Submerged hydraulic turbines mounted on deck

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: turbine plant driven by water to produced power from the water flow column comprises a rectangular deck with streamline cross section furnished with a lower and upper surfaces incorporating front and tail edges relative to the water flow direction at least one turbine and a turbine assembly going up from the deck upper surface and deck support. The said support stays permanently on the water column bottom so that the deck, when installed onto the aforesaid support, the vertical space between the deck power surface and water bottom, and includes an appliance to move the deck relative to the support elements for the deck to move from operating into uplifted position whereat every turbine assembly is accessible on water column surface.

EFFECT: production of bearing structures to support hydraulic turbines.

10 cl, 26 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a support turbines located for immersion in water flows and the actuator, using the kinetic energy of the water flow.

In British patent GB 2256011 In, and GB 2311566, V and British patent application No. 0227739.0 described construction related to hydraulic turbines, i.e. a rotor supported within the water column of the sea, river or estuary so that the water flow can rotate the rotor to generate either electricity or power on the shaft for use in the required order. From these documents it is known how to use the turbine in these cases, and also known construction of different types to support such turbines.

The present invention is the creation of supporting structures, referred to here as "False seabed", to support hydraulic turbines (sea, river or estuary, depending on the circumstances).

Another objective of the present invention is to provide structures capable of supporting one or more systems hydraulic turbines, those which have already been described in earlier English patent GB 2311566 In GB and 2348250.

However, the rotors of any known type, which can be set in motion by the flow of water so that they can lead generator to generate electricity or for any other useful applications, such as pump and compressor can be applied with this invention, therefore, another object of the invention is the creation of supporting structures that are suitable to maintain, for example, of the rotor (rotor), which may typically be of the following types:

- axial flow or propeller type (i.e. with the rotor (the rotor), which can rotate around an axis parallel to the direction of flow);

- cross flow (or type of Darius) (with rotor (rotor), which can rotate around an axis approximately normal to the direction of flow);

- return hydrocrane (which moves back and forth under the arch, transverse to the flow direction).

The turbine hydrocoele any type of rotating or moving the reciprocating (depending on circumstances) entirely within the water column of the current threads, no matter in the sea, in rivers or estuaries, and which in various ways that will be described, meet the above requirements. In other words, the active components remain fully immersed in the course of their normal operation.

Another important task of this invention is to provide means by which the rotor and other moving parts, such as power transmission, can be clearly raised above the surface of the water to ensure safe and efficient access from the surface vessel to the mouth of the hall, maintenance, repair and replacement of the above components,

When the turbine is used so that it is driven by the flow of water, extracting energy from the flow of water causes a decrease of the pulse passing water, which in turn produces large reaction forces on the turbine, these stresses manifest themselves mainly as a thrust force acting in the direction of flow numerical and proportional to the square of the average speed of the rotor.

This phenomenon is a consequence of the laws of physics, pelucas of the momentum transfer in the flowing water moving components of the turbine, and will continue to occur, despite the design of the turbine rotor. In all cases, the thrust on the rotor is directly proportional to the product of the square of the average velocity of water flow on the rotor and the square of the sweep of the rotor. As a rule, the more powerful and more efficient the turbine rotor, the more force that necessary to resist, although under certain conditions, such as when there is a "loss of control"caused by the loss of load, more thrust can be obtained, even when the turbine does not give a lot or not at all delivers useful energy at the turbine shaft. This situation of course is a direct consequence of the fact that the force required to hold the rotor in position, provide counteracting forces, p is reganam the turbine rotor to rotate, which in turn gives a measure of its efficiency for the production of gross output.

Moreover, any such turbine is additionally subject to a number of cyclic loads caused by phenomena such as the effects of turbulence flowing waves, shear velocity in the water column (i.e. the change in velocity with depth) and vortex discharges that have a pulsating fatigue loads on any supporting structure, which must have adequate structural integrity. Therefore, the main requirement of any such turbine is that the rotor, which extracts energy, held in place by a structure with adequate reserves of strength to resist the static and dynamic forces, attached to the rotor.

The provision of such a structure is complicated by a number of other typical requirements, namely: the fact that the trace produced by the presence of structure in the water column, should not unduly interfere with the flow through the rotor (otherwise it will reduce the performance of the rotor). Hence, for example, the structure can be carried out so that its footprint is ideally completely bypasses the rotor; the structure should also be economical to manufacture to minimize the cost of the system; required some valid and profitable way to install patterns in ulozhenie with strong currents; and needed some valid and profitable way to install the rotor or rotors of the turbine on the structure and then to gain access to the rotor or rotors for their maintenance and repair or replace if necessary.

