Method of producing modified gum-arabic

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to the method of producing modified gum-arabic, used as an emulsifying agent in food and pharmaceutical industry. Description is given of the method of producing modified gum-arabic, as well as an emulsifying agent and emulsion based on it. The method of producing modified gum-arabic involves a stage where gum-arabic is heated such that, loss of moisture does not exceed 3%, or heating gum-arabic in dry conditions such that, loss of moisture does not exceed 3%. The average diameter of gum-arabic particles to undergo thermal treatment does not exceed 1.5mm.

EFFECT: obtained gum-arabic has high emulsifying power.

14 cl, 6 dwg, 7 tbl, 4 ex

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to a method for producing modified gum Arabic. The invention in particular relates to a method for producing gum Arabic, with excellent emulsifying properties, the method prevents the color change and sintering of gum Arabic. In addition, the present invention relates to gum Arabic (hereinafter referred to as the modified gum Arabic"), obtained in a way that ensures the gum Arabic enhanced emulsifying capacity and devoid of defects such as color change and the like, and also relates to the use of gum Arabic.

The level of technology

Gum Arabic is a natural polymer that has good emulsifying properties and low viscosity even in highly concentrated solutions, and owing to the above properties of gum Arabic is widely used as an emulsifier in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, it is known that natural gum Arabic, if it is used without treatment, does not have satisfactory emulsifying properties.

Gum Arabic is collected in different African countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and it has a different molecular weight and contains various components, due to differences in soil and climate for each ostego distribution and due to differences in the age of the trees, which are a source of gum Arabic. For this reason, properties of gum Arabic in its natural state, obtained from different parts of its distribution, heterogeneous, and therefore the properties of food consumption, employ similar gum Arabic, unstable (Williams, P.A. and Phillips, G.O. (2000), Handbook of Hydrocolloids, pp. 155-168, Editors: Williams, P.A. and Phillips, G.O., Woodhead, London and New York). In the present description is similar to gum Arabic denote simply as "gum Arabic" or "natural gum Arabic, or gum Arabic (unmodified)", unlike "modified gum Arabic, according to this invention.

To solve these problems was proposed and investigated a number of ways, with the goal as much as possible to reduce variations in emulsifying capacity between product batches that can be attributed to variations in the properties of gum Arabic (unmodified), and to improve emulsifying ability. For example, one method involves the removal of gum Arabic metal ions, with the aim of obtaining arabekova acid, which is subjected to thermal modification for improvement (modification) its emulsifying ability (published patent application of Japan No. 1990-49001), and the other way is modified gum Arabic, shrinkage is not more than 50 wt. -%, by heating gum Arabic in the interval is emperatur from the 60° With up to 140°C for at least 30 min in order to improve (modify) its emulsifying ability (published patent application of Japan No. 2000-166489).

However, these methods have disadvantages, namely, that in the process of heating gum Arabic darkens, melts and coalesces with the formation of syrupy mass or charred. Darkened gum Arabic causes serious problems when it is used as emulsifier, in particular in products for which important appearance, such as food products, cosmetics, etc. in Addition, when the melting gum Arabic it sticks to the walls of the vessel, which complicates the separation of the gum Arabic. Moreover, if there is a syrupy mass, gum Arabic, it is difficult to expose the pulverizing to obtain a powder, which is used as an emulsifier, and he hardly soluble in water. When charring gum Arabic are usually issues such as the allocation of smell, the formation of insoluble substances, such as charcoal, and blackening solutions of gum Arabic.

In addition to the above documents relating to the modification of gum Arabic, documents relating gum Arabic, include WO 02/072862, laid claim to the Japan patent No. 1983-183701, "Mikio Nakamura,PharmaceuticsVol. 42, No.1 (1982) pp. 25-29" and "Carbohydrate Research , 246 (1993) pp. 303-318".

The invention

The purpose of the present invention is to mitigate or solve the above problems and to suggest a method of obtaining modified gum Arabic in order to improve its emulsifying ability. In particular, an object of the present invention is effective way to improve the emulsifying ability of gum Arabic and method for producing modified gum Arabic, which would have a high emulsifying ability and did not cause the problems associated with the formation of a syrupy mass, did not stick to the walls of the vessel and was not charred.

Another object of the present invention is obtained in this way gum Arabic having good emulsifying ability, as well as the application of the above gum Arabic as emulsifier.

The authors of the present invention conducted intensive studies to overcome the above problems and found that the above objectives are achieved, if the subject gum Arabic heat treatment in dry conditions.

The present invention is based on the results. The present invention encompasses the following aspects.

Paragraph 1. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic, including stage heating gum Arabic in dry conditions.

Pun is t 2. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic, including stage heating gum Arabic so that shrinkage will not exceed 3%.

Item 3. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to paragraphs 1 or 2, in which gum Arabic is heated at a temperature of from 90°to 180°C.

Item 4. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to any one of items 1-3, including the stage of drying of gum Arabic as long as the shrinkage will not be less than 3%, and the stage of further heating the dried gum Arabic.

Paragraph 5. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to any one of items 1-4, in which gum Arabic is heated under reduced pressure.

Item 6. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to any one of items 1 to 5, in which the average particle diameter of gum Arabic, which is subjected to processing, does not exceed 1,5 mm

Item 7. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to any one of items 1-6, in which gum Arabic before processing is subjected to spray drying.

Item 8. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to any one of items 1-7, in which the color change of the modified gum Arabic is suppressed, and emulsifying power is increased.

Item 9. The modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to any of paragraphs 1-8.

Paragraph 10. Emolga the PRS, containing as active ingredient a modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to any of paragraphs 1-8.

Paragraph 11. The production method of the emulsion in which the emulsifier used a modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to any of paragraphs 1-8.

Item 12. The production method of the emulsion according to item 11, where the emulsion is an emulsion type O/W (oil-in-water) or W/O/W (water-oil-water), which as dispersoid contains at least one hydrophobic substance selected from the group comprising essential oils, fragrance oil-based dyes are oil-based, fat-soluble vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, animal oils, vegetable oils, acetate-isobutyrate sucrose and triglycerides of medium chain length.

Paragraph 13. The emulsion obtained by the method according to item 11 or 12.

Paragraph 14. The emulsion according to item 13, which represents an emulsion type O/W or W/O/W, which as dispersoid contains at least one hydrophobic substance selected from the group comprising essential oils, fragrance oil-based dyes are oil-based, fat-soluble vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, animal oils, vegetable oils, acetate-isobutyrate sucrose and triglycerides of medium chain length.

Paragraph 15. The use of Modific is checked gum Arabic, obtained by the method according to any of items 1-8, for the preparation of emulsifier.

Paragraph 16. The modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to any of items 1-8, for the preparation of the emulsion.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a chromatogram showing the results of the analysis of gum Arabic (unmodified) (Acacia senegal) using GPC-MALLS (gel permeation chromatography registration method multiple-angle laser light scattering). On the chromatogram (RI-chart), obtained using the detector according to the refractive index, the point at which RI-chart begins to increase relative to the baseline of the chromatogram, designated as a "starting point"and the point RI-chart subsides and comes into contact with the base line, designated as "end-point". Point between the start point and the end point at which the RI-value is the minimum designated as the boundary, and the area between the starting point and the boundary is designated as "Peak 1"and the area between the border and the end point is marked as the "Peak 2".

Figure 2 shows the relationship between heating time (from 1 to 8 hours at a temperature of 125°and shrinkage (%) for each of the samples obtained in the conditions 1 to 3 in experimental example 1.

Figure 3 shows the dependence between Eminem heating (from 1 to 8 hours at a temperature of 125° With and the degree of color change for each of the samples obtained in the conditions 1 to 3 in experimental example 1.

Figure 4 shows the relationship between shrinkage (%) by heating at a temperature of 125°and particle diameters (mm) for the following samples from 1) to 4), obtained in accordance with experimental example 2.

Sample 1): Balls of gum Arabic, unground (particle diameter from 2 mm to 100 mm, average particle diameter 30 mm).

Sample 2: Balls of gum Arabic coarse (particle diameter from 0.5 mm to 15 mm, average particle diameter 6 mm).

Sample 3): Crushed balls of gum Arabic (particle diameter from 0.1 mm to 2 mm, average particle diameter 1.5 mm).

Sample 4): Balls of gum Arabic fine grinding (particle diameter from 0.038 mm to 0.5 mm, average particle diameter 0,083 mm (83 μm)).

Figure 5 shows the relationship between the degree of color change and particle diameter (mm), when each of the above samples 1 to 4)obtained in accordance with experimental example 2, heated to 125°C.

Figure 6 shows the relationship between the increase in the degree of emulsifying ability (average particle diameter of the emulsion (average diameter) (μm)and the diameter of the particles of gum Arabic, when each of the above samples 1 to 4)obtained in accordance with experimental example 2, heated to 15° C.

