Method for control of mobile loaded crane stability and device for its realisation
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of machine building, namely, to production of cranes, and may be used for control of mobile loaded crane stability, mostly jib self-propelled cranes. Method consists in the fact that load moment is calculated and compared to permissible limit, depending on data obtained signal is generated to actuate those actuating mechanisms, which reduce load moment. Additionally speeds of pressure change in outrigger hydraulic cylinders are measured, and their sign is identified, control combinations of pressure change speeds are made, which are then compared to the reference ones, depending on match or mismatch of obtained control combinations with the reference ones, signal for control of parameters that affect stability is generated. Device comprises hydraulic line of outriggers, mechanism for boom swing, analog-to-digital transducer, board microprocessor, board microprocessor memory comprises mathematical model of mobile crane made with the possibility of change depending on type of crane. Pressure sensors are additionally included into hydraulic line of outriggers, board microprocessor has communication with pressure sensors, mechanism for boom swing is equipped with controlled axial-piston hydraulic actuator.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and higher safety level of loading-unloading works.
3 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely for the production of cranes, and can be used to control freight sustainability of mobile lifting equipment, primarily jib cranes self-propelled cranes.
There is a method of protection of hoisting crane (patent RU 2078021 C1, MPK VS 23/88, 13/18, 27.04.1997) overload and damage, namely, that form the control signals control valves actuators crane, carry out the calculation of the load moment and compare it with the maximum allowable, the job zone valid provisions of lifting the boom system, determining the actual position of this equipment and compare this situation with the valid area provisions, then depending on the received data shall disabling these signals control valves actuators crane.
The disadvantage of this method is to connect each sensor to the electronic module by a separate harness that leads to the presence of a large number of electrical wiring harness on the valve and, accordingly, reduces the reliability of the device, when the emergency situation occurs stop actuators crane.
More perfect and the closest one is the manual protection crane overload and damage (patent RU 2237610 C2, MPC VS 13/18, VS 15/00, VS 23/88, 10.10.2004), namely, that carry out the calculation of the load moment and compare it with the maximum allowable, the job zone valid provisions of lifting the boom system, determining the actual position of this equipment and compare this situation with the valid area provisions, then depending on the received data allow or do not allow the inclusion of valves actuators crane, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that after receiving the results of the comparison of freight moments and the position of the lifting boom system are forming the enable signal control actuators crane and their transfer on control sections of valves made of electro, those actuators crane, the inclusion of which is safe for the faucet, then carry out depending on the availability of such a permission signal and the control actions of the crane operator the inclusion of these actuators, and generate signals permissions in encrypted form using the address, and to transmit these signals using multiplex line.
The disadvantage of this method is that it ignores the possibility occasionally the th subsidence under outriggers, the method does not provide the opportunity for active management to avoid accidental tipping of the crane.
Known protection system on the boom of a mobile crane (a utility model certificate EN 7097 U1, MPK VS 23/90, 1998), which contains an electronic unit that includes a digital computing machine and connected to the controls, indicators, memory block and the device I / o information, and sensors operating parameters crane (angle sensors for boom lift, boom length, weight, angle of rotation of the rotary platform and so on)connected to the inputs of the input / output of the electronic unit, the outputs of which are connected to the Executive block.
A disadvantage of the known system is that the gap of the operator's hands from the controls increases the reaction time of the operator in a dangerous unexpected movements of the crane and reduces the safety of its operation, and reduces the convenience of the crane.
More advanced and closest to a control system of freight sustainability mobile lifting machines (patent RU 2267458 C1, MPK VS 23/90, G01M 1/12, 01.2006)containing strain gauges load on the stabilizers of the crane, to the outputs of the sensors connected to analog-to-digital Converter, on-Board microprocessor is installed with the possibility of processing the generated analog-to-digital Converter information array control valve hydraulic cylinders of the reference circuit and generating the necessary information on the scoreboard operator, in parallel with the valve connected to the auxiliary valve, which is connected through the system controllers with relay module on-Board microprocessor, and is designed to redistribute the fluid volume of the piston areas of the cylinders when the threat of overturning of lifting machinery.