A more detailed description relating to the provision of support structures for hydraulic turbines, to which the present invention below.

First, it should be noted that the flow in the water column in areas with high enough speeds, suitable for use in energozaryada turbines varies with depth, so that the maximum speed tends to be near the surface. Also the currents at the bottom of the water column, near the sea bottom (or bottom of the mouth or the river), moving quite slowly. Moreover, any uneven natural features in the bottom of the sea, rivers or the mouth will cause the destruction of the flow near the seabed and turbulence: the more uneven and rough nature of the bottom, the greater will be the thickness of slow-moving and turbulent boundary layer.

Secondly, it should be noted that for efficient and reliable extraction of kinetic energy from water currents using the proposed turbine rotor type (which may be either axial or transverse, or perhaps a reciprocating wing type devices), preferably a flow of water through the above-mentioned rotor or any moving hydrocrane to be uniform speed area scan, in order to move as quickly as possible and to have as less turbulence. In other words, it is desirable to have a means for the location of the active rotor (rotor) or gidroksila (hydracrylic) in the fastest and most uniform and metorpolitan flows, avoiding the passage of the rotor through any boundary layer caused by over uneven bottom of the sea, river or estuary. Also significantly support any such rotor (the rotor) or hydrocrane (hydrocoele) using a structure that can withstand the most high static and dynamic forces, which will show a high degree of reliability during the working period of many years.

Thirdly, it is important to note that any device that is immersed in the currents in the water column (regardless of the sea, river or estuary)from time to time you will need access for maintenance, repairs or replacements. Underwater operations in fast-flowing currents, or man, dressed in diving equipment, or remotely controlled underwater vehicles (ROV), it is very difficult, since most of these activities can only be undertaken at a time when there are flows with a speed less than 0.5 m/sec, and a good energy place for the operation of the energy of water currents, the duration of periods with such low speeds in Lu is our case too short to perform more than the smallest fraction of submarine operations.

The purpose of this invention is to provide means for access to the items that need maintenance or repairs, in particular to the rotor (the rotor) of the turbine and/or hydrocream along with leading mechanical transmission and generator, which they actuate, by creating the possibility of raising the above objects above the surface current of water flows so as to make possible the access surface of the vessel and that it was not necessary in any underwater intervention of divers or remote control suitable for operation under water mechanisms.

This object is achieved with the help of turbine installation, which is driven by the water to generate power from the column of water stream containing a rectangular deck streamlined cross-section, having upper and lower surfaces and leading and trailing edges relative to the direction of water flow, at least one turbine and turbine Assembly upward from the upper deck surface, and a support for the deck, always placed at the bottom of the water column so that DECA limits when installing bearing vertical space between the bottom surface of the deck and the bottom of water, and including means for implementing vertical movement of the deck relative to equity support to Dec who had the ability to move from its operating position to the raised position, in which each turbine Assembly is available on the surface of the water column.

Preferably the apparatus comprises means partially blocking the space formed when the deck is in its working position so that the water flow faster over the top surface of the deck.

In addition, blocking the space may further be such that the path of water flow passes directly under the deck below the surface to reduce turbulence of the water directly under the deck below the surface in conjunction with the acceleration of water flow on the upper surface of the deck.

Additionally, the areas of the leading and trailing edges of the deck can be rounded.

In addition, the upper and lower surface of the deck may have a different curvature.

Preferably, the upper surface of the deck has greater convexity than the bottom surface of the deck.

More preferably, the bottom surface is planar or concave.

In addition, turbine installation may include at least one additional deck streamlined cross-section, located in the "biplane" or "triplanar" form relative to the first deck, and each additional deck may be a rectangular deck having sections with rounded leading and trailing edges.

Site is preferably, a portion of water is able to flow under the deck, sufficient to prevent rejection of a turbulent boundary layer, rising from the water flow relative to the deck above the surface of the top deck.

In more detail, in accordance with the first aspect of the invention provides the supporting structure for the system turbine driven by flowing water, where the turbine, or multiple turbine assemblies installed/installed in the column of flowing water for working interaction with water flow on deck or platform of streamlined cross-section, which is located in the raised position relative to the bottom of flowing water, deck or platform is aligned horizontally so that it is aligned horizontally over to minimize its resistance to the flow of water.

In accordance with the second aspect of the invention provides the supporting structure for the system turbine driven by flowing water, where the turbine, or multiple turbine assemblies installed/installed for remote interaction with water flow on deck or platform of streamlined cross-section so that the turbine/turbine deployed/expanded laterally (i.e. normal to the direction of flow) across the current, and the platform is horizontally aligned with the passage in order to minimize its resistance to the flow of water.

p> Preferably, the deck or platform has a flat rectangular shape.