Best mode for carrying out the present invention

(1) a Method of obtaining modified gum Arabic

The present invention relates to a method for production of gum Arabic with enhanced emulsifying capacity, the method does not cause problems such as color change, etc. in Other words, the present invention relates to a method of modifying gum Arabic, with the aim of improving its emulsifying ability to avoid problems such as color change, etc. Thus, the present invention can be called the "method of modifying gum Arabic", "method of increasing the emulsifying ability of gum Arabic or a method of suppressing color change when modifying (increasing emulsifying ability), gum Arabic".

The method according to the present invention can be accomplished by heating gum Arabic in dry conditions.

In the method according to the present invention, the gum Arabic (unmodified), which is to be subjected to modification (original gum Arabic), is a natural exudate obtained from the stems and branchesAcacia senegalorAcacia seyalthe genus acacia trees of the legume family, or any other plants belonging to the same genus. As gum Arabic (unmodified) you can also use gummie the abik, which is obtained by exposing the natural exudate processing, such as purification, desalination, spraying, spray drying, etc.

Unmodified gum Arabic (Acacia senegalmanufactured in North and West Africa from Ethiopia to Senegal (in particular, in Ethiopia, Sudan, Senegal, Nigeria, Niger and Ghana), East Africa such as Kenya and Uganda, in the Sahara region in Africa and in the pool tributaries of the Nile, however, the place of production of unmodified gum Arabic is not restricted by them. In accordance with the present invention, may be any unmodified gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) regardless of its origin.

In addition, gum Arabic (unmodified) is not limited by the presence of moisture. The moisture content of the gum Arabic (unmodified), in the form in which it usually comes from commercial sources, decreases during drying when heated to 105°C for 6 h (shrinkage) not more than 30 wt. -%, preferably not more than 20 wt. -%, more preferably not more than 15% of the mass. In accordance with the present invention, can be selected and used any gum Arabic (unmodified), which has a specified moisture content (shrinkage).

Gum Arabic (unmodified) available in such forms like cubes, balls, powders GRU is on grinding, granules, pellets and powders, and in accordance with the present invention without limitation can be used unmodified gum Arabic in any form. Taking into account the need to obtain a modified gum Arabic (gum Arabic with enhanced emulsifying capacity) within a short time of the process and the suppression of discoloration, gum Arabic is preferred with an average particle diameter of not more than 1.5 mm, and more preferable is gum Arabic with an average particle diameter of not more than 1 mm, Even more preferred average particle diameter is not more than 0.5 mm and most preferred average particle diameter is not more than 0.2 mm, for Example, preferred are powders coarse powder fine grinding, granules, pellets and powders, which have an average particle diameter in the range from 0.01 mm to 0.2 mm, and the powder fine grinding, which have an average particle diameter in the range from several tens of micrometers to several hundred micrometers (including fine powders obtained by spray drying).

In the present invention, the "average particle diameter" means a diameter, measured using a screening method (JIS Z 8815 (1994))" (dry method). In particular, the method includes a stage of a choice of eight test is it (JIS Z 8801 (1994)" with different size holes, hosting sit one above the other in a descending order of the size of the holes, while the sieve with the largest size of the holes is at the top, and the sieve with the smallest size of the holes is at the bottom, placing a weighed amount of the sample of gum Arabic (20 g), the measurement is done in the top sieve, shaking sieves the following conditions and then measuring the weight of the accumulated weight after sieving) of the sample remaining on each sieve. The obtained values are used to build a semi-log curve, while the ordinate delay values accumulated mass (%)and the abscissa lay the logarithm of the size of the holes (mm) each sieve, and get a line logarithmic approximation and the approximation formula for the size of the sieve mesh and the accumulated mass. Then, using the approximation formula calculate the size of the holes of a sieve, sifting through which the accumulated mass was 50% of the total number (20 g) of the sample to determine the average diameter of particles in the sample.

<shaking>

Tammy: Automatic sieve MRK-RETAC (manufacturer - the company Mitamura Riken Kogyo Inc.)

The period of shaking: 15 min

Scale amplitude: 70

For heating gum Arabic (unmodified) can be used by any heating method, if only gum Arabic (unmodified) was heated in the which conditions, as specified above. It should be noted that the method of heating gum Arabic (unmodified) in dry conditions" includes (1) a method of heating gum Arabic (unmodified) before drying, i.e. the method of simultaneous heating and drying of gum Arabic, and (2) a method of heating gum Arabic in the dry state. The present invention includes both the method (1)and method (2).

In the present description the extent to which the dried gum Arabic, can be estimated on the basis of the shrinkage of the gum Arabic. The term "shrinkage"as used in the present description, refers to the amount of lost moisture (% wt.), when the target gum Arabic is dried by heating at a temperature of 105°C for 6 hours, and it is usually used as an indicator of the moisture content of the gum Arabic, in other words, the degree of dryness of gum Arabic. Shrinkage of the gum Arabic is preferably not more than 3%. The fact that the shrinkage of the gum Arabic is not more than 3%, means that the moisture content of the gum Arabic is reduced by no more than 3% of the mass. in the drying process target of gum Arabic when heated at a temperature of 105°C for 6 hours, if you take a lot of gum Arabic to heat at 100%. In other words, the moisture content in the target gum Arabic (the amount of moisture lost by heating at a temperature of 105°C for 6 h) does not exceed 3% of the mass. regarding the sustained fashion 100% of the mass. the target of gum Arabic. Shrinkage of the gum Arabic is preferably not more than 1% and even more preferably is not more than 0.3%.

In particular, the method of heating gum Arabic (unmodified) in dry conditions, in accordance with the present invention includes the following methods (1) and (2). Method (1) is heated gum Arabic (unmodified) so that shrinkage amounted to no more than 3%, preferably not more than 1% and even more preferably not more than 0.3%, as described above. We can say that the method (1) is a method of heating gum Arabic (unmodified) and its drying up until the shrinkage will not fall in the above range. Method (2) is pre-dried gum Arabic (unmodified) so that shrinkage amounted to no more than 3%, preferably not more than 1% and even more preferably not more than 0.3%, and then heating the dried specified gum Arabic.

There are no restrictions on the implementation of the above methods, only would abide by the above conditions. Thus, examples of the method (1) include a method of heating gum Arabic (unmodified) under reduced pressure, a method of heating gum Arabic (unmodified) at a low humidity or dry conditions and others the ways. It should be noted that the method according to the present invention includes methods of heating gum Arabic (unmodified) under normal pressure or under conditions of normal humidity so that the shrinkage of the gum Arabic (unmodified) did not exceed 3%. However, such methods of heating gum Arabic at normal pressure or under conditions of normal humidity so that the shrinkage of the gum Arabic did not exceed 3%, can cause problems such as discoloration, as gum Arabic (unmodified) with a high content of moisture is subjected to prolonged heat treatment. With that said, the heating process is preferably carried out in the above-mentioned conditions of low pressure, low humidity or dry conditions.

In the method of heating under reduced pressure is applied to any "conditions of reduced pressure", if only gum Arabic (unmodified) could be dried so that the shrinkage of the gum Arabic (unmodified) preferably amounted to no more than 3%, more preferably not more than 1% and most preferably not more than 0.3% of the mass. In the General case, the pressure is preferably about 0.4 ATM (about 40530 PA), more preferably approximately 0.07 ATM (about 7093 PA), and even more preferably is at listello 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA).

The process of heating under the above conditions of reduced pressure can be performed by placing the target gum Arabic (unmodified) in an airtight container, connected to the line of low pressure from the vacuum Chuck or a vacuum pump, or similar container, and then heating the contents of the container with stirring under reduced pressure. This heating process can be performed, for example, simply by heating gum Arabic when rotating on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The examples used in industrial installations include ovens operating at reduced pressure, and vacuum drying ovens. In these installations, the pressure inside the container can be lowered by using a vacuum Chuck, vacuum pump, etc. and can uniformly mix the contents of the container by means of a propeller, etc. the unit can be provided with a device capable of heating the contents by steam in the jacket, available in the outer part of the container that allows for simultaneously and stage modification of gum Arabic of the present invention, such as drying (moisture removal), mixing and heating. After completion of the heating process above setting mixes the contents when cooled by flowing water through shirt, available in the external hour and container, that provides rapid cooling of gum Arabic, modified as specified.

Specific examples of such installations include RIBOCONE (conical vacuum dryer ribbon (type RM-VD): is manufactured by OKAWARA MFG. COM CO., LTD.), vacuum dryer, Nauta Mixer NXV (manufacturer - the company HOSOKAWAMICRON CORPORATION), planetary bevel mix dryer SV (manufacturer - the company Shinko Pantec Co., Ltd.) etc.

In the method of heating at a low humidity or dry conditions can be used any "conditions of low humidity or dry conditions", if only gum Arabic (unmodified) could be dried so that the shrinkage of the gum Arabic (unmodified) preferably amounted to no more than 3%, more preferably not more than 1% and most preferably not more than 0.3% of the mass.