The control system of freight sustainability of mobile lifting machine operates as follows. The onboard microprocessor is configured to periodically determine the position of the projection of the center of mass in the plane of the reference path relative to the edge of tipping over within the reference circuit, detects the direction of movement of the projection of the center of mass outside the region of guaranteed stability, generates the signal a dangerous reduction of the stability margin and forms a directed action stabilizing nature's speed limit or block blocks the movement of technological equipment.
The disadvantage of this method and system is the insufficient level of security and complexity due to the fact that have a large number of measuring instruments and additional valve and require means is through modernization of the control system.
The objective of the invention is to improve the performance and safety of loading and unloading operations performed with the involvement of mobile lifting equipment and provide easily understood information to the operator about the current stability of the system in real time in a continuous process handling.
This problem is solved by the fact that the method of controlling the stability of the mobile crane, which consists in the fact that you are doing the calculation load moment and compare it with the maximum allowable, depending on the received data to generate the enable signal those actuators that provide reduced load moment, characterized in that it further measure the rate of change of pressure in the cylinders outrigger and determine their sign, are controlling the combination of the speed of change of pressure, which is compared with the reference, depending on the match or mismatch of the received control combinations with the reference shape signal control parameters that affect the stability.
A device for implementing the method of controlling the stability of the mobile crane, containing hydroline outriggers, steering shafts, a / d Converter, the on-Board microprocessor, memory onboard microprocessor introduced a mathematical model mobile load-lifting crane, is made with the ability to change depending on the type crane, characterized in that hydroline outriggers further include pressure sensors, on-Board microprocessor is connected with the pressure sensors, the rotation mechanism of the boom is equipped with an adjustable axial piston hydraulic motor.
After turning on the main valve 12 becomes possible inclusion of the valves 11, which creates pressure in the hydraulic cylinders of the outriggers 8 and the supporting cylinder 9, and crane installation hung out with the help of the pressure sensor 10 is determined by the pressure change in the cylinder cavity when transforming the reference circuit 7, using the on-Board microprocessor is determined by the rate of change of pressure.
Figure 1 shows that at a given position of the telescopic boom crane 6 main load is perceived tricycle circuit 7, the vertices of which are the cylinders 2, 4, 5 (a, C, D). The weight of the boom 6 with the load, transferring it to the center of rotation of the rotating part of the crane, paired forces and creates a tipping point.
Load on the bearings will be
In the simulation process executing lifting operations, generally regarded tricycle path, the fourth bearing is unloaded.
Considering that the hanging of a base frame of the machine is carried out by creating the necessary pressure in the cavities of the outrigger cylinders, in normal operation, the reference combination of the current values of velocity change of the pressure in the bearings when lifting or moving of cargo shall comply with the provisions of the arrows as follows:
where- the rate of change of pressure in the cavities of the cylinders ACD - path.
This combination will be deemed to be a reference to the relevant provisions of the boom relative to the supports.
To accomplish the objectives of the stability control of the crane during operation, the most expedient is the use of the method of determining a cargo stability of the crane on the variation of the velocity pressure in the cylinders outrigger relative to the considered reference path.
This method also takes into account dopolnitelnyekonsultatsii on tap: the forces of inertia, the wind, the slope of the working platform etc. and the numerical value of the coefficient cargo stability of the crane is determined by the formula
where Mhold- holding torque of the crane; Mon- the overturning moment created by the weight of the cargo and the weight of the boom.
The invention is illustrated by figure 1 and 2, showing: 1 - settlement scheme reference plane crane; 2, 3, 4, 5 - supporting cylinders, perceiving the main load; 6 - telescoping boom; 7 - support contour; 8 - cylinder outrigger; 9 cylinder bearing, 10 - pressure sensor; 11 - point outriggers; 12 - main valve; 13 - hydroline outriggers.