Preferably, the deck or platform supporting the turbine, or supported in raised position by at least two supporting legs or struts, rising up from the bottom above the current water or held in the water column tension cables, ropes or bars attached to the bottom, to be placed in the raised position.

Appropriate, the implementation of the support structure with means to effect the movement of the deck or platform between its working position and the second position near the water surface at which the turbine or turbines connected to the deck or platform, can at least reach the water surface, whereby the turbine can be accessed for maintenance or repairs using surface vessels.

In the preferred construction there is at least one deck or platform of streamlined cross-section biplanar or triplanar shape, and its location is used to improve the structural integrity of the support structure and to provide surfaces parallel to the first surface above the deck or platform or at the level of the axes attached to the turbine or turbines connected to the first mentioned deck or p is attorney, above the level of the above-mentioned axes, or in combination at levels higher than the above-mentioned axes. These additional surfaces can be added as a surface parallel to the main supporting surface, either at the level of the axis of the turbine rotor or above the level of the turbine rotors, or both of these provisions.

Moreover, the above additional surfaces may preferably be less than the chord and thickness than the lower bearing surface, but they can also be of equal or larger size.

Preferably, the first mentioned deck or platform of streamlined cross section has a streamlined asymmetrical cross-section, in which on one surface more convex than the other, to the point where the lower and upper surfaces are both convex, with one larger than the other.

It is useful to provide the option to either release a rectangular flat deck or platform of streamlined cross-section from its support and lift to the surface by using the ability to ascend in a controlled manner, or to provide some lifting mechanism, which can usually be driven electrically or hydraulically, so there is the possibility of reaching the surface of the water the entire rectangular flat deck or platform Abakumov the cross-sectional fully with a number of turbines, so the turbine can be accessed for maintenance or repairs using surface vessels.

Preferably, the rectangular flat deck or platform of streamlined cross section has a streamlined asymmetrical cross-section in which one surface is more convex than the other, to the point where both surfaces (top and bottom can be convex, one larger than the other) or one surface (upper or lower) is convex, and the other is either essentially flat, or concave. The result is the acceleration of the flow over the convex surface so that a reduced shift speed rotor (shift speed is the ability of water in the upper part of the flow to move faster than water closer to the seabed).

In yet another preferred embodiment of the formation of the above-mentioned surfaces is such that the accelerated flow over the convex surface is used to increase the performance of turbines in the case when a large bulge occurs on the upper surface.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, streamlined asymmetrical cross-section is used for a rectangular flat deck or platform in such a way that if more convex side down, and a meeting with her will cause lower cravings as a result the e generated lifting force, that will help to more firmly establish the platform for support, or when a convex surface is on top, the meeting with her will cause the upper arm to the lifting forces that can help maintain voltage and stability in floating mounting fixture stretch the legs.

Preferably, when a rectangular flat deck or platform has a streamlined cross-section, whose upper surface is more curved than the bottom surface, to accelerate the flow of water through a series of turbines, and the space under the flat rectangular deck or platform of streamlined cross-section thoroughly blocked with a suitable barrier to make the larger part of the flow of water to rise and accelerate on its upper surface and through the rotors of the turbine and for the infiltration of a small part of the flow through the narrow gap between the bottom surface of the rectangular flat deck or platform of streamlined cross-section and top of the above-mentioned obstacles to prevent deviation of the turbulent boundary layer on top of a rectangular flat decks or platforms streamlined cross-section, the device is such that it achieved a significant increase in the average flow rate through the turbine rotors, thereby improving their power output and, with appropriate design, and will also reduce the shear rate to obtain a more uniform and less turbulent flow through the turbine rotors, that will also increase the efficiency of energy extraction and to reduce the fatigue loads on the turbine rotors.

In General, in accordance with an additional aspect of the present invention, provided support in the form of a deck or raft for at least one turbine, and more often many turbines (i.e. rotors, driven by water, is capable of producing useful power), the device reference system serves to provide a flat smooth surface, generally rectangular deck or platform (i.e. when the form directly above), with adequate structural integrity so as to avoid accidental bending deployed as a deck or the bridge in the water column, so that it forms the floor to support one or more, usually several, turbines, and the arrangement is such that the surface plays the role of a false sea floor, having a smooth surface to increase the evenness of flow through it, compared to the flow of water through the most actual seabed.

This surface can either be supported on pillars, which support the weight of, for example, the legs, so that it is located on the bottom of the sea, rivers or the mouth like a table, standing on a set of legs, or it can be floating and held in the water column of many of the tension cables attached to the bottom of the sea, rivers or the managers by means of suitable bottom anchors like rectangular tension buoy bound to flatironing low in the water column.

