introduced necessary for the process of rolling the horizontal relative moving device includes a rail segment. This ensures a simple and compact design corresponding to the invention of the stand.

The idea of the invention is illustrated in the following example implementation of drawings on which is shown:

figure 1 - schematic structure and kinematics of the test stand,

figure 2 - schematic representation of the iron is oroginal arrow marked area crosses,

figure 3 - schematic representation of the contour crosses, embedded into the head rail segment (top view of a rail segment),

figure 4 - image of the cross-section of a rail segment in the field of embedded contour crosses.

The test stand consists of a straight rail segment, the roll surface which is oriented in a horizontal plane and in the longitudinal direction of the rail is movable in the axial direction of the support. This rail segment forms a tested sample, and in the course of the entire series of experiments used different rail segments of different materials, the suitability of which has been determined in advance on the basis of theoretical concepts, and are examined for their wear characteristics. The aim is the classification of materials used for crosses. In the head rail segment embedded contour of the fixed cross, reduced in scale 2:1 (see figure 3).

Rail segment (1) is located vertically under the body rolling (2), freely rotating on the axis of the wheel. The contour of the body of the roller made in the form of the famous wheel of a rail vehicle. The diameter of the wheel also fits in a standard wheel rail vehicles (approximately 920 mm), while its dimensions in poperen the m-section (i.e., the dimensions of the transverse profile) is reduced by a factor of 2 relative to the dimensions of a standard wheel of the rail vehicle. In accordance with the applicable national and European directives parameters of the rolling elements should be considered as data, and they are not subject to variations, as with the technical operation of Railways within Europe should be provided with free use of the continent for the rolling elements.

Rail segment (1) rests on a horizontal receiving carriage (3) roller, which is driven by means of the crank mechanism (4) and produces a circular movement in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the rail.

Body rolling is passed to the normal force of about 108 kN (or 11 tons), resulting in cyclic horizontal movement of the support carriage (3) it is pressed against the rail segment (1) with built-in contour crosses. It was found that there is relative movement of the wheel (2) in relation to the rail segment (1) (slippage) value of 0.05%.

During a series of experiments was also concluded that the speed of the drive support carriage (3) only slightly affects the transferability of the results of experiments on real-world conditions.

At the beginning of each series of experiments determined the hardness value pairs of wheel/rail, and a decrease in the measured values of the wheel occurs in three positions on perime the ru wheels offset at an angle of 120 with respect to each other. Measurement of the rail segment is in the measuring points on the cross-sectional profile, as measured on the surface of the cross is not feasible due to the geometry. To conclude the occurrence of the damage or deformation, additionally registers the number of crossings. To further assess the order of occurrence of the damage produced geometric measurement crosses and guardrails in the transition region. These measurements allow us to conclude that the deformation of the material. Damage to rail segment (1), appearing at constant load, enable, taking into account the number of missed tons load is to make a reliable conclusion about the possibility of using the material in a subsequent series of experiments on the real object.

The list of designations

1 rail segment

2 body rolling

3 reception carriage rail segment

4, the crank mechanism

1. Stand for testing crosses the arrows in the conditions corresponding to the use of cross directional arrows installed in the system track, characterized in that it contains an employee of the test sample rail segment (1), the head of which is mounted reduced in the geometric scale of the contour crosses, and tel is (2) rolling, which under the application of normal forces rolled around the edge of the cross rail segment (1).

2. The stand according to claim 1, characterized in that in the area of the contour of the cross, built in the rail head, there is a deepening or separation joint, filled with the weld seam.

3. The stand according to claim 1, characterized in that the body (2) rolling is made in the form of a train wheel, the geometrical dimensions of which in the transverse profile have the same large-scale decrease as the path crosses built into the rail segment (1).

4. The stand according to claim 1, characterized in that applied in the process of rolling normal force is equal to about half the normal forces encountered on the real object.

5. The stand according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a crank mechanism (4)made with the possibility of input required for the process rolling horizontal relative movement in the device (3) cycle, which includes rail segment.



 

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