In the process of turning arrows triangular support contour changing the third vertex of the triangle (support) and in the reference combination takes into account the rate of change of the pressure of the new reference path. Simultaneously, the servo system controls the horizontal position of the support frames.
Accumulating in the process of handling procedures and information about the values of these quantities, the control system with a certain probability can judge future changes.
If you lift or maneuver the boom with cargo management system fixes that
you can consider creating conditions of abnormal operation or emergency. Threatens the rollover GPM, to prevent which signal the operator, and, if there was no response, the control system is slow to stop, blocking the possibility of moving in this direction. The operator is given the opportunity to reduce the overturning moment, thereby to reduce the load on emergency support. This can be achieved by reduction of the boom, the increase of the boom angle to the horizon, i.e. decreasing distances from the center of gravity of the crane to the centers of gravity of the boom and the load, which affects the perceived outriggers load.
Selecting a pressure change in the hydraulic cylinders outrigger for the controlled variable, it is easy to show that the maximum value of the stability factor will be in that case, as observed in the normal functioning of, or reference the combination of:
If the rate of change of the pressure of the working fluid in the hydraulic cylinder will not start to change in the direction of increasing or change the positive sign on the th, and will continue to remain unchanged, then turn arrows will be possible only in the direction of discharge emergency support.
Continuous monitoring of parameters that determine the stability of the crane is carried out by the pressure sensors 10, the signals from which are received by analog-to-digital Converter with the aim of presenting in a manageable form.
Processing of incoming information is performed by a microprocessor of module-based microprocessor with read-only memory and random access memory device (Fig 3).
The algorithm of functioning of the system will have a cyclic structure. With pressure sensors information is collected and processed in the microprocessor module, composed of a control combination of velocity change of pressure occurs in the case of comparing these combinations with the reference. In case of discrepancy composed of combinations of a reference signal is formed at the lower speed of rotation of the boom in the emergency zone to a full stop followed by a rotation lock in this area. The operator is given the opportunity to reduce the overturning moment. If after the regular collection and processing of data from the pressure sensors is composed of the control combinations coincide with the reference, a rotation lock in the emergency zone is limited condition tilt is his moment. If the combination does not coincide with the reference, and further reducing the overturning moment is not possible, turn in the emergency zone remains locked.
The implementation of the Executive part requires minimal redesign of the hydraulic equipment of the rotation mechanism of the boom (the use of an adjustable axial piston hydraulic and hydraulic equipment reference circuit equipment pressure sensors).
Distinctive features of the method of controlling the stability of the mobile crane and device for its implementation is: the method takes into account the possibility of accidental subsidence under the supports, resulting in the establishment of pre-emergency situation is the active management of resistance, which does not preclude the movement towards emergency support in case of reaching the critical moment will be the normal functioning of, or composed of a control combination of velocity change of pressure will correspond to the reference; a device for implementing the method of controlling the stability of the mobile crane universal, as the basis of his actions is a mathematical model GPM in memory on-Board microprocessor, and can be changed depending on the type of the crane and its Indus the individual features and complicated (the weight of the boom, the presence of dynamic loads, change the parameters of an arrow on one crane) upon presentation of more stringent requirements and development studies (i.e. resistant to obsolescence).
1. The method of controlling the stability of the mobile crane, which consists in the fact that you are doing the calculation load moment and compare it with the maximum allowable, depending on the received data to generate the enable signal those actuators that provide reduced load moment, characterized in that it further measure the rate of change of pressure in the cylinders outrigger and determine their sign, are controlling the combination of the speed of change of pressure, which is compared with the reference, depending on the match or not match the received control combinations with the reference shape signal control parameters that affect the stability.