Flat smooth surface, will generally be rectangular when viewed from above, and a long size is sufficient to accommodate the total width of several desires of the individual turbines, which can be attached to its upper surface. Moreover, long size, usually mounted normal to the direction of flow of the currents, so that the turbine, which will be attached to its upper surface, are sideways across the current working profile rotors located normal to the stream for the interception of more flow. In essence, the structure will resemble a rectangular flat "wing"suspended in the water column, with a number of turbines located on top of it.

Profile cross-section of a rectangular surface or deck should be streamlined for two reasons, namely to minimize the resistance that she will experience from the passing stream, and also for the orientation of the stream in such a way as to minimize turbulence in the flow passing through the top surface and through the rotors. To ensure a streamlined surface, the leading and trailing faces of the profile in relation to the flow of water will be wedge-shaped or until sharp edges or narrow, but rounded faces,like the leading faces or wings of an airplane or gidroksila submarine or stabilizer of the ship. In some situations, when the tidal flow and the direction of flow periodically turns in the opposite direction (with the ebb and tide currents), the surface is symmetrical in cross-section, so that it experiences little resistance, regardless of whether directed flow in one direction or in the opposite direction.

It is also possible to perform a flat smooth rectangular surface or deck, so as to increase the velocity of the flow passing through the rotor (rotor)mounted on its upper surface and to improve uniformity of flow through the rotors. Thus, the surface or deck will not only play the role of structures for support of the rotor (rotor) of the turbine, but will also be designed in such a way as to improve uniformity and possible flow rate through the rotor (the rotor)that will increase their productivity and efficiency compared with the work in the unmodified stream.

To achieve this increase in the flow cross section of rectangular flat surface or deck can (in some but not in all cases) can be asymmetric or convex in cross section (i.e. convex on one side, and possibly concave, flat or less convex with a friend who th) thus, it produces a lift force perpendicular to the flow, like aerocrine or hydrocrane. In the case when the surface is supported by legs or struts, the above asymmetry can be performed so as to produce a vertical lifting force directed downwards to improve the engagement of the legs with the bottom of the sea, river or estuary, but in the case when the surface or floating deck and held tension svarte, the profile or cross-section is asymmetric in such a way as to create a valid vertically upward lifting force to increase the tension of the support cables with acceleration of the flow and thus to stabilize the structure in the water column and avoid accidental movement of the head from the stream.

The supporting structure of the present invention thus analogous to cryoablate fixture with turbines installed on it so that the rotor (the rotor) or moving hydrocoele installed in a horizontal row along the normal to the stream flow. Above the wing can be symmetrical and streamlined and rely on a lot of legs or supports, or it can be floating and keep the tension cables or elements permanently attached to the bottom of the sea, rivers or the mouth.

For a better understanding of the invention and to show how to implement such fact, will be made by reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

Figure 1A is a schematic isometric view of the first embodiment of the support structure for installation of turbines driven by flowing water, with a number of turbines installed on it;

Figure 1B is a end view isometric view figure 1A;

Figure 1C is a front view isometric view figure 1A;

Figure 2A is a end view of the second embodiment of the support structure for turbines and turbines attached, showing the supporting structure in position lifting turbines;

Figure 2B is a front view of the embodiment of Figure 2A;

Figure 3A - end view of the third embodiment of the support structure for turbines and turbines attached, showing the supporting structure in position of operation of the turbines;

Figure 3B is a front view of the embodiment of figure 3A;

Figure 3C - end view of the third embodiment of the support structure for turbines and turbines attached, showing the supporting structure in position lifting turbines;

Figure 3D is a front view of the embodiment of figure 3C;

Figure 4A - end view of the fourth embodiment of the support structure for turbines and turbines attached, showing the supporting structure in position of operation of the turbines;

Figure 4B - end view of the fourth embodiment of the support structure for turbines and turbines attached, showing the supporting structure in position lifting turbines;

Figure 5A IS 5V - the respective front views of the embodiment of the support structure of the turbine with Figures 4A and 4B;

Figure 6A is a schematic isometric view of another embodiment of the support structure for installation of turbines driven by flowing water, with a number of turbines located on it;

Figure 6B is a front view of the embodiment of figures 6A when it is installed on the seabed;

Figure 7A is a schematic isometric view of another embodiment of the support structure for installation of turbines driven by flowing water, with a number of turbines located on it;

Figure 7B - end view of the embodiment of figures 7A when it is installed on the seabed;