Temperature, which is chosen in the above methods, is not limited and may, for example, be from 90°to 180°C, preferably from 100°to 150°and more preferably from 110°to 140°C. In the case when the temperature exceeds 180°even a short time, the heat causes excessive discoloration or charring, and in that case, when the temperature is 90°With or less, although this does not occur such problems, for modifying gum Arabic, with the aim of improving it, the emulsifying ability, requires prolonged heating, and thus, the gum Arabic is impossible to modify in a short time. A suitable heating time varies depending on the heating temperature, and may, for example, be from about 5 hours to about 48 hours at 100°With from about 1 hour to about 8 hours at 125°and from about 15 minutes to about 2 hours at 150°C. the Selected heating time can be easily set depending on the degree of modification of gum Arabic, for example, improve the degree of emulsifying ability of gum Arabic and change (the degree of suppression of change) appearance, in particular, change colors, etc.

An example of the above method (2) is a process involving preliminary drying of gum Arabic (unmodified) so that shrinkage is preferably amounted to no more than 3%, more preferably not more than 1% and most preferably not more than 0.3 wt%, and the stage of further heating the dried gum Arabic. In the specified way, there are no restrictions in the method of pre-drying and gum Arabic, for example, can be dried by keeping thermostat. However, it is preferable to dry the gum Arabic by heating under reduced pressure in order for a shorter time to get modificarea the hydrated gum Arabic, color is not changed.

The temperature that you want to use in the drying process, is not limited. The drying process may be performed under conditions of cooling, heating, or heating, if only the process was able to effectively dried gum Arabic and does not adversely impact on the purpose and usefulness of the present invention, i.e. produces the modified gum Arabic whose color does not change and which has improved emulsifying ability. Such drying processes are not limited, and as preferred examples of the drying of the gum Arabic (unmodified) at a temperature of not more than 100°With under reduced pressure (for example, at approximately 0.07 ATM (about 7093 PA) or less and preferably approximately 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA) or less. Note that it is preferable to have a method of drying of gum Arabic at a temperature of from 40°to 90°C for from about 10 minutes to about 1 hour under reduced pressure (for example, at approximately 0.07 ATM (about 7093 PA) or less and preferably approximately 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA) or less.

The temperature of the heating in the method (2) is not limited and may be the same as in method (1), i.e. between 90°to 180°C, pre is respectfully from 100° With up to 150°and more preferably from 110°to 140°C. humidity Conditions for the heating process are not limited, and preferred are the conditions of reduced pressure or low humidity conditions (low humidity), in which is supported a dry state.

The time of heating, which is used in the method according to the present invention is not limited, as it depends on the heating temperature. As examples, heated for from about 5 hours to about 48 hours at 100°C, for from about 1 hour to about 8 hours at 125°and within approximately 15 minutes to approximately 2 hours at 150°C. Estimated time of heating can be easily installed into account the degree of modification of gum Arabic, for example, improve the degree of emulsifying ability of gum Arabic and change (the degree of suppression of change) appearance, in particular, change colors, etc.

In accordance with heat treatment in the above conditions emulsifying capacity target of gum Arabic can be effectively improved in a short time, while significantly suppressed the color change.

As in method (1)and method (2), at least a heat treatment can be done in a non-oxidizing conditions or in conditions of iskai oxygen concentration, such as conditions where oxygen is replaced by nitrogen. Thermal processing can further suppress the change in color of the obtained gum Arabic.

According to the method of the present invention can be obtained and produce gum Arabic, modified so that it has a high emulsifying capacity in comparison with gum Arabic (unmodified), which is used as the starting material. In addition, according to the method of the present invention can be obtained and producing modified gum Arabic, emulsifying ability which is superior and which has significantly reduced problems such as change in color, smell, sintering, etc. that hinder recycling and preventing the use of gum Arabic together with other substances as additives.

The modified gum Arabic obtained in accordance with the method of the present invention, suitable additives such as an emulsifier, and the like, in particular, when used in products where color or odor may be objectionable, such as food products, perfumery, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, quasilocality etc. Thus, the method of obtaining the modified gum Arabic of the present invention, in addition to the above stage heating may vkljutsaju preparation of modified gum Arabic in the desired or appropriate state (composition or form) thus, to the modified gum Arabic can be used as an additive such as an emulsifier, to various products, such as foods, perfumery, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, quasilocality etc.

(2) a Method of producing emulsifier and the preparation of the emulsion

The modified gum Arabic obtained in accordance with the above method can easily be distinguished from untreated gum Arabic (unmodified) on its high emulsifying ability. Emulsifying ability of the modified gum Arabic is preferably such that in the preparation of emulsions with the use of the average diameter of the particles or droplets (dispersed phase)of the emulsion is less than 1 μm and preferably not greater than 0.8 μm. The method of preparation of the emulsion of the comparison, which is used to assess emulsifying ability, and a method of measuring the average particle diameter can be realized in accordance with the methodology described in experimental example 1(3), which is described below.

The modified gum Arabic of the present invention suitable for use as an emulsifier in food, pharmaceuticals, quasilegal and cosmetics and, in particular, for products that are taken orally. More specifically, the mod is fitsirovannye gum Arabic of the present invention suitable for use as an emulsifier to emulsify food such as drinks, powdered drinks, desserts, chewing gum, sweets in the form of pellets, sweet snacks, processed fish products, processed animal products, processed foods, etc.; as coatings for tablets and other products; as a flavoring oil-based; as dyes, oil-based, etc. of the Above modified gum Arabic itself can be used as an emulsifier in the form of a solution, granules or powder; however, if you want, you can also cook it in the form of emulsifier by adding other carriers and/or additives in accordance with the usual the practice of using in the above areas. In this case, use media and supplements, you can easily choose the usual way, depending on the type and application of emulsifiable product. For example, the modified gum Arabic may be added together with dextrin, maltose, lactose and similar sugars or glycerin, propylene glycol and similar polyhydric alcohols.

In the present invention it is also proposed a method of preparation of the emulsion using the specified modified gum Arabic as emulsifier. The above emulsion can be prepared by dispersion and stabilization of hydrophobic compounds, which one is camping dispersoids, in the hydrophilic solvent using the above modified gum Arabic as emulsifier. Examples of emulsions in the present invention include emulsions of the type oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion of type W/O/W.

A hydrophobic substance, which emuleret in accordance with the present invention is not limited to, if only in a General case can be obtained emulsion, or it must be able to form an emulsion; however, preferred are hydrophobic substances that can be used in food, pharmaceuticals, quasilegal or flavouring substances and cosmetics, and hydrophobic substances that can be taken orally.

Specific examples include essential oils derived from plant sources, such as citrus plants, such as orange, lime, lemon, grapefruit, etc.; balms obtained by gum process from vegetable sources, such as pepper, cinnamon, ginger, etc.; fragrant the basis of colors obtained by the gum process from vegetable sources, such as Jasmine, rose, etc.; fragrance oil-based, such as a synthetic fragrance oil-based and mixture of flavors oil based and so on; the dyes are oil-based, such as β-carotene, Kras is tel red pepper, lycopene, palm oil, carotene, carotene Donalliella, carotene carrots, etc.; fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A, D, E and K; polybasic unsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid, eicosapentanoic acid, γ-linolenic acid, etc.; animal and vegetable fats and oils, such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil and fish oil; SAIB (acetate-isobutyrate pulp), oils exuded from the food product, such as6-C12triglycerides medium chain length and optional mixtures of such substances on the basis of edible oils.

The method of preparation of the emulsion using the above modified gum Arabic is not limited and may include the stage of mixing a hydrophobic substance and a hydrophilic solvent in the presence of modified gum Arabic according to the standard way of producing emulsions of the type oil-in-water (O/W) or emulsions W/O/W by mechanical mixing, for example, by using a homogenizer or a system of injection of high pressure. In particular, as an example can be given the following process.

First, the modified gum Arabic dissolved in a hydrophilic solvent such as water, and, if necessary, impurities are removed using a suitable method of separation of solid and W is dcih substances, such as centrifugation or filtration using a filter press and the like, while getting an aqueous solution of gum Arabic. Target the hydrophobic substance (for example, oil or fat or a mixture obtained by dissolving flavouring or coloring matter in such oil or fat) is mixed with the obtained aqueous solution of gum Arabic with the help of a mixer for pre-emulsification. During this process, you can adjust the weight by using a means for controlling the specific gravity, such as SAIB. Obtained in this way a mixture of the pre-emulsion is then emuleret using the equipment for carrying out emulsification.

Examples of usable hydrophobic substances include such substances. However, in the case when preparing emulsified flavoring or emulsified dye using fragrance or dye oil-based, it is preferable to use a mixed solution, and the flavoring or coloring oil-based dissolved in the oil or fat in the form of a hydrophobic substance. This can further stabilize the emulsion and prevent evaporation of the components. Oils and fats, which will dissolve the specified flavoring or coloring oil-based, special is but are not limited to, typically, however, can be applied triglycerides medium chain length (triglycerides of fatty acids With6-C12or vegetable oil such as corn oil, sunflower oil and soybean oil.

The equipment for carrying out the emulsification, which can be used to carry out the emulsification is not limited and it is convenient to choose depending on the size of the target particles of the emulsion and the viscosity of the substance. You can use, for example, a high-pressure homogenizer or the equipment for emulsification, such as dispersion mill, colloid mill, etc.

