Method of organising operation of multicomponent cycle of refregirators and heat pumps using selective membranes

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to the power engineering industry. To extract heat from a cold medium and transmit it to a hot medium, heat of dissolution is used as well as separation from the solution, two or more substances or two or more groups of soluble or absorbable substances with different thermodynamic properties on their saturation lines or beyond these lines. For this purpose, in the cold part of the cycle, through a selective membrane or membrane, a solvent is moved from one solution to the other such that, one of the substances or one of the groups of substances separates from the solution or is absorbed, with heat release or heat absorption or no thermal effect. The second substance or group of substances is dissolved or separated by an absorber, with absorption of a large amount of heat. As a result, in the cold part of the cycle, heat is taken off the cooled medium. The obtained solution and separated substance or substances are channelled to the hot part of the cycle, heating them with oncoming heat exchanger. In the hot part of the cycle, there is oppositely directed movement of solvent through the selective membrane or membrane. As a result, a reverse thermal effect is achieved and heat is transferred to the hot medium. The obtained solution and separated substance are returned to the cold part of the cycle, cooling them with oncoming heat exchanger. Use of the invention increases efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.

9 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of power engineering, and in particular to methods of organization of work of thermodynamic cycles of refrigerators and heat pumps.

Closest to the invention analogues are ways of organizing the work of thermodynamic cycles of compression and absorption refrigeration. Wahrenberg, Beaulon "EINSTEIN: the INVENTION AND EXPERIMENT," 2nd edition, revised and enlarged. M.: Nauka, 1990, Ch.6. 10. The compression scheme (a) and absorption (b) refrigerators.

A common drawback of these methods is the presence of a gaseous working fluid.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is the abandonment of the gaseous working medium in the circuits of refrigeration machines and heat pumps and increase the efficiency of their work.

This task is solved by the use of selective membranes to move the solvent between two or more closed contours with substances or groups of substances, dissolving with different thermal effect or a substance at different temperature plots of solubility.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that for extracting heat from the cold body and transfer his hot body using the heat of dissolution and extraction and / or absorption and desorption from a solution of two or more substances, or two, or b is more of the groups of substances, soluble or absorb with different thermal effect, or the same substance in different parts of the line of solubility. In the cold part of the cycle through a selective membrane to move the solvent from one solution to another so that one of the substances or groups of substances released from the solution with heat generation or absorption of heat, or absorbed with the same effects as the second substance or group of substances dissolved with the absorption of a larger amount of heat, either selected by the absorber. As a result, in the cold part of the cycle takes the heat from the cooling medium. Then the resulting solution and the selected substance or substances pass into the hot part of the cycle through the heat exchanger where it is heated. In the hot part of the cycle produce reverse the direction of movement of solvent through a selective membrane, resulting in getting a reverse thermal effect and transfer heat to a hot body. The resulting solution and the selected material is fed into the cold part of the cycle through a heat exchanger where they are cooled, closing the cycle of movement of the working substance and the solvent. Since the osmotic pressure of the solutions on both sides of the membrane may be little different in magnitude as the cold and hot side of the loop or even to encourage the movement of solvent through IU the gap, consider the method allows to increase the efficiency of the refrigerating machine or heat pump.

Further, for clarity of presentation we will consider only two-circuit scheme of implementation of the method and for the sake of brevity we will use to denote soluble substances or groups of soluble substances, just "substance", "substance" and "mortar", "mortar (In)".

Figure 1 presents explains the graphs of the variation of the magnitude of the osmotic pressure of two solutions: substances (a) and (B). In the top graph presents the case when the solutions have a small difference of osmotic pressure. The lower graph presents the arbitrary case. Moreover, the difference in osmotic pressures can contribute to the work cycle in this way, as to prevent her.

Figure 2 schematically shows one possible implementation of this method. Here we shall assume that the substance (s) dissolved with the absorption of more heat than is required when dissolved substances (In), this scheme remains healthy and when use of the substance (C), dissolving with heat or no heat effect.