Figure 7C is a front view of the embodiment of figure 7B;

Figure 8A is a schematic isometric view of an additional embodiment of the support structure for installation of turbines driven by flowing water, with a number of turbines located on it;

Figure 8B - end view of the embodiment of figures 8A when it is installed on the seabed;

Figure 8C is a front view of the embodiment of figure 8A;

Figure 9A is schematically shown another embodiment of a support structure for installation of turbines driven by flowing water, with a number of turbines installed on it, when turbines are operating position below the water level;

Figure 9 is a schematically shows the embodiment of figure 9A, when the turbine is raised to a position above the Ural branch of the water;

Figures 10A, 10B and 10C is schematically show the flow of water relative to the reference structures, including concepts of the invention.

In figures 1A, 1B and 1C, respectively, shown in schematic isometric, side and end views on the main elements of the first embodiment of the support structure, including ideas, inventions, namely, platform or deck 1 held in place using, for example, sets of legs 2, protruding up from the bottom of the river, estuary or sea, SB, and bearing the number of turbines (3), which is driven by the flow of water, standing in a line normal to the flow direction DF of the flow through the turbines. The figures shows the use of four turbines of the axial flow 3, but can be used and some other number. Moreover, other types and different types of turbines can be used, as indicated previously. In the main embodiment shown in figure 1, the turbine 3 are supported on an individual console, streamlined supporting pillars 4, described above. In the drawings, the direction of water currents DF labeled double-arrow to show the possibility of two-way direction of water flow.

Prior to a detailed consideration of the content of further figures and the remaining figures, it will be convenient to give a General idea about the normal formation and development of various supporting structures, pollastri the bathrooms and described in relation to figures. Thus, highlighting the embodiment of figures 1A, 1B and 1C as the basic structure, the development of these basic concepts of the invention provided by them may include additional features, such as described below.

Placing a second set of flat horizontal elements between each turbine, parallel to and above the already described the supporting surface or deck so that the structure is similar to the device bilanenko wing; a second set of flat elements will also be streamlined and usually (but not necessarily) will be smaller in cross section than the main trilobita supporting the deck.

Providing means for imparting buoyancy reference flat surface or deck (if it is not constantly floating), for example, using the output of water by compressed air, and providing the means for removing a flat surface or deck with structural elements connecting it with the bottom of the sea, rivers or the mouth, so that it may float to the surface in a controlled manner, so that the turbine its upper part appear above the surface of the sea, rivers or the mouth and can then be easily accessible from the surface vessel for maintenance or repair.

The provision of funds for constructive raise anchor a flat surface or deck using the suitable lifting devices in case if the ability to stay afloat is not used as the primary way to force it to float to the surface, as described in the preceding paragraph.

Providing additional resources to fully detach and re-attach the flat support surface together with the turbines from the elements or sartov attaching it to the bottom of the sea, rivers or the mouth, so that it may float or be raised on a barge with a crane or towed as a floating vessel to a base on the shore for maintenance or repairs. This unit can then be replaced and left in place to continue to produce energy.

Providing additional funds for full or partial blocking of the space under the supporting surface, so that the water is completely or partially could not proceed under it; the result will be additional acceleration of the flow of water through the top flat surface and through the rotor (the rotor) of the turbine, thus increasing the power produced by the system. The preferred embodiment is to apply the lock to the greater part of the space between the seabed and the bottom side of a flat surface, but to leave a relatively narrow vertical passage directly below the planar surface in order to allow the festival is whether clean the thread directly under it; thus, any turbulent boundary layer flowing along the bottom of the sea, rivers or the mouth may be cut off below the planar surface through the above period to maintain flow through the top as far as possible free from turbulence.

Providing optional additional streamlined flat cryoablate element, which can be located above the level of the turbines (turbines), supported sleek, vertical, or nearly vertical posts, and having a similar rectangular flat shape with the first reference element, as described earlier. This device will be configured in many respects similar to the multi-engine biplanar aircraft with power blocks, in this case the turbines, located between the "wings". The above-mentioned second set of flat elements deployed between the turbines may be substituted alternative aforementioned optional streamlined flat rylaarsdam element, which may be supported above the level of the turbines (turbines).

When the optional streamlined flat cryoablate element is mounted above the level of the turbine (turbine)above the second upper wing can be installed additional number of turbines for the formation of two rows of turbines.

In short, there may be one, two or three obtekaemosti surface, located in a horizontal plane across the flow of current in the "monoplane", "biplane", and "triplanar" designs. Advantages and challenges biplanar or triplanar structures are partially improved structural strength, and also partially in education streamlined cryoablate elements so that the flow through the rotor (the rotor) of the turbine becomes more homogeneous (i.e. with less speed shift on the vertical height of the rotors), and in some cases can be expedited so that the supporting wings effectively perform the role of stream manipulators that increase the energy flow through a given cross section of the rotor (rotor).