As mentioned above, the emulsification can be performed by adding, in the process of dissolution, a hydrophobic substance in a hydrophilic solvent using a stirrer for preliminary emulsification, in order to obtain emulsions with particle diameters in the range from 2 μm to 5 μm, and post-processing equipment for carrying out emulsification, such as a homogenizer, with the formation of the emulsion, which is a uniform distribution of very small particles (e.g., average particle diameter not larger than 1 μm and preferably not greater than 0.8 μm).

Many dyes, including β-carotene, are in the form of crystalline suspensions. Thus, to obtain such dyes in the form of emulsi the (emulsified dye) mostly mixed and pre-dissolve the crystals of a dye substance in a suitable oil or fat at an elevated temperature, and then the obtained solution is added to the hydrophilic solvent.

Compared with the emulsion obtained using conventional gum Arabic (unmodified), the emulsion obtained using the modified gum Arabic of the present invention, has a uniform distribution of particle size and very stable, so that substantially prevents degradation of the emulsified particles due to coagulation and associations emulsified particles, which are called hard (harsh conditions), such as heating, long-term storage, change over time and so on

EXAMPLES

Further, the present invention is described in more detail by the following experimental examples and examples, but the present invention is not restricted by them.

Experimental example 1

In order to prepare samples of 300 g of gum Arabic powder spray dried gum Arabic (unmodified) (Acacia senegal) (loss of weight: 11,3%, particle diameter: from 38 μm to 300 μm, average particle diameter: 64 μm) treated in the following three different conditions. The obtained in this way samples of gum Arabic determine the amount of shrinkage (%), the degree of color change, emulsifying power [average particle diameter (average diameter) (μm)] srednevekovoy molecular weight content arabinogalactan protein content AGP (%)), smell and appearance, in accordance with the following valuation methods.

I. the Conditions 1

300 g of gum Arabic (unmodified) is placed in a 1-liter flask in the form of eggplant and heated at 125°C for from 1 to 8 hours, slowly rotating on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure (at approximately 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA)).

II. The machining conditions 2

300 g of gum Arabic (unmodified) is placed in a 1-liter flask in the form of eggplant and heated at 125°C for from 1 to 8 hours, slowly rotating on a rotary evaporator at normal pressure (1 ATM (101325 PA)).

III. The machining conditions 3

300 g of gum Arabic (unmodified) is placed in a 1-liter flask in the form of eggplant and heated at 90°C for 30 min, slowly rotating on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure (at approximately 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA)), so that shrinkage was 3.6%. Then the pressure is reduced to normal pressure, and the obtained product is additionally heated at 125°C for from 1 to 8 hours.

<evaluation Method>

(1) Shrinkage (%)

Samples of gum Arabic for measurements weighed before heating (weight A (g)), and then weighed again after heating at 105°C for 6 hours (weight (g)). The difference in weight (|B-A| (g)), the scientists subtracting the weight before heating (A (g)) from the weight after heating (g)), translated into percent (% wt.) with respect to the weight before heating (g)), taken as 100 wt%, ie [(|B-A| (g))/(g)]×100.

(2) the Degree of color change

90 g obtained by purification on ion-exchange resin water is added to 10 g of each of the measured samples of gum Arabic and mix thoroughly, getting 10% (mass.) solutions of gum Arabic in water. Each solution is placed in a quartz cuvette with an optical path length of 10 mm, conduct measurement in transmitted light using a spectrophotometer V-560 (manufacturer - the company JASCO Corp.) in the range of ultraviolet and visible light, while getting the coordinate values of the standard system of color measurement on the color gamut of the hunter (the color scheme of the company Lab) and calculated values of. These calculated values taken for the degree of color change.

(3) Emulsifying ability

74,75 g of water is added to 25 g of each sample of gum Arabic, and each mixture of 0.13 g of sodium benzoate as preservative and 0.12 g of citric acid to adjust pH, receiving 25% (mass.) aqueous solutions of gum Arabic, the pH of which is 4.0. To 48 g of each of the obtained aqueous solutions add 12 g of triglyceride medium chain triglyceride octane/decanoas acid, O.D.O. (trade name, manufacturer - the company Nisshin Oil Mill, Ltd.)). Each of the obtained mixtures was placed in a test tube with a screw stopper with a capacity of 100 ml and emuleret using emulsifier transmitter station the following following conditions, receiving emulsion.

<Conditions of emulsification in the transmitter station>

The equipment for carrying out the emulsification: transmitter station RT (manufacturer company KINEMATICA)

The diameter of the generator shaft: 12 mm

Speed: 25000 rpm

The time of emulsification: 5 min

Average particle diameter (average diameter) (μm) of each emulsion obtained by the specified path, measured with analyzer particle distribution SALD-1100 (measurement according to the method of laser diffraction, manufacturer - the company Shimadzu Corporation). In General, the smaller the average particle diameter of the emulsion prepared using the emulsifier, the greater emulsifying ability of the emulsifier ("Study by the turbidimetric assay method of O/W emulsion emulsified with gum arabic", Yakugaku Zasshi (Pharmacology Journal, 112 (12) 906-913 (1992)).

(4) Srednevekovaja molecular weight and content AGP

Srednevekovoy the molecular weight and the content of AGP in the gum Arabic is determined by using gel permeation chromatography (GPC-MALLS) using three detectors, in particular detector multiple-angle laser light scattering (MALLS)detector refractive index (RI) and ultraviolet (UV) detector coupled with a computer, and the obtained values are then about abayat, using the software ASTRA, version 4.5 (Wyatt Technology). In accordance with the method of the GPC-MALLS molecular weight determined using a MALLS detector, the mass of each component (composition ratio) is measured using a RI detector, and the protein content determined using UV detector. Thus, the molecular weight and the ratio of the analyzed components in the composition is obtained, comparing with the standard gum Arabic with known molecular weight. In detail the principles of implementation and the parameters of the GPC-MALLS are considered in Idris, O.H.M., Williams, P.A., Phillips, G.O.; Food Hydrocolloids, 12, pp. 375-388 (1998)".

Conditions of measurements according to the method of GPC-MALLS, which are used in accordance with the present invention, the following:

Column:Superose (6HR) 10/30 (Pharmacia Biotech, Sweden)
Flow rate:0.5 ml/min
Eluent:0,2M NaCl
Specimen preparation:The analyzed sample is diluted with eluent (0,2M NaCl), the solution is filtered to remove insoluble substances and carry out the analysis of the filtrate
Concentration of sample:of 0.4% (wt/R)
The injected sample volume:100 µl
dn/dc:0,141
The temperature is a: Room temperature
Detector:1) the MALLS Detector (multiple-angle laser light scattering): DAWN DSP (manufacturer - the company Wyatt Technology Inc., USA)

2) RI (refractive index) detector

3) UV detector (absorption at 214 nm)

<Srednevekovaja molecular weight>

The term "srednevekovaja (converted) molecular weight"used in the present invention, is defined as the molecular weight, calculated from the weight, all the peaks on the chromatogram (RI-chart), obtained using RI detector, is treated as a single peak. Above a single peak on the chromatogram indicates the region from the start point to the end point, when the point at which RI-chart begins to increase relative to the baseline of the chromatogram, is designated as a "starting point"and the point RI-chart subsides and comes into contact with the baseline, referred to as "end-point". Since we know that "srednevekovaja (modified) molecular mass increases with emulsifying ability, "srednevekovoy (converted), the molecular weight can be used as an indicator to assess emulsifying ability.

<Content AGP>

Based on the RI-diagram obtained in the above conditions, erwerbende compo the patients will be divided in two fractions: elyuirovaniya fraction of the component with a large molecular weight, which eluted first (peak 1), and elyuirovaniya fraction of components with a low molecular weight, which eluted later (peak 2), and the data processed using the software ASTRA 4.5 (Wyatt Technology). The extraction ratio of the peak 1 (% wt.) equivalent content AGP (% mass.) in gum Arabic, which research method GPC-MALLS. This detail using the chromatogram (figure 1), which lists the analysis results for the unmodified gum Arabic (Acacia senegalaccording to GPC-MALLS. On RI-the chromatogram the point at which RI-chart begins to increase relative to the baseline of the chromatogram, is designated as a "starting point"and the point RI-chart subsides and comes into contact with the baseline, referred to as "end-point". Between the start point and the end point is the point at which the RI-value is the minimum, is designated as the boundary, and the area between the starting point and the boundary is designated as fraction 1 RI peak (peak 1), and the area between the border and the end point is designated as fraction 2 RI peak (peak 2). Arabinogalactan protein (denoted simply as "AGP") is one of the three main components that are included with gum Arabic together with arabinogalactan (AG) and glycoprotein (GP). The content of AGP in the gum Arabic increases with emulsifying ability, because it is can be used as an indicator to assess emulsifying ability of gum Arabic.

(5) Odor

90 g water purified by ion-exchange resin, is added to each of samples of gum Arabic with a mass of 10 g to obtain a 10% (mass.) solutions of gum Arabic, and take a sample of each solution for the study of smell.