2. A device for implementing the method of controlling the stability of the mobile crane, containing hydroline outriggers, steering shafts, analog-to-digital Converter, on-Board microprocessor, memory onboard microprocessor introduced a mathematical model mobile load-lifting crane, is made with the ability to change depending on the type of grusome yameogo crane, characterized in that hydroline outriggers further include pressure sensors, on-Board microprocessor is connected with the pressure sensors, the rotation mechanism of the boom is equipped with an adjustable axial piston hydraulic motor.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with the proposed method, with electric key set up, loads are uplifted in turn, their weights making m0, ..., mi-1, mi where i=2, 3, ..., and the motor shaft respective rpm making n0, ..., ni-1, ni being recorded by means of the accelerometer arranged on the base plate or the crane motor bed are memorised. The accelerometer output signal is subjected to spectral analysis with the frequency whereat the motor bed vibration fundamental amplitude is determined corresponding to the motor shaft rpm. Now, proceeding from the data obtained, the dependence of the motor rpm upon the uplifted load n=f(m) is derived to be memorised along with the known tolerable uplifted load weight value. Now, uplifted the load, the motor shaft rpm value is continuously measured by accelerometer to define, proceeding from n=f(m), the load weight. If this weight exceeds the tolerable value, audio and visual warning signals are output and the crane if cut off.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the crane capacity limiter.
SUBSTANCE: device contains the boom equipment load and spatial position pickups, the output device, the graphic display with the graphic memory unit and the processor connected with the said pickups, graphic display and output device connected to crane actuators. The processor generates a schematic image of the crane and its operating area on the screen of the graphic display. In the first version of the device, the processor produces a dynamic image on the display of the crane operating area proceeding from the necessity to prevent the crane overload and its collisions with obstacles. In other versions of the device, the operating area is generated on the display by the signals received from outside moving or stationary objects using the crane operating area locator signals, using boom equipment extreme coordinates in motion and/or signals generated by operator acting on the sensor display screen capable to output 3D images.
EFFECT: higher safety of the load-lifting crane operation.
20 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; tower cranes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes periodical continuous polling during which signals are obtained, recorded and memorized which correspond to values of load characteristic of crane, crane geometry and operation conditions, obtained signals are compared with values of characteristics introduced into crane control system before its operation, and after comparing of signals received at polling with tolerable values of characteristics, if they exceed tolerable characteristics, commands of crane operator are cancelled. Introduced additionally into crane control system are parameters of crane operation conditions, speed of wind, ambient temperature and crane condition parameters, load, vibration, temperature of crane drive mechanism lubricants, and voltage in electrical devices. Maximum tolerable values of said parameters are introduced into control system to limit operation of crane drives at which operation of crane should be stopped or can be executed at introduction of definite limitations into operation of crane drive as to speed, accelerations, combined or successive travel motions of drives, obtained signals concerning operation and state of crane are compared with tolerable values, and possibility and conditions of execution of operator's commands are determined, command is left without changes or definite limitations are applied to operation of crane by introducing corresponding corrections to operator's command or execution of command is prohibited according to preset program.
EFFECT: improved safety of operation of tower crane.
FIELD: hoisting and transportation machinery, particularly to control and protect hoisting machines against overload.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises the first control means group installed on support structure or on equipment parts not to be separated from structure. The first control means group includes digital data processing unit 2 having output connected to executive and signaling device 4, 5 units, the first data input-output unit 3 linked to digital data processing unit with two-directional data exchange channel, crane 6 parameter sensors and power supply unit 1. Power supply unit 1 has one clamp connected to load-lifting machine body and another clamp secured to power supply system bus. The second control means group is supported by movable structure or equipment to be demounted and includes crane parameter sensors 10. The first and the second control means groups are linked one to another through two-directional radioline. The first control means group is provided with the first receiving/transmitting radio station, independent power source 15 and switchboard 16.
EFFECT: increased safety system reliability, simplified assemblage and installation thereof on load-lifting machine.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection devices for load-lifting machines used in construction engineering. According to proposed method, by successive polling of signals of first complex of pickups by data processing base unit and by transmitting of commands through drum with current carrying ring to controller of extendable part for connection of technical devices and receiving information from second complex of pickups, drives of load-lifting machine mechanisms are switched off when actual characteristics exceed tolerable values. Provision is made for connecting current-carrying ring of drum through marker light switch of one terminal of supply source whose second terminal is connected with metal structure of load-lifting machine.
EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities of load-lifting machine, provision of convenient and reliable transmission of commands for selective connection of devices arranged on extendable part and reception of information from pickups arranged on said part.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method of supporting crane operator to provide safe operation of load-lifting crane, operating parameters of crane are measured and processed and information is shown on display for necessity of taking measures to eliminate emergency situation. Data base is created additionally concerning combination of operating parameters of crane at different loads and spatial positions of boom or load-gripping member giving rise to danger at crane operation and said data base is kept on crane. Forecasting of appearance of emergency situation is provided by means of computer with use of data base and, when necessary, by means of mathematical model of crane, and additional measures taken by crane operator to prevent trouble are shown on display.
EFFECT: improved safety of crane operation and operating conditions for crane operator.
22 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; tower cranes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to materials handling facilities and it can be used particular to adjust overload safeguards of tower cranes. Suspended dynamometer with direct of remote control is used when accomplishing the method and implementing the device. Dynamometer is installed between load hook and point of fastening, and load moment is controlled after setting lifting mechanism in adjustment position. For this purpose preset value limiting load torque of electric motor which control operation in direction of lifting is supplied by sending order to said motor and reading values of stretching forces put out by suspended dynamometer.
EFFECT: reduced duration and cost of adjustment of overload safeguards.
11 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting machinery; safeguards.
SUBSTANCE: strain-gauge transducers are installed on outriggers. Analog-digital converter is connected to outputs of strain-gauge transducers. On-board microprocessor is installed for processing data array formed by analog digital converter, control of hydraulic cylinders of support circuit by hydraulic distributor and putting out required information to operator's display. Moreover, on-board microprocessor is furnished with relay module, and mathematical model of load-lifting machine made with possibility of changing, depending on type of load-lifting machine used, is entered into its memory. Additionally hydraulic distributor is connected in parallel with said hydraulic distributor coupled through system of controllers with relay module of on-board microprocessor and designed for re-distribution of liquid from piston spaces of hydraulic cylinders in case of danger of turnover of load-lifting machine.
EFFECT: increased capacity of machine, improved safety at load-handling operations.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: materials handling facilities.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is designed for protection of boom cranes at operation in confined areas and near electric power lines. According to first methods, sensor in form of electric antenna is mounted on boom to detect voltage, amplify it, filter and convert the voltage into emergency signal or crane motion blocking signal, additional vibratory displacements of sensor of sensor mounted on boom are provided. Reception of acoustic signal created by vibrating sensor and reflected from objects surrounding the crane can be provided and amplitude and/or Doppler frequency shift can be revealed and, basing on their values, distance to objects surrounding the crane or speed of their approach to crane can be determined, and at decrease of distance or increase of speed above tolerable values, emergency signal or crane blocking signal can be formed additionally. Forming of ultrasonic signal can be done not by mechanical vibrations of antenna, but by means of separate acoustic converter. Additional forming of modulation signals and acting by this signal onto amplitude or vibration frequency of sensor and determination of distance to objects surrounding the crane can be provided by measuring delay of received signal relative to modulation signal. According to second method, movement of crane boom and sensor mounted on boom are determined additionally and, depending on parameters of movement, sensor voltage amplification factor or indicated threshold level are determined. Direction of movement can be revealed additionally and, depending on said direction, sensor output voltage amplification factor or said threshold level can be changed. Revealing of boom movement can be done not by revealing the direction, but by revealing the speed, and sensor output voltage amplification factor can be increased or set threshold level can be reduced proportionally to said speed. Protection of crane from dangerous approach of boom to electric power line in traveling is provided owing to the fact that at revealing of boom movement speed, translation of crane is additionally taken into account. Direction of location of obstacle is revealed additionally and, if said obstacle approaches the crane with boom motionless, boom drive of crane is switched on to move in opposite direction to automatically prevent collision of boom with said obstacle. Device for implementing proposed method contains sensor mounted on boom and electronic unit whose input is connected to sensor and output is connected with input of emergency signaling or crane movement blocking device, and electromechanical converter connected to electronic unit. Sensor is fastened on electromechanical converter, and electronic unit is made for generating excitation signal of electromechanical converter. Acoustic signals can be received by means of additional acoustic converters connected to additional outputs of electronic unit.