From the foregoing it is clear that the main aspect of the invention is the use of a streamlined flat surface or deck, mounted in the water column in order to maintain the number of turbines driven by water flow, located across the direction of flow, so streamlined flat surface plays the role of structural supports for hydraulic turbines (turbines), and it may also be a pop-up, so that it may float to the surface, to provide access to the turbine (turbines)located on its upper surface. The streamlined form a flat surface such that it improves the uniformity of the flow is through the rotor (the rotor) of the turbine and may in some cases increase the local velocity through the rotor (the rotor) to improve PTO for the specified area of the rotor.

In figures 2A and 2B shows a side/end and front views of how the platform or deck 1, such as shown in figure 1, can be raised to the surface, through its ascent, and, for example, by unwinding the cables, chains or ropes 5 from every angle, which is firmly attached to the fundamental pillars 2. This process can be done in reverse order by lowering down the platform or deck 1 through the winding of cables, chains or ropes 5 up until 1 DECA will not come back into contact with the supports 2, installed on the seabed. An integral component of this embodiment of the support structure is that the platform or deck 1, the bearing of the turbine 3 may in some way be able to float or be mechanically raised to the surface to provide access to the turbines for maintenance, repair or replacement without the need for underwater intervention.

In figures 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D shows the end/side and front views of the embodiment of the supporting structure, which can be regarded as a variant of the embodiment of Figures 1A, 1B and 1C, a variant where the deck or platform 1 is installed in a constantly floating condition and held in place as when submerged and on the surface, by means of a tie rod tension sartov 5, attached to suitable fasteners 6, built is whether connected by an anchor in the bottom of the sea or river, to be able to resist emerged lifting forces.

In figures 4A, 4B and figures 5A, 5B shown (view from the side and front view respectively of another embodiment of the support structure, where instead of using a stretchable elastic chains, cables, or ropes, the platform 1 is connected with two, four (as shown) (or other variety) legs 7, which are built into the bottom of the sea or river SB, and which protrude above the water surface WL, so that the feet guide the vertical movement of the platform or deck, the carrier turbine (turbine) by suitable sliding sleeves or other fasteners 8 capable to move vertically relative to the legs 7 and attached to the above-mentioned legs.

You can see that the upper part of the legs 7 (as shown in figures 4A, 4B and 5A, 5B), which guide the vertical movement of the platform or deck, the bearing of the turbine, may not necessarily be narrowed to reduce their braking current, as shown (so that the cross-section of the upper part of the stem when viewed from above, is an ellipse). It should also be noted that the legs are located between the turbine rotors, so that their tracks when stream flows will not affect the rotors or at least the interaction between the rotors and the traces is minimized. This is the preferred location is the group of this is clearly shown in figures 5A and 5B.

In figures 6A and 6B are presented respectively an isometric view and a front view relative to the direction of flow WF water design "bilanenko" type, where the second trilobita platform or deck 9 is placed between turbines 3 at the level of the Central line of the rotor 3A turbines, to improve the structural integrity of the Assembly. This design is comparable to "monoplane" design isometric view of figure 1A, where the individual turbine rotors installed on individual cantilever legs without any side connection.

Figure 7A shows an alternative "biplanar" design, where the second streamlined flat platform 10 is installed directly above the turbines on the extensions 11 of their vertical support legs 4. As already mentioned, figure 7A is an isometric view in perspective, while in figures 7B and 7C respectively shown end/side and front views in the direction of the flow WF currents. This construction serves to increase the structural strength of the whole Assembly and can allow her to have a greater distance between its support 2, so as to accommodate either a larger number of turbines or turbine 3 are larger in size. Moreover, the effect is facing upward convex lower bearing surface of the platform 1 and reversed down the convex surface of the upper platform 10 is similar to the Venturi (see end view in figure 7B) and will force the flow through the rotor to accelerate compared with the flow further downstream from the rotor. This will improve the selection of energy captured by the unit area of the rotors, allowing you to use smaller rotors for a given power output than would be necessary otherwise.

In figures 8A, 8B and 8C depict an embodiment of the support structure, combining sentences with figure 6 and figure 7, Yves essence it is a "triplanar" design with three cilobradine platforms, the support platform 1, the intermediate platform 9 at the level of the turbine rotors 3A (figures 6A, 6B and 6C) and the upper platform 10 (figures 7A, 7B and 7C). The main advantage of this design is the large structural strength, but at the cost of greater resistance and greater intersection of the track with the rotors. However, the above-mentioned Venturi effect will compensate for all this.