(6) appearance

The appearance of each of the samples of gum Arabic examined visually, and then compared with the corresponding gum Arabic (unmodified) and the colour change, agglomeration of particles (forming mass), etc.

Table 1 shows the results of a study sample of gum Arabic, modified in accordance with the treatment Conditions 1 (samples 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4 and 1-5). Table 2 shows the results of a study sample of gum Arabic, modified in accordance with Conditions 2 (samples 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4 and 2-5). Table 3 shows the results of a study sample of gum Arabic, modified in accordance with Conditions 3 (samples 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4 and 3-5).

td align="center"> Color change
Table 3
SamplesFormThe machining conditionsShrinkage (%)Srednevekovaja molecular weight (104)AGP (%)Emulsifying power, the average value (μ)SmellState
Dried spray powderUnmodified11,365,011,01,139,3Low odorThe appearance has not changed
Dried spray powderStirring at 90°for 0.5 hour under reduced pressure3,665,011,01,119,3Low odorLightly baked
3-1Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 1 hour under normal pressure3,273,612,60,8914.4VSome smellSlightly darkened and a few baked
3-2Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 2 hours under normal pressure2,992,516,00,7716,9Some smellSlightly darkened and a few baked
3-3Dried spray powder Stirring at 125°C for 4 hours under normal pressure2,6to 120.320,60,7723,0Some smellBlackened and baked
3-4Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 6 h under normal pressure2,3162,426,90,7626,3The smell of burntStrongly darkened and heavily caked
3-5Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 8 hours under normal pressure1,7200,930,90,7728,5The smell of burntStrongly darkened and heavily caked

On the basis of the results, each of the samples processed in accordance with the treatment Conditions 1-3, study to determine the relationship between heating time (from 1 to 8 hours) and shrinkage (%) and the relationship between heating time (from 1 to 8 hours) and change color, and the results obtained are shown in Fig. 2 and 3, respectively.

As can be seen from figure 2, the shrinkage of the gum Arabic treated in conditions 1 (heat treatment demoted when the pressure), reduced for 1 hour to 0%and then maintained at 0% throughout the heat treatment. Shrinkage of the gum Arabic treated in conditions 3 (dried so that shrinkage was 3.6%, and then heated under normal pressure)is maintained at the level of 3.6% or less during the heat treatment. Shrinkage of the gum Arabic treated in conditions 2 (heat treatment at normal pressure), gradually decreases during heat treatment, however, the shrinkage is not reduced to a value of 5% or less. Figure 3 shows the relationship between shrinkage and change in color, and from figure 3 it follows that the smaller the shrinkage of the gum Arabic (i.e. the higher the degree of dryness of gum Arabic), the higher the suppression of color change by heat treatment.

Experimental example 2

From the same balls of gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) prepare four types of samples of gum Arabic (unmodified) with different diameter particles (samples below) (shrinkage from 14.5% to 14.8%) and 300 g each of the samples of gum Arabic is heated at a temperature of 125°C for 3 to 12 hours. For the samples of gum Arabic determine shrinkage (%), the degree of color change, emulsifying power [average particle diameter (average diameter) (μm)], the content arabinogalactan protein content AGP(%)), the smell and appearance similar to the methods described in experimental example 1. The recovery factor weight (%) and polydispersity (P) is determined in accordance with the following method.

Samples: gum Arabic (unmodified)

1) Balls of gum Arabic, unground (particle diameter from 2 mm to 100 mm, average particle diameter 30 mm)

2) Balls of gum Arabic coarse (particle diameter from 0.5 mm to 15 mm, average particle diameter 6 mm)

3) Crushed balls of gum Arabic (particle diameter from 0.1 mm to 2 mm, average particle diameter 1.5 mm)

4) Balls of gum Arabic fine grinding (particle diameter from 0.038 mm to 0.5 mm, average particle diameter 0,083 mm (83 μm))

(1) the recovery Factor weight (%) and polydispersity (P)

The recovery factor weight (%) and polydispersity (P) of gum Arabic determined by the method of GPC-MALLS in the same conditions as in experimental example 1, and the obtained data is processed using the software ASTRA 4.5 (Wyatt Technology).

<a recovery rate of weight>

If all peaks above the chromatogram (RI-chart), obtained using the RI detector in the above-described conditions of the method of the GPC-MALLS, is treated as a single peak, the term "coefficient of restitution weight", which is used in the present invention, is defined as the relationship is the recovery of one peak, calculated from the weight. Above a single peak on the chromatogram indicates the region from the start point to the end point, when the point at which RI-chart begins to increase relative to the baseline of the chromatogram, is designated as a "starting point"and the point RI-chart subsides and comes into contact with the baseline, referred to as "end-point". It is known that the coefficient of restitution of weight one peak unmodified gum Arabic and modified gum Arabic is approximately 100%. However, it is also known that since the high-molecular component that excessively modified, and therefore not soluble in water (it can be called a "hydrogel"), are filtered through the 0.45-micron membrane filter in the form of insoluble substances in the preparation of the sample for gel permeation chromatography, the recovery factor of the weight of a single peak decreases and emulsifying power is also reduced due to the formation of the specified high molecular weight hydrogel, which is insoluble in water.

As described above, when modifying gum Arabic (unmodified) emulsifying power usually increases with increasing above srednevekovoi molecular weight and content of the AGP. However, if gum Arabic (unmodified) Modific the shape excessively, the emulsifying capacity decreases. Thus, the coefficient of restitution of weight is used as the indicator of formation of the hydrogel.

<a Polydispersity (P)>

If the parameters of all peaks in the chromatogram (RI-diagram)obtained by GPC-MALLS in the above conditions, is treated as a single peak, the polydispersity (P) is defined as the ratio srednevekovoi (modified) molecular weight to srednetsenovoj (modified) molecular weight, and thus it is calculated by dividing the value srednevekovoi (modified) molecular weight on the value srednetsenovoj (modified) molecular weight. The resulting value of polydispersity (P) is used as a standard by which to prove the homogeneity of the molecular mass distribution. Srednevekovoy (modified) molecular weight and srednecenovogo (modified) molecular weight determined by processing data obtained by means of GPC-MALLS, using the software ASTRA 4.5 (Wyatt Technology). The higher the value of R, the less uniform is the molecular mass distribution, at the same time, the smaller the value of R, the more homogeneous is the molecular mass distribution. When the value of R is too large, the degree of modification and the effectiveness of gum Arabic unsatisfactory, as evidenced by neon radnoti molecular mass distribution, the formation of hydrogels, reduced emulsifying properties, etc. on the Contrary, when the value of R is small, it is considered that the gum Arabic effectively modified, as evidenced by the uniformity of the molecular mass distribution, lack of education hydrogels and clearly superior emulsifying properties.

The results are presented in table 4.

Table 4
The machining conditionsShrinkage (%)AGP (%)The recovery factor weight (%)The polydispersity (P)Emulsifying power, the average value (μ)Color changeState
Samples 1) gum Arabic (unground) 30 mmUnmodified14,814,31002,11,756,1Change the appearance of a missing
125°S, 3 h11,120,9965,21.2317,1Dry surface and wet the inner part
125°S, 6 h7,024,1936,21,1 34,8Dry surface and wet the inner part
125°C, 12 hour2,725,0806,73,1536,6Dry surface and wet the inner part
Samples 2) gum Arabic (coarse grind)

6 mm
Unmodified14,8the 15.61002,11,555,9Change the appearance of a missing
125°S, 3 h6,519,3984,51,0925,9Dry surface and wet the inner part
125°S, 6 h2,824,5965,52,1536,5Dry surface and wet the inner part
125°C, 12 hour1,326,9936,02,8437,5Dry surface and wet the inner part
Samples 3) gum Arabic (chopped) 1.5 mmUnmodified14,514,71002,1 1,427,0Change the appearance of a missing
125°S, 3 h2,518,299the 3.80,8112,1Change the appearance of minor
125°S, 6 h1,420,9984,51,0421,1There are no changes in appearance
125°C, 12 hour0,326,5955,31,1725,6Change the appearance of a missing
Samples 4) gum Arabic (finely chopped) 0,083 mmUnmodified14,514,71002,11,427,0Change the appearance of a missing
125°S, 3 h0,518,21003,60,7910,5Change the appearance of a missing
125°S, 6 h023,8994,30,7614,6Change the appearance of the missing
125°C, 12 hour026,6975,01,0219,5Change the appearance of a missing

On the basis of the obtained results for each of the samples 1 to 4) examine the relationship between shrinkage (%)caused by heating, and particle diameter (mm) and the ratio between color changes caused by heating, and particle diameter (mm), and the results are shown in figure 4 and 5. As shown in figure 4, gum Arabic with a smaller diameter particles dries quickly when heated. As can be seen from figure 5, gum Arabic with a smaller diameter particles (in particular, crushed and finely ground sample) significantly suppressed the color change, as specified gum Arabic dries quickly.

Figure 6 shows the relationship between the diameter of particles (mm) and emulsifying ability of gum Arabic, modified by heating. As can be seen from Fig.6, heattreated gum Arabic (unmodified)having a smaller particle diameter, dries quickly, and in the end, like gum Arabic modified favorable way (emulsifying power is increased), and the color change is significantly suppressed.