EFFECT: provision of reliable protection of crane from dangerous approach to ac and dc electric power lines.
15 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: equipment for controlling and protection of load-lifting mechanisms from overloads and damage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves controlling load-lifting mechanism by measuring signals proportional to loading and/or geometry thereof; processing signals converted to digital form in accordance with preliminarily stored signals determining order of processing in real time and indicating resulting processing data; in case allowable values of signals are surpassed, generating control signals and delivering the latter to actuating device; providing additional processing of signals characterizing results of measurement of loading and/or geometry of load-lifting mechanism by filtering thereof, including leveling down of vibrations in dynamic modes of operation of load-lifting mechanism, or changing coefficients of amplification of these signals depending on preliminarily stored characteristics of measuring devices or values of said signals; processing resultant signals in digital form.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation of load-lifting mechanism and interchangeability of loading sensor and crane geometry.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed control system contains the onboard microprocessor control unit with actuators connected thereto, crane operating parameters pickups and controls. The proposed system incorporates means identifying lifted and moved cargo representing a reader of bar codes applied on the cargo, or a radiolabel attached to the cargo, to allow locking the cargo, exceeding the crane lifting capacity, lift and move. The system can contain cargo position pickups to automatically guide the tool to be clamped to the cargo. In compliance with the second version, manual input of the identifier or cargo parameters into this system, and, if required, the coordinates of a final point cargo transfer cargo. Note here that the system incorporates appropriate means preventing the crane overload and optimising cargo transfer trajectories. In compliance with the third version of the control system, the said system can block releasing the cargo from the clamping tool depending on current value of the crane load, speed of move and/or spatial position. In compliance with the fourth version, the control system is equipped with wire or wireless means of transmitting signals from a person, outside the load-lifting crane, to the onboard microprocessor control unit for them to be converted into warning light and/or sound data signals and/or to signals blocking the crane motion.
EFFECT: increase in safety of crane operation, its efficiency and ease of control.
24 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method envisages preliminary determining or setting of admissible values of parameters characterising loading and/or attitude position of outrigger or crane cargo-handling device, memorising this data, measuring of these parameters during crane operation, comparing of measured values with admissible values, and further forming of control signals or blocking of control by execution units in order to prevent exceeding of admissible values. Prior to commencement of crane work or in process of lifting and movement of cargoes crane-operator additionally performs preliminary visual control of crane operation condition or presence of people along way of crane or cargo movement or automatic control of correctness of slinging (securing) of cargo, or automatic check of correctness of crane installation on outriggers or optical measurement of crane performance parameters or automatic change of coordinate parity parameters using GPS receivers, radio-frequency or inertial determination of position devices located on obstacles, clothing or equipment of people. Results of this check or control ensue implementation of additional control or information signals.
EFFECT: enhancement of safety of crane operation and of crane efficiency.
24 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system contains hydraulic, electrohydraulic and/or electric drives of crane mechanisms, control device for these drives, and fuel supply control device connected to it. In process of crane operation automatic fuel supply change is performed depending on load position and/or speed of cargo relocation. In second version of system fuel supply change is automatically related to approach or touch of crane operator's hand to drive control handle. Drive control is made as control unit containing control handle, handle position sensor, and controller with outputs connected immediately, or via additional output device, to control drives' inputs and to device controlling fuel supply. Level of fuel supply in general case is different for different drives and directions of crane movement. After handles of crane drive control are returned to neutral position or after hands are removed from handles, value of motor angular velocity is preserved within preset interval after which minimum preset velocity of motor blank cycle is automatically established.