In the structures of figures 7A, 7B, 7C and figures 8A, 8B, 8C of the upper platform 10 will typically (but not necessarily) less than the length of the chord and cross-section than the lower supporting platform 1, as in the preferred embodiment, essentially as shown in the various figures 7A, 7B, 7C and figures 8A, 8B, 8C.

It is also possible to add another set of turbines on the top wing in areas with suitable water depth. In fact, perhaps as many rows of turbines, how much can be absorbed by the depth of the water column in relation to their diameter, even though that site is titanium embodiment in most cases will be one row, since it simplifies access for maintenance, and requires the most simple structural adaptations. Multilayer option is not shown.

Such lifting devices shown in the group of figures 2, 3, 4 and 5, may also be used for "biplane" and "triplanar" configurations shown in the group of figures 6, 7 and 8.

In figures 9A and 9B schematically shows an embodiment that includes one flat surface or deck 1 supported by legs 2, which includes lifting columns 2A, the same principles can be equally applied to configurations with biplanar" and "triplanar" constructions, such as shown in the group of figures 6, 7 and 8.

In figure 9A (in the form of the front relative to the direction of flow WF) schematically shows a system 1 reference platforms/decks down and working, while figure 9B shows a system platform/deck, raised to the surface for maintenance. These figures shows an embodiment in which a flat surface, platform or deck 1, can carry a lot of turbines 3, and in this case it is supported so that it does not necessarily depend on the ability of the latter to rise, and are provided with mechanical means through the use of hydraulic lifting cylinders or electric jacks or winches (not shown) for poznati the entire Assembly deck together with a number of turbines to the surface. The ability of the floating platform 1 can be used to facilitate recovery and thus reduce the necessary lifting forces. It should be understood that these figures 9A and 9B clearly shows that various methods can be applied for lifting a flat surface or deck, which supports the turbine. It should be noted that in the embodiment shown in figures 9A and 9B, lifting columns protrude above the water level all the time, and they are connected by a horizontal structural element, which is an optional Supplement.

Figures 10A and 10B are schematic views in cross section through the main supporting platform or deck 1 with figure 1 or figure 6 (and as shown in all other previous figures). Although the preceding figures of the supporting platform or deck was shown as being symmetrical, streamlined elliptical cross-section or profile, for example, figure 10A shows an optional asymmetric cross-section, which is more convex on the underside than on the upper side. The upper side may be slightly concave as in the drawing, but the same principle will be applied, if the upper side or flat, or less convex than the lower side. The figure 10 shows the asymmetric cross section of the platform or deck, in which the upper is thoron more convex, than the lower side.

In figures 10A and 10B shows the flow of water above and below the platform or deck lines wrap, which will follow any particle in the column of flowing water.

On both figures, the cross section "a-a" at the top and left of the platform 1, the flow profile or the velocity gradient through the water column typical for a smooth flow in the tidal flow into the sea, river or estuary, where most rapidly flowing water is in the upper 50% of the flow and where, as a rule, the exponential decrease in speed occurs in the lower 50% of the flow, reaching zero where the water is in direct contact with the bottom (the speed shown on the figure by a long arrow, where each line wrapping crosses this cross-section).

The velocity profile through the water column is shown as profile "BB", showing that the water is already influenced by the presence of obstacles formed by the shaped platform; the flow of water will begin to deviate upwards from any obstacles.

Similarly, the velocity profiles in the section "SS" shows the approximate velocity distribution directly above and below the platform or deck at the position where the turbine (3). In essence, the profile BB ' are intermediate between profiles "AA" and "CC".

In figures 10A and 10B shows a well-known effect, which is foreseen from the laws of continuity in fluid dynamics, in accordance with which the flow will accelerate, if he needs to take a longer path, or if the cross-section, through which it flows smoothly decreases, and Vice versa. From here the line wrapping are compressed together and the flow is accelerated on the more convex side of a streamlined asymmetrical platform or deck, and the flow slows down and line wrapping tend to be distributed more widely from each other on the less convex side or concave side. It is actually like a thread through the wing or hydrocrane and the accompanying effect, which is also well known, is that fast-moving fluid causes a pressure decrease, while the slower moving fluid causes a relative increase in pressure. The resulting pressure difference across a streamlined platform similar to the effect of gidroksila or wing and produces a force at right angles to the direction of flow, which effectively Lifting force is denoted by "L" in figures 10A and 10B. Drag force D is much smaller than the lifting force L, will also be produced in the flow direction. The supporting structure or tension swarthy must resist these forces.