On the contrary, it has been shown that if you want to nahrawan the gum Arabic (unmodified) has a large particle diameter, then with high probability there is a color change and the like gum Arabic modified heterogeneous (emulsifying ability is not improved). This, apparently, is caused by the difference in the degree of drying of the inner regions of the particles of gum Arabic (unmodified) and outer regions (surface) of the particles of gum Arabic, and this difference increases with increasing particle diameter of gum Arabic. The particles of gum Arabic (unmodified) surface is usually dry, in comparison with their inner areas. In other words, the internal area of the particles contain more moisture compared with the surface of the particles. Thus, when gum Arabic is heated under conditions in which the surface of particles with a lower moisture content are modified in a favorable way and emulsifying capacity increases, the internal area of the particles is excessively modified, which leads to the formation of the hydrogel and result in poor emulsifying ability. This is evidenced by the recovery factor weight (%) and the value of polydispersity (R)determined by the method of GPC-MALLS, as shown in table 4. To be more precise, when the particle diameter is large, the P value is highly variable (i.e., the distribution of molecular weight heterogeneous), and the coefficient of restitution of weight decreases (i.e. formed hydrogel).

Experimental example 3

300 g finely chopped balls of gum Arabic (unmodified) (Acacia senegal) (particle diameter of 38 μm to 500 μm: average particle diameter of 83 μm: shrinkage of 13.9%) is heated at 125°C for from 1 to 8 hours under reduced pressure (at approximately 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA)). Shrinkage (%), the degree of color change, emulsifying power [average particle diameter (average diameter) (μm)] and content arabinogalactan protein content AGP (%)for the samples of gum Arabic determined in accordance with the methodology described in experimental example 1. The polydispersity (P) and a recovery rate of weight (%) is also determined in accordance with the methodology described in experimental example 2. The results are presented in table 5.

Table 5
SampleFormThe machining conditionsShrinkage (%)AGP (%)Emulsifying power, the average value (μ)Color changeThe polydispersity (P)The recovery factor weight (%)
Niobrara-designed sampleFinely ground powderUnmodified139 14,01,035,22,1100
(3)-1Finely ground powderStirring at 125°C for 1 hour under reduced pressure0,215,40,786,92,5100
(3)-2Finely ground powderStirring at 125°C for 2 hours under reduced pressure0of 17.00,759,42,9100
(3)-3Finely ground powderStirring at 125°C for 4 hours under reduced pressure020,30,7512,23,6100
(3)-4Finely ground powderStirring at 125°C for 6 hours under reduced pressure025,20,8114,94,499
(3)-5Finely ground powderStirring at 125°C for 8 hours under reduced pressure026,60,85the 17.34,899

From the enter the results show, the content AGP increases with processing time in dry conditions and, thus, the emulsifying properties are improved.

Experimental example 4

300 g of spray dried powder of gum Arabic (particle diameter of 38 μm to 300 μm: average particle diameter of 64 μm) (balls of gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) is dissolved with stirring in hot water and dried by spraying) (shrinkage 11,3%) is heated at 125°C for 1 to 10 hours under reduced pressure (at approximately 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA)). Shrinkage (%), the degree of color change, emulsifying power [average particle diameter (average diameter) (μm)] and content arabinogalactan protein content AGP (%)for the samples of gum Arabic determined in accordance with the methodology described in experimental example 1. The polydispersity (P) and a recovery rate of weight (%) is also determined in accordance with the methodology described in experimental example 2. In addition, determine the viscosity (MPa· (C) as follows.

<Method for determining the viscosity of>

10 g each of the samples of gum Arabic dissolved in 90 g of water and receive a 10% (mass.) aqueous solutions of gum Arabic. Each solution is placed in a test tube with screw-on tube with a capacity of 100 ml and determine the viscosity (MPa· (C) using a rotary VI is kazimera-type (type VM manufacturer - the company TOKIMEC Inc.) (temperature: 20°, rotor: No. 1, rotation: 60 rpm). The results are presented in table 6.

Table 6
SamplesFormThe machining conditionsShrinkage (%)AGP (%)Emulsifying power, the average value (μ)Color changeViscosity (MPa·)The polydispersity (P)The recovery factor weight (%)
Niobrara-designed sampleDried spray powderUnmodified11,311,01,139,311,72,1100
(4)-1Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 1 hour under reduced pressure0to 12.00,7810,911,32,2100
(4)-2Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 2 hours under reduced pressure015,10,7513,812,42,5100
(4)-3Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 4 hours under reduced pressure018,50,7416,313,33,0101
(4)-4Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 6 hours under reduced pressure025,20,7718,314,33,4100
(4)-5Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 8 hours under reduced pressure030,30,7719,616,4the 3.8100
(4)-6Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 10 hours under reduced pressure035,60,8320,919,04,2100

The above results show that the content AGP increases with processing time in dry conditions and, thus, the emulsifying ability improves.

Experimental example 5

300 g of spray dried powder of gum Arabic (dia is the EPR particles from 38 μm to 300 μm: average particle diameter of 64 μm) (balls of gum Arabic are dissolved with stirring in hot water and dried by spraying) (shrinkage 11,3%) are placed in a flask in the form of eggplant with a capacity of 1 liter and heated at 90°C for 60 min at slow rotation on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure (at approximately 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA)) so that shrinkage amounted to 0%. Then it is heated under the following conditions of heating at slow rotation on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure (at approximately 0.03 bar (about 3040 PA)).

Sample 1)90°C, 24 hour
Sample 2)110°C, 12 hour
Sample 3)125°C, 4 h
Sample 4)140°, 2 hours
Sample 5)180°C, 10 min
Sample 6)70°C, 24 hour
Sample 7)200°C, 10 min

The results are presented in table 7.

Unmodified
Table 7
SamplesFormThe machining conditionsSrednevekovaja molecular weight (104)AGP (%)Emulsifying power, the average value (μ)Color changeSmellState
The raw sampleDried spray powder65,011,01,139,3Low odorAppearance

unchanged
Sample 1)Dried spray powderStirring at 90°C for 24 hours under reduced pressure98,616,80,7513,9Some smellSlightly yellowish, but the appearance

unchanged
Sample 2)Dried spray powderStirring at 110°C for 24 hours under reduced pressure105,018,90,7415,5Some smellSlightly yellowish, but the appearance

unchanged
Sample 3)Dried spray powderStirring at 125°C for 4 hours under reduced pressure108,521,70,7416,3Some smellSlightly yellowish, but the appearance

unchanged
Sample 4)Dried spray powderStirring at 140°C for 2 hours under reduced pressure132,524,5075 of 17.5Some smellSlightly yellowish, but the appearance

unchanged
Sample 5)Dried spray powderStirring at 180°C for 10 min under reduced pressure155, 2mm25,80,7719,8The smell of burntYellowish, but changing the appearance of minor
Sample 6)Dried spray powderThe stirring at 70°C for 24 hours under reduced pressure66,011,91,1210,9The smell of burnt missingAppearance

unchanged
Sample 7)Dried spray powderStirring at 200°C for 10 min under reduced pressure187,932,51,1842,5A strong smell of burntStrong yellowish-white color change and partial charring

In addition to the samples in the above experimental examples, perform the following are examples of using samples 1-1 through 1-5 of experimental example 1, samples 3 and 4) of experimental example 2, Obraztsov (3)-1 (3)-5 of experimental example 3, samples with (4)-1 (4)-6 of the experimental example 4, and samples from 1) to 5) of experimental example 5.

Example 1

Emulsion β-carotene (obtaining emulsion dye)

<Composition>

30%suspension β-carotene5 (wt.%)
The triglyceride with an average chain length10
The modified gum Arabic17
Water68
Only100 (wt.%)

170 g of the modified gum Arabic is dissolved in 680 g of water and receive a 20% (wt.) aqueous solution of modified gum Arabic. The solution of gum Arabic is used as an emulsifier and to the specified solution was added a mixed solution, which is obtained in advance by dissolving 100 g of triglyceride medium chain triglyceride octane/dodecanol acid O.D.O (trade name, product of Nisshin Oil Mills, Ltd.) 50 g of a 30%suspension β-carotene when heated to 150°C, followed by mixing under stirring. The mixture emuleret using a homogenizer (manufactured by company APV Gaulin) (homogenized 4 times at a pressure of 4.4 MPa (450 kg/cm2)) and get an emulsion β-carotene, which serves as preparation emulsified dye.

Note the R 2

Emulsion orange odorants (emulsified flavoring)

<Composition>

Orange perfume2 (wt.%)
The triglyceride with an average chain length13
The modified gum Arabic17
Water68
Only100 (wt.%)

170 g of the modified gum Arabic is dissolved in 680 g of water and receive a 20% (wt.) aqueous solution of modified gum Arabic. The solution of gum Arabic is used as an emulsifier and to the specified solution was added a mixed solution, which is obtained in advance by thorough mixing 20 g of orange fragrances and 130 g of triglyceride medium chain triglyceride octane/dodecanol acid O.D.O (trade name, product of Nisshin Oil Mills, Ltd.) at room temperature, followed by mixing under stirring. The mixture emuleret using a homogenizer (manufactured by company APV Gaulin) (homogenized 4 times at a pressure of 4.4 MPa (450 kg/cm2)) and get an orange emulsion odorants, which serves as emulsified flavoring.