In the cavity (2) of the membrane unit (1)to(2) is a solution of the substance (A) at high temperature. Through selective membrane unit (1)to(2), as shown by the arrow, is the var is the incarnation of the solvent in the cavity (1). As a result of violations of the equilibrium solution (A) in the cavity (2) is released from the solution of the substance (A), while the heat is produced. Of the cavity (1) to channel (3) the solvent is supplied into the cavity (5) of the membrane unit (5)-(6). If the osmotic pressure of the solution (a) of the cavity (2) exceeds the pressure of the solution (C) in the cavity (6), to increase the pressure of the solvent used, the pump (4). From the cavity (5) the solvent through the membrane is fed into the cavity (6), as shown by the arrow. In the cavity (6) is dissolved substances (In). Since the amount of heat absorbed by dissolving the substance (C) is less than the amount of heat released during the separation from the solution of the substance (A), produces excess heat that is passed to be heated external body. The substance (s) of the cavity (2) by means of a pump (18), through the heat exchanger (16), where it is cooled, is fed into the cavity (14) of the membrane unit (13)-(14). In the cavity (14) is dissolved substances (a) absorption of a large amount of heat, and the dissolution of the entire mass of the substance (A) is not necessary, then the solution (A) is fed through line (15), through the heat exchanger (16), where it is heated and possibly continues its dissolution, in the cavity (2) of the membrane unit (1)-(2). Thus closes the circulation of the substance (A). Received in the cavity (6) the solution of the substance (C) through line (7) h is cut the heat exchanger (16), where it is cooled and possibly partial release of the active substances (In), served in the cavity (8) of the membrane unit (8)-(9). Through the membrane unit (8)-(9), as shown by the arrow, is the movement of solvent into the cavity (9). As a result of violations of the equilibrium solution (C) in the cavity (8) is released from the solution of the substance (C), the heat is released. Since the amount of heat absorbed by dissolving substance (A)is greater than the amount of heat released during the selection of the solution of the substance (C), there is a lack of heat, which compensate by taking heat from a cold body. The solvent of the cavity (9) of the membrane unit (8) (9) of the channel (11) is served in the cavity (13) of the membrane unit (13)-(14), where the solvent through the membrane is moved into the cavity (14), as shown by the arrow. If the osmotic pressure of the solution (C) in the cavity (8) exceeds the osmotic pressure of the solution (A) in the cavity (14), the pressure of the solvent by means of a pump (12). Released in the cavity (8), the substance (C) by means of a pump (10) through the channel (17) through the heat exchanger (16), where it is heated, is fed into the cavity (6) of the membrane unit (5)-(6). Thus closes the circulation of matter (In). The solvent is circulated sequentially through the elements(1), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), (2). Pumps (4)-(12)shown in this diagram, may lack the SQL.

(3) schematically shows another possible implementation of this method combined with the membrane. Into the cavity (1) of the membrane unit (1)to(6) at high temperature is a solution of the substance (A). Of the cavity (1) through the membrane, as shown by the arrow, the solvent is transferred into the cavity (6), where the dissolved substances (In). Because of the violation of the equilibrium solution (A) in the cavity (1) is the release of the active substances (A) from the solution, and is allocated a greater amount of heat than is absorbed soluble substance (B) in the cavity (6). Excessive heat transfer of the heated environment at a high temperature. If the osmotic pressure of the solution (A) in the cavity (1) exceeds the osmotic pressure of the solution (C) in the cavity (6), the required differential created by a pump (10), (18) or by placing the pump on the highways (7), (15), the diagram they are not listed. Isolated from solution (A) in the cavity (1) the substance (s) through the channel, through the heat exchanger (16), where it is cooled, is fed into the cavity (14) of the membrane unit (14)to(8), and, if necessary, use the pump (18). In the cavity (14) of the membrane unit (14)to(8), the substance (A) is dissolved at a low temperature with absorption of heat, and the complete dissolution of the whole mass of the substance (A) is not necessarily needed for this solvent serves through the membrane unit (14)to(8), as shown by the arrow, from the cavity (8, in which there is an allocation from the solution of the substance (In). As the heat of dissolution of the substance (A) exceeds the heat discharge from the solution of the substance (C), lack of heat refund, taking heat from the cooling medium. Received in the cavity (14) to a cold solution (A) through line (15) through the heat exchanger (16), where it is heated and possibly continue the dissolution of the substance (A)is fed into the cavity (1) of the membrane unit (1)to(6). Thus, completing the circulation of the substance (A). A hot solution (C) of the cavity (6) of the membrane unit (1)to(6) through line (7), through the heat exchanger (16), where it is cooled and possibly partial release of the active substances (In), served in the cavity (8). In the cavity (8) due to pumping solvent through the membrane is the violation of the equilibrium solution (b) and the selection of the substance (C) from the solution. The isolated substance (In) through line (17), through the heat exchanger (16), where it is heated, is fed into the cavity (6) for dissolution, there can be used a pump (10). Thus, completing the cycle of the substance (C).