In figures 10A and 10B shows that the effect of asymmetrically shaped supporting platform or deck is to produce a thoroughly homogeneous flux is and on its upper surface, which will be slightly faster than in the case of free flow (as shown in position "AA"), in the case when the convex surface is located at the top (see figure 10B), and slightly slower compared with the case of free flow, when most convex side is on the bottom (see figure 10A).

By placing the rotors of the turbine in the space above asymmetric supporting platform or deck (as shown schematically in figures 10A and 10B), it is possible to make the flow through the rotors more homogeneous (that is primary from the point of view of both the efficiency and minimize wear and tear on the rotors). It is also possible to either increase or decrease the speed of the free stream on a small, but potentially useful quantity, whichever is whether the maximum bulge face up or down. This is also partly achieved by the passage of a turbulent boundary layer, which occurs directly above the bottom of the current flow of water, as far as possible from the bottom and out of the way of the rotors of the turbine (figures 10A and 10B). The boundary layer is subjected to turbulence when the flow intersects with the bottom of the sea or rivers, and in some cases, if it is uneven or there is no uniformity, the boundary layer can be quite thick and may cause loss of performance and in Sogno to harm the bottom of the turbine rotors, if they pass through this area extremely perturbed flow.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the lifting force generated asymmetric supporting platform or deck, can be used to improve its stability; in the case of figure 10A, the platform may be placed on supports compression (or legs) and downward force L will lead to the provision of additional lower links for durable retention of the platform supports. In the case of figure 10B supporting platform or deck may be floating and held in position by tension smartapi and lifting force acting upwards, will seek to stabilize the platform by adding the effect of ascent required to maintain tension in swarth. As the lift force and drag force will be proportional to the square of the flow velocity, they will tend to stabilize the system with much greater force in stronger currents, and the components of lift and drag will tend to be proportional.

Figure 10C shows a modification of the embodiment shown in figure 10B, where the space under the supporting platform or deck is almost completely blocked by an obstacle, provided for this purpose and marked "XX". You can see that the effect of this is forcing more cestitka water column at the point of "AA" to rise and pass through the reduced height of the water columns in "SS", where the turbine rotors. The convex upper side of the platform is such that the flow on the upper part of uniform and accelerated. A small amount of water may not leak out under this platform, as shown in figure 10B, through the groove or grooves 12 above obstacles "XX" and directly under the platform. This is done, firstly, to prevent the intersection of turbulent boundary layer flow over the top; mostly small stream seeping from below, limits the height of the boundary layer by percolation of the main smooth the current flow under the platform.

The advantage of using the embodiment of figure 11 is not only that it leads to more uniform and less turbulent flow through the turbines, and that there is a significant flow acceleration, which allows you to get more power from smaller turbines.

1. Turbine installation, which is driven by the water to generate power from the column of water stream containing a rectangular deck streamlined cross-section, having upper and lower surfaces and leading and trailing edges relative to the direction of water flow, at least one turbine and turbine Assembly upward from the upper deck surface, and a support for the deck, always placed at the bottom of the water column that is they way what DECA limits when installing bearing vertical space between the bottom surface of the deck and the bottom of water, and including means for implementing vertical movement of the deck relative to the support means so that the deck had the opportunity to move from its operating position to the raised position, in which each turbine Assembly is available on the surface of the water column.

2. Turbine installation according to claim 1, which contains the tool, partially blocking the space formed when the deck is in its working position, so that the water flow faster over the top surface of the deck.

3. Turbine installation according to claim 2, in which the blocking additional space is such that the path of water flow passes directly under the deck below the surface to reduce turbulence of the water directly under the deck below the surface in conjunction with the acceleration of water flow on the upper surface of the deck.

4. Turbine installation according to claim 2 or 3, which plots the leading and trailing edges rounded deck.

5. Turbine installation according to claim 4, in which the upper and lower deck surface have different curvature.

6. Turbine installation according to claim 5, in which the upper surface of the deck has greater convexity than the bottom surface of the deck.

7. Turbine installation according to claim 6, in which toroi the bottom surface is planar or concave.

8. Turbine installation according to claim 1, which contains at least one additional deck streamlined cross-section, located in the "biplane" or "triplanar" form relative to the first deck.

9. Turbine installation according to claim 8, in which each additional deck is rectangular deck having sites with rounded leading and trailing edges.

10. Turbine installation according to claim 2, in which the water is able to flow under the deck, sufficient to prevent rejection of a turbulent boundary layer, rising from the water flow relative to the deck above the surface of the top deck.



 

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