Example 3

Emulsion docosahexanoic acid (DHA) (emulsified drug DHA)

<Composition>

Fish oil containing 20% DHA5 (wt.%)
The triglyceride with an average chain length10
The modified gum Arabic17
Water68
Only100 (wt.%)

170 g of the modified gum Arabic is dissolved in 680 g of water and receive a 20% (wt.) aqueous solution of modified gum Arabic. The solution of gum Arabic is used as an emulsifier and to the specified solution was added a mixed solution, which is obtained in advance by mixing 50 grams of fish oil containing 20 wt% DHA, and 100 g of triglyceride medium chain triglyceride octane/dodecanol acid O.D.O (trade name, product of Nisshin Oil Mills, Ltd.) and heated to 80°C, followed by mixing under stirring. The mixture emuleret using a homogenizer (manufactured by company APV Gaulin) (homogenized 4 times at a pressure of 4.4 MPa (450 kg/cm2)) and get the DHA emulsion.

Example 4

Powder lemon fragrances

<Composition>

Lemon oil20 (weight parts)
The modified gum Arabic20
Dextrin60
Water150
Only250 (weight parts)

200 g of the modified gum Arabic and 600 g of dextrin are dissolved in 1500 g of water and get water solution of modified gum Arabic. An aqueous solution of gum Arabic is used as an emulsifier. To the specified solution add 200 g lemon oil, followed by mixing under stirring. The resulting mixture emuleret using a homogenizer (manufactured by company APV Gaulin) (homogenized once at a pressure of 2.0 MPa (200 kg/cm2)). Then the solution is subjected to spray drying in a spray dryer with (manufacturer - the company ANHYDRO)(temperature at the input 140°C, outlet temperature 80°) and get 950 g of powder lemon fragrances.

Industrial applicability

In accordance with the present invention, the modified gum Arabic having improved emulsifying ability can now be obtained by heating gum Arabic in dry conditions, while preventing discoloration and agglomeration of gum Arabic when heated. Thus, the method according to the present invention is suitable not only as a method of preparation of the modified gum Arabic having improved emulsifying ability, which does not have a deleterious effect on subsequent suitability of gum Arabic to the processing of ellegast handling, does not degrade the quality due to agglomeration, adhesion, color change, etc. but also as a way of modifying gum Arabic to improve its emulsifying ability.

Received the modified gum Arabic of the present invention is suitable for use, for the purpose of emulsification of various hydrophobic substances, such as essential oils, dyes, oil-based flavoring oil-based, fat-soluble vitamins, etc. In comparison with emulsions prepared using conventional gum Arabic (unmodified), emulsions prepared using the modified gum Arabic of the present invention have a uniform particle size and very stable, so is significantly reduced degradation of the emulsified particles due to coagulation and associations emulsified particles, which are called hard (harsh conditions), such as heating, long-term storage, change over time and so on

1. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic, including stage heating gum Arabic so that shrinkage was not more than 3%, or heating gum Arabic in a dry condition so that the shrinkage was not more than 3%, and the average particle diameter of gum Arabic, which is should be subjected to heat treatment, does not exceed 1,5 mm

2. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to claim 1, in which gum Arabic is heated at a temperature of from 90 to 180°C.

3. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to claim 1, which includes stages of drying of gum Arabic as long as the shrinkage will not exceed 3%, and further heating the dried gum Arabic.

4. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to claim 1, in which gum Arabic is heated under reduced pressure.

5. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to claim 1, in which gum Arabic, which must be subjected to heat treatment, dry spray.

6. The method of obtaining modified gum Arabic according to claim 1, in which the color change of the modified gum Arabic is suppressed, and emulsifying power is increased.

7. The modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to claim 1.

8. Emulsifier containing as active ingredient a modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to claim 1.

9. The production method of the emulsion in which the emulsifier used a modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to claim 1.

10. The production method of the emulsion according to claim 9, where the emulsion is an emulsion type O/W or W/O/W, which as dispersoid contains at least one hydrophobic substance is selected from g is uppy, including essential oils, fragrance oil-based dyes are oil-based, fat-soluble vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, animal oils, vegetable oils, acetate-isobutyrate sucrose and triglycerides of medium chain length.

11. The emulsion obtained by the method according to claim 9.

12. The emulsion according to claim 11, which represents an emulsion type O/W or W/O/W, which as dispersoid contains at least one hydrophobic substance selected from the group comprising essential oils, fragrance oil-based dyes are oil-based, fat-soluble vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, animal oils, vegetable oils, acetate-isobutyrate sucrose and triglycerides of medium chain length.

13. The modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to claim 1, for the preparation of emulsifier.

14. The modified gum Arabic obtained by the method according to claim 1, for the preparation of the emulsion.



 

Same patents:

Modified gum arabic // 2347788

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to modified gum arabic, widely used as an emulsifying agent, thickener, coating agent, binder and capsule material. Description is given of water soluble modified gum arabic from Acacia Senegal, with weight-average molecular weight of not less than 0.9 million Da and RMS-radius of circular motion of arabinogalactan-protein from 46.3-138 nm. The proposed gum arabic has high content of arabinogalactan-protein and better emulsification properties, emulsion stability, film-forming, encapsulating and adhesive capabilities.

EFFECT: higher content of arabinogalactan-protein and better emulsification properties, emulsion stability, film-forming, encapsulating and adhesive capabilities.

19 cl, 5 dwg, 10 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: food products.

SUBSTANCE: method proposed envisages blend of two solutions and the resultant compound degasation and polymerisation. The first solution production process envisages addition of water and ethylenediamine - N,N,N',N' - tetraacetic acid to chitosan or derivatives thereof, mechanical agitation of the resultant compound, further load of acid for pH to be 4.0, heating to produce a solution, load of alkali for deposition of a sediment, the sediment collection and distilled water flushing for pH to be 6.2, further successive load of acid for the sediment complete dissolution, alkali for pH to be 6.2 and acide for pH to be 5.6, centrifugation, distilled water addition and vacuum degasation of the solution thus produced. The second splution is produced by way of having distilled water, acid and sodium or potassium persulphate to N,N,N',N' - tetramethylethylenediamine.

EFFECT: combination of hydrogel plasticity properties with prophylactic and protective properties of chitosan or derivatives thereof to have been preserved after polymerisation.

2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: mixtures of oligosaccharides with antithrombotic activity, with general structure of constitutive polysaccharides of heparin, have the following characteristics: average molecular weight from 1800 to 2400 Daltons, anti-Xa activity, from 190 M.units./mg to 450 M.units/mg, anti-IIa activity equals zero or practically equal to zero. Constitutive oligosaccharides of these mixtures: contain 2-16 saccharide links, have a 2-0-sulphate-4,5-unsaturated uronic acid link on one of their ends. The mixtures contain from 30 to 60% hexasaccharide fraction, and the hexasaccharide fraction contains from 20 to 70% hexasaccharide with the following formula: in form of a salt of alkali or alkali-earth metal. A method is given of obtaining oligosaccharide mixtures and antithrombotic pharmaceutical compositions containing them, as well as a method of determining activity of oligosaccharide mixtures.

EFFECT: obtaining oligosaccharides with antithrombotic activity.

28 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry, biochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. The proposed method comprises thermal processing of larva, separated from a substratum upon termination of their cultivation, for 2 to 15 min at 75 to 100°C. Thermal processing over, larvae are crushed, chitine-containing fraction is separated from hemolymph. Now, the chitine-containing precipitate as-washed and crushed is subjected to enzymic hydrolysis at temperature 35 to 46°C with pH of 6.5 to 8.5 till achieving amine nitrogen content not below 0.8 G/%. Then, the separated chitine-containing precipitate is subjected to alkaline hydrolysis at continuous mixing for 60 to 90 min at 55 to 65°C. Finally, the aforesaid chitine-containing precipitate is subjected to demineralisation by 1.5 to 3.0 percent solution of hydrochloric or nitric acid for 30 to 40 min at 60 to 70°C. After that, the precipitate containing chitine is rinsed with water till pH of 6.5 to 7.5 and dried.

EFFECT: increase in biological value of target products with simultaneous increase in their number and simplification of process method.

4 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: used are films made of glycosaminoglycan conjugates with 4- or 5-aminosalicylic acids or alginate conjugates with 4- or 5-aminosalicylic acids or intermixed conjugates or mixed conjugates and at least one polymer chosen from group including carboxymethyl cellulose, glycosaminoglycan, alginate, gelatine, albumin with salicylate content not less than 50%. Specified mixtures are treated with 2-20% iron (III) chloride solution at room temperature within 1-5 minutes. Surface complex lowers water- and biological liquids solubility of the film.

EFFECT: prolonged of biomaterial activity is provided.