EFFECT: decrease of specific fuel consumption, efficiency increase, enhancement of usability of crane control and of safety of its operation.
17 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system contains electronic module made on basis of microcontroller with attached device for information input-output, display device, protection system controls located outside electronic module, and execution unit, and cargo-hoisting machine performance sensors connected with device for information input-output. Protection system controls and electronic module perform changing type of display of machine performance indicators and changes in both parameters and performance mode of work of machine protection system - scheduling sequence of telescopic boom sections extension, permitting/forbidding lifting operations mix, release of blocking of movement of cargo-hoisting machine in respect of overload and , blocking of cushioning of machine carrier, cargo-hoisting mechanism mode of braking, or boom extension change, position of bracing jack, etc. Display device may be located outside electronic module and it is made as graphic display.
EFFECT: safety enhancement.
13 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: crane protection system contains working conditions transmitters, actuator and data-control unit made on the base of microcontroller with possibility of wire or wireless connecting to it above mentioned transmitters and actuator and with possibility for actuator to generate control signals aimed to prevent working conditions to exceed their permitted values. In the system parameter is revealed for which permitted value exceeding is the most probable at current time, whereupon priority limiting of this parameter value. To do so, the main load carrying member of crane is determined or inhibition of it's stability under working conditions margin is revealed. In the second version of protection system, warning, detection and/or correction of operator wrong actions during setting parameters for jib equipment and/or support contour is performed. In the third system version, changing of permitted values for crane operation parameters is provisioned depending on error of used transmitters.
EFFECT: improvement of operation safety for lifting crane; reducing the value of its travels after achieving the rating value for any parameter and blocking the crane movements by protection system; increase of this system reliability and reduction of requirement to transmitters accuracy.
25 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to handling machinery and can be used in the systems of control and protection of climbing cranes. The safety system incorporates digital computing unit (1) with its data inputs receiving, via a data exchange multiplexer channel, the outputs of the crane parameter recording peripherals (71...7m) comprising, at least, one crane equipment travel pickup, and with outputs wired to crane parameter recorder (3) with real-time counter, display unit (4), preventive signaling unit (5), actuator (6) and external memory (2) communicating, via a two-way data exchange channel, with the digital computing unit. The system comprises, at least, one indicator (8) of the crane equipment crossing of, at least, one check point within the crane operating range, the said indicator being connected to the digital computing unit additional data input adapted to correct the crane equipment travel pickup readings in compliance with the signals generated by the aforesaid indicator.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the crane coordinate protection system operation.
SUBSTANCE: adjustment consists in regulation of signals in channels of measurement of boom load, overhang or inclination angles by adding and/or multiplying these signals with the signals corresponding to the adjusting parameters the values of which are preliminary defined and stored in power-independent memory of the safety device. Regulation is made without of reference cargoes proceeding from the conditions of independence of the results of measurement of the lifted and moved cargoes upon the boom length and inclination angle. Values of adjusting parameters are defined, allowing for the boom deflection, as the constants or functions of the boom overhand, length and inclination angle by commands of the operator/crane operator or automatically. The principle of definition of adjusting parameters is based, in particular, on their calculation as unknown factors in a set of the equations derived using the crane mathematical model. The said device contains transducers of the load-lifting crane operating parameters with digital or analog outputs and the digital computing device with power-independent memory.
EFFECT: opportunity of checking the accuracy of the safety device operation without check cargoes is ensured and efficiency of protection of the load-lifting crane is increased.
16 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device contains the base and the force pickup attached thereto, two support elements and the deformable element connecting free ends of the support elements and attached, by its central part, to force pickup. The device additionally contains the electronic device made to compare the force pickup output signal with that corresponding to the maximal lifting capacity of the mechanism, and to generate the signal to lock its operation, and/or a warning light and/or sound signal depending on results of this comparison. The device, a second version, contains the force pickup, two support elements and two deformable elements jointing the support elements. The force pickup is attached to the central parts of deformable elements. One deformable element is made either elastic or in the form of rigid parts with elastic hinges.