If soluble substance is precipitated in crystalline precipitate and, or prone to the formation of relatively stable supercooled solutions, schemes, it is advisable to introduce additional turbulizers device that allows selection of a soluble substance from a solution.

The scheme presented is a (2) and (3), in some extent similar to refrigerators, working with mechanical drives. However, this method and implement for cases similar to refrigerators operating by supplying high-grade heat, such as water-ammonia. In the diagram Figure 4 shows the graphs of the osmotic pressure of the substances (a) and (b), and substance (A) is dissolved at elevated temperature tmax, thus, can be increased its concentration and, or osmotic pressure, which provides the cycle refrigerating machine or heat pump according to the proposed method.

Figure 5 schematically shows one of such embodiments of the method. Here we assume that the amount of absorbed heat when dissolved substance (A) is less than the amount of heat required for the dissolution of the substance (C), the scheme remains healthy and at zero thermal effect when dissolved substances (A), and if the heat will be released.

In the cavity (2) of the membrane unit (1)-(2) serves the substance (s) at the temperature tmax. Dissolved substance (A) creates a maximum within this scheme the osmotic pressure. The result of the cavity (1) in the cavity (2) through the membrane enters solvent, as shown by the arrow. Received in the cavity (2) the solution of the substance (A) through line (15) is expanded cher is C the heat exchanger (19), where its temperature decreases from tmax to t2, after which it is expanded through the heat exchanger (16), where its temperature falls from t2 to t1. While some of the substances (A) may be released from the solution, forming a mechanical solution. Then a solution of the substance (A) is served in the cavity (14) of the membrane unit (14)-(13). The solvent of the cavity (14) through the membrane unit (14)-(13) into the cavity (13). As a result of violations of the equilibrium solution (A) in the cavity (14) is the release of the active substances (A) from the solution. thermal effect of separation from the solution of the substance (A) can be both positive and negative. Released in the cavity (14) the substance (s) by means of a pump (18) on the highway, through the heat exchangers (16) and (19), where its temperature is brought to tmax, is fed into the cavity (2) of the membrane unit (1)-(2). Thus, completing the motion of matter (A).

Of the cavity (13) of the membrane unit (14)-(13), the solvent is fed into the cavity (9) of the membrane unit (9)-(8). In the cavity (8) at low temperature t1 is dissolved substances (C) a solvent, having passed the membrane, as shown by the arrow. Moreover, the complete dissolution of the substance (C) is not required. The substance (C) is dissolved with heat absorption more than was allocated in the allocation of sample solution (A). In the result of summation of thermal effects of the allocation of substance (a) and the dissolution of the substance (C) is proishodit weaning heat from the cooled object at temperature t1. Received in the cavity (8) the solution of the substance (C) by means of a pump (20) through line (7), through the heat exchanger (16), where its temperature is raised to t2, served in the cavity (6) of the membrane unit (6)to(5), and in the process of heating the solution in the heat exchanger (16) may be further dissolved substances (In). Through the membrane unit (6)to(5), as shown by the arrow, the solvent enters the cavity (5). As a result of violations of the equilibrium solution in the cavity (6) is released from the solution of the substance (C) at the temperature t2. Emitted heat transfer of the heated external body. Received in the cavity (6) of the substance (C) on the channel (17), through the heat exchanger (16), where it is cooled to a temperature t1, served in the cavity (8) of the membrane unit (9)-(8). Thus, completing the circulation of the substance (C).