10 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: large part of the cells of material, containing non-starch polysaccharides is destroyed in the grinding process, obtaining particles, containing non-starch polysaccharides, which are high solubility when the product gets into contact with dissolving media. The non-starch polysaccharides are contained in particles, obtained by breaking up material until formation of particles with particle size less than the size of the corresponding initial cells of the non-starch polysaccharide. The material can be crushed using a combination of heat, pressure and shearing force. Crushing can be carried out through extrusion, intumescence and homogenisation under pressure. Preferred materials for such processing include oats, rye or their part. Solubility and conditions for dissolving the product can be regulated through mixing the material, subject to crushing, with a component rich in amylopectin. The product, obtained using this method, can be used in food products.

EFFECT: increased solubility of non-starch polysaccharides contained in grinded materials.

15 cl, 4 dwg, 8 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: molar ratio of cyclodextrin to the acid in the complex comprises 1:1. The complex is obtained by introduction of concentrated water cyclodextrin solution heated to boiling point to glacial acetic acid of room temperature, with further separation and drying of crystalline sediment. Complex of α- or β-cyclodextrin with acetic acid is stable in dry state, but in water solution it is decomposed into components. Obtained solution gains properties of dilated acetic acid, and therefore can be used as flavouring in food concentrates, as preservation agent, solution acidity regulator, and as buffer component in biochemistry and analytical chemistry.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of composition.

3 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to modified polysaccharide in particular to modified polysaccharide Neisseria meningitidis of serogroup A, which preserves immunogenicity, but has improved stability. The modified polysaccharide is obtained from reaction of capsular polysaccharide, or its fragment - oligosaccharide, with CDI type bifunctional reagent, accompanied by reaction with an amino-compound, such as dimethylamine. Description is also given of modified polysaccharide conjugates and vaccines, which are obtained from such conjugates.

EFFECT: obtaining modified saccharide.

70 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pectin and processed initial material, which contains pectin. Method of obtaining processed initial material by deactivation of pectinesterase includes obtaining fruit vegetable material, containing pectin, and bringing it in contact with water, which has pH value from 3.2 to 3.9, at temperature ≤70°C. After that processed initial material is extracted. In addition, invention relates to use of processed initial material, containing pectin, obtained according to said method, respectively, for pectin extraction, as food for animals or as ingredient in food products. In addition invention relates to pectin, obtained according to said method, by means of extraction from initial vegetable material, molecular weight of said pectin being higher on value up to 50% than molecular weight of pectin, obtained from extraction of similar but unprocessed initial vegetable material, containing pectin. Ratio of sensitivity to calcium of said pectin and sensitivity to calcium of pectin, extracted from similar, but unprocessed with washing, initial vegetable material, which contains pectin, is within 0.90-1.40. Pectin preserves molecular weight and etherification degree well, has high output and low sensitivity to calcium.

EFFECT: obtaining method of processing vegetable material, which contains pectin, preserving molecular weight and degree of pectin etherification.

30 cl, 2 dwg, 19 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns aldehyde derivatives and conjugates of di-, oligo- or polysaccharide, of the general formula (I), methods of obtaining them, and pharmaceutical composition based on them and capable of staying in blood flow for prolonged time. , where R is -CH(CHO)CH2OH, -CH2CHO, -CH(CH2NHR1)CH2OH, -CH(CH2NHNHR1)CH2OH, -CH(CH=NNHR1)CH2OH, -CH2CH2NHR1, -CH2CH=N-NHR1, -CH2CH2NHNHR1; R1 is polypeptide or albumen; GlyO is a sialic acid bond; R3 is H; R4 is OH; n is 2 or more.

EFFECT: obtaining pharmaceutical composition based on aldehyde derivatives of sialic acid capable of staying in blood flow for prolonged time.

20 cl, 7 tbl, 22 dwg, 10 ex

FIELD: immunotherapeutic agents.

SUBSTANCE: antigenic preparations are obtained from keratinophilic fungi Trichophiton or Microsporum species or yeast species Candida by alkali hydrolysis techniques. Thus obtained preparations can be, in particular used, as vaccines and for treating allergy and modulating immune response.

EFFECT: expanded immunotherapeutic possibilities.

17 cl, 5 dwg, 12 tbl, 20 ex

FIELD: biotechnology, microbiology.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a method for preparing exopolysaccharide by culturing microorganisms in nutrient medium containing one or more carbon source assimilated by microorganisms and caruba seeds fraction as nitrogen organic source. Applying the proposed method provides preparing exopolysaccharide eliciting improved organoleptic, sensor and visual properties. Invention can be used in building, paper, textile, cosmetic, food, oil output industry and agriculture.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

15 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: fish industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing deacetylation of raw material with the use of preliminarily cooled alkaline solution; washing and drying. Deacetylation process is performed in three stages, first stage being performed for 7 days and subsequent two stages being performed for 2 hours each, combined with thermal processing at temperature of 55-590C. Washing process is provided after each deacetylation stage.

EFFECT: provision for producing of chitosan from chitin of cancerous with increased extent of deacetylation, while native properties of natural polymer being kept, without breaking of glycoside binding chain.

3 ex

FIELD: vegetable raw technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for isolating pectin from vegetable raw. Method for preparing pectin from citrus husks involves hydrolysis-extraction of a solid phase and separation of a liquid phase. Before hydrolysis-extraction a solid phase is extracted with ethyl acetate and liquid acetylene successively under the above atmosphere pressure. The second extract is separated without pressure change followed by abrupt dropping pressure over a solid phase up to atmosphere value and feeding a solid phase to hydrolysis-extraction. Invention provides reducing loss of pectin being without deterioration of its organoleptic properties.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

FIELD: vegetable raw technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for isolating pectin from the vegetable raw. Method for isolating pectin from sunflower heads involves their milling, denaturation of proteins by heating, hydrolysis-extraction of solid phase, separation of liquid phase and its concentrating and drying. Extraction with dimethylformamide is carried out before hydrolysis-extraction stage followed by extraction with liquid carbon dioxide under above atmosphere pressure. The second extract is separated without change of pressure followed by abrupt drop of pressure over the solid phase up to atmosphere value and feeding the solid phase to hydrolysis-extraction stage. Invention provides improving safety due to exclusion contact of toxic solvent with the end product, reducing time process of hydrolysis-extraction stage and reducing loss of pectin substances.

EFFECT: improved isolating method.

FIELD: vegetable raw technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing pectin from vegetable raw. Method for preparing pectin from citrus husks involves hydrolysis-extraction of a solid phase and separation of a liquid phase. Before hydrolysis-extraction a solid phase is extracted successively with acetone and mixture of liquid acetylene and carbon dioxide taken in the mass ratio acetylene : carbon dioxide from 3:7 to 7:3, respectively, under the above atmosphere pressure. The second extract is separated without the pressure change followed by abrupt dropping pressure over a solid phase to atmosphere value and feeding a solid phase to hydrolysis-extraction. Invention provides reducing loss of pectin being without deterioration of its organoleptic properties.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

FIELD: vegetable raw technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for isolating pectin from vegetable raw. Method for preparing pectin from citrus husks involves hydrolysis-extraction of a solid phase and separation of a liquid phase. Before hydrolysis-extraction a solid phase is extracted with dimethylformamide and liquid acetylene successively under the above atmosphere pressure. The second extract is separated without pressure change followed by abrupt dropping pressure over a solid phase up to atmosphere value and feeding a solid phase to hydrolysis-extraction. Invention provides reducing loss of pectin being without deterioration of its organoleptic properties.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

FIELD: vegetable raw technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for isolating pectin from vegetable raw. Method for isolating pectin from citrus husks involves hydrolysis-extraction of a solid phase and separation of a liquid phase. Before hydrolysis-extraction a solid phase is extracted with dimethylformamide and liquid carbon dioxide successively under the above atmosphere pressure. The second extract is separated without the pressure change followed by abrupt dropping pressure over a solid phase up to atmosphere value and feeding a solid phase to hydrolysis-extraction. Invention provides reducing loss of pectin being without deterioration of its organoleptic properties.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

FIELD: vegetable raw technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for isolating pectin from vegetable raw. Method for preparing pectin from citrus husks involves hydrolysis-extraction of a solid phase and separation of a liquid phase. Before hydrolysis-extraction a solid phase is extracted with acetone and liquid carbon dioxide successively under the above atmosphere pressure. The second extract is separated without pressure change followed by abrupt dropping pressure over a solid phase up to atmosphere value and feeding a solid phase to hydrolysis-extraction. Invention provides reducing loss of pectin being without deterioration of its organoleptic properties.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

FIELD: vegetable raw technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing pectin extract from vegetable raw. Method involves the successive extraction of citrus husks with acetone. Then after separation of extract a solid phase is extracted with a mixture of liquid acetylene and carbon dioxide taken in mass ratio from 3:7 to 7:3. Then hydrolysis-extraction of a solid phase is carried out and a liquid phase is separated after termination of the hydrolysis-extraction process. Method provides reducing loss of pectin.

EFFECT: improved isolating method.

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