EFFECT: higher safety in operation of the load-lifting mechanism and accuracy of measurement of the cable tension.
12 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: series of inventions refers to the sphere of tower crane operation security engineering. The method in question presupposes exchange of information on the cranes locations, movements and equipment loads between the control and protection devices of all the "n" jointly operating tower cranes. Additional features: identification of the position of each crane and/or its equipment against the construction site plan, conventional graphical visualisation of the position within the construction site territory of a specified crane and/or its equipment (as well as that of the "neighbouring" cranes and equipment related to them) on the crane display. When the crane operator initiates relocation of equipment related to crane Ki the following is carried out: the intended equipment motion path tracing, display graphical visualisation of the intended motion path(s) of the equipment related both to crane Ki and the "neighbouring" crane(s) whose equipment is currently in motion (by means of exchange of information between the control and protection devices), estimation of the minimum distance between the above paths, graphical visualisation of the point of intersection on the crane Ki display and generation of a signal disabling operation of this crane equipment and light and sound alarm signals in case the paths as having been traced happen to intersect. In order to enable further motion of the crane Ki equipment there is an additional line to be plotted by the crane operator which is intended to restrict motion of the crane equipment (the line becomes graphically visualised on the crane Ki, screen); in case the limiting line has been plotted erroneously operation of the crane Ki equipment and mechanisms is automatically disabled when at the paths intersection point.
EFFECT: improving the hoisting cranes operation standard of safety.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting and transportation equipment and it can be used in protection systems of load-lifting cranes. According to proposed method, tolerable loads are determined and memorized in form of function of spatial position of boom, measuring current value of load in process of operation of crane, comparing it with tolerable load and generating warning signal or signal to crane mechanisms aimed at limiting or preventing overload. In process of lifting and/or shifting of load, change of linear or angular position of crane part is revealed additionally whose change is not allowed in current stage of load lifting and/or shifting process. Depending on value of said change of position, additionally warning information signals or crane mechanism control signals are formed aimed either to prevent further increase in said change or to return said part of crane, for instance, boom, into initial position. Protection of crane from overload is implemented with due account both of absolute value and change of value of angle of tilting of crane component part from horizontal or vertical position in process of lifting and/or shifting of load.
EFFECT: improved safety of crane in operation.
21 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; material handling machinery.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measuring or crane loads, traveling of crane with load and time of operation of crane mechanisms, recording of data and comparing them with normal characteristics of crane. In process o measurement, crane operating cycle is found. Beginning of cycle is determined by switching on any other mechanism after switching on load lifting mechanism at G>Gnl and L>Lnl where G is actual load from load on crane hook, Gnl is load at no load on crane hook, ZL is displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load, Lnl is maximum tolerable displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load. End of cycle is found by beginning of following cycle after execution of load lifting in case of no load on crane hook at G>Gnl and operation of any mechanism of horizontal displacement of load at L>Lnl. Simultaneously with determination of beginning and end of cycle, load G is measured at beginning of load lifting in period from moment of exceeding of load Gnl to moment of switching on any other load horizontal displacement mechanism. Current mean value of load is calculated within time interval Δt. Maximum value of current mean load is determined also within said period. Basing on maximum value of current mean load, mass of load is determined, and crane cycle with obtained mass of load is recorded. Then cycles with corresponding load masses are summed up. According to obtained data crane is classified to group of class, data obtained in each group of class are compared with normal characteristics of crane according to specifications and , basing of results on comparing, crane is placed in operation, or crane operator is warned or operation of crane is prohibited. Proposed device contains sensors of load and horizontal displacements, processing unit and comparing unit. Device includes also crane operation cycle revealing unit, cycle recording unit, load mass metering unit, AND and OR units and crane state evaluation unit.
EFFECT: provision of reliable data on conditions of crane, improved safety.
3 cl, 1 dwg