Received in the cavity (5) a solvent, (3), through the heat exchanger (19), where its temperature is increased to tmax, served in the cavity (1) of the membrane unit(1)-(2).

Under high osmotic pressure of the solvent through the membrane enters the cavity (1), as shown by the arrow, where the dissolution of a substance (A). Thus, the solvent passes successively through the heat exchangers and membrane units.

Figure 6 schematically illustrates a similar embodiment of this method, differing only in that the membrane (14)to(3) and (9)-(8) are replaced with a single membrane unit (14)to(8), as the solvent passes through the membrane. This difference is not significant. All other elements correspond to the elements in the diagram, figure 5.

The claimed method remains applicable for the cases shown in Fig.7. The case presents the top graph of figure 7, describes the behavior of the lines of solubility for the two substances (a) and (B). The solubility of the substance (A) grows very rapidly with increasing temperature, which leads to rapid increase in osmotic pressure and heat of dissolution remains small. The solubility of the substance (C) is growing relatively slowly, the osmotic pressure increases relatively slowly, and the heat of dissolution is relatively high. In this case, can be applied to the circuit shown in Fig. All elements of this scheme are similar to elements of the scheme 6. However, the temperature, tmax here has a membrane unit (6)to(5), and the temperature t2 membrane unit(1)-(2).

The case presents the bottom graph of figure 7, describes the behavior of the lines of solubility for the two substances (a) and (B). Moreover, the solubility of the substance (A) grows very rapidly with increasing temperature, which leads to rapid increase in osmotic pressure and heat of dissolution remains small, while the lower temperature limit of use of the substance (A) can be increased to tn, which is higher than the temperature t2 at which will dissolve the camping stuff (In). The solubility of the substance (C) is growing relatively slowly, the osmotic pressure increases relatively slowly, and the heat of dissolution is relatively high. In this case, can be applied to the circuit shown in Fig.9. All elements of this scheme are similar to elements of the scheme 5. In the scheme of added heat exchanger (21), which is cooling the solvent to a temperature t1, coming on the highway from the cavity (13) of the membrane unit (14)-(13) in the cavity 9 of the membrane unit(9)-(8).

Thus, to implement the method applied at least two substances or two groups of substances, one of which provides the transfer of solvent between the solutions, it can be called a leader, the other provides the necessary thermal effects, it can be called a slave. The leading substance or group of substances should be selected so that the warmth of its solubility was minimal, and the osmotic pressure of its solution is relatively high. Slave substance should be selected so that the heat required for its dissolution, was maximal, and the osmotic pressure of its solution is relatively small. And for substances not required the same temperature on the hot and cold side of the loop.

Because there are real indications that the heating coefficients the heat pump, created by the claimed method, will be substantially higher than 10, the temperature range above 100 deg., the obvious improvement would be the use in this interval the standard Rankine cycle for power generation, leading the heat pump and use it for other purposes.

The method of operation of thermodynamic cycle heat pumps and refrigerators that operate through changes in thermodynamic state of the working fluid, characterized in that for extracting heat from a cold medium and transfer it to a hot environment, use the heat of dissolution and extraction from a solution of two or more substances, or two or more groups of soluble or absorbable substances with different thermodynamic properties on the lines of their saturation and outside of these lines, which in the cold part of the cycle through a selective membrane or membrane move the solvent from one solution to another so that one of the substances or groups of substances released from the solution or absorbed with heat generation or absorption of heat, or no heat effect, and the second substance or group of substances is dissolved or stands absorber with absorption of larger amounts of heat, resulting in a cold part of the cycle takes the heat from the cooling medium, after which the resulting solution and you elenoa substance or substances pass into the hot part of the cycle, fueling their counter heat transfer in the hot part of the cycle produce the opposite in the direction of the movement of solvent through a selective membrane or membrane, resulting in getting a reverse thermal effect and transfer heat to a hot environment, the resulting solution and the selected substance back into the cold part of the cycle, cooling their counter heat transfer, closing the cycle of movement of the working substance and the solvent.



 

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