Universal sea power generation plant

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed power generation plant exploits the power of sea wave and tides. The plant comprises a hollow cylindrical housing with its bottom open. It communicates with seawater and is anchored to sea bottom. The said housing features a narrowing forming a smaller cylinder. The casing is attached to the aforesaid cylinder. The aforesaid casing houses an impeller driven by air sucked in/out from the housing inner space via air ducts formed by the aforesaid casing and non-return valves mounted inside the upper small cylinder, the air force being directly dependent upon the water level caused by the running wave.

EFFECT: simple low-cost high-efficiency power generation unit to be mounted at whatever sea- or-ocean coast line.

4 cl, 22 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of hydropower, in particular to the use of sea wave power and energy of the tide.

Known Wave power plant" (Patent RU 2010995 C1, 5 F03B 13/12, publ. 15.04.1994)containing floating partially filled with the working fluid body with a convex bottom surface separated by a hollow vertical partition into two communicated among themselves at the bottom of the compression chamber to the suction valve, and the air collector user connected to the compression chambers by means of check valves, the lower surface of the septum is made of a curved streamlined shape, the air manifold is formed throughout its internal cavity, and the configuration of the bottom of the housing has the shape of two connected cylindrical surfaces with different radii of curvature, with a large surface located on the sea side, while the consumer is made in the form of turbo-generator is installed on the air manifold.

The famous "Wave pneumoenteritis installation" (Patent RU 2010996 C1, 5 F03B 13/12, publ. 15.04.1994)containing floating body made in the form of two cylindrical floats, cameras compression with suction valves, partially filled with the working fluid and connected between a water pipe and an air manifold with turbo-generator connected to cameraposition air piping-check valves, the compression chamber is made into a cylindrical floats, check valves are installed on the ends of the pipes from the air manifold, and turbine generator set at last.

A disadvantage of the known technical solutions is that both systems are float and flood during stormy weather. Since all of the float system undergo vibrational motion under the action of waves, there is a need for more protection electric cable from damage on the ground, tensile and bending loads. In addition, the data of the float device is necessary from time to time to focus on the wave front by adjusting the length of anchor fasteners. When approaching storm these devices are flooding, otherwise during the storm they can be plucked from the anchors. After the storm, these devices must be elevated from the ground by blowing compressed air floats. Given the above, these devices need to have additional equipment to adjust anchor fasteners, devices for opening and closing valves flooding, device, air blowing floats, system control and maintenance of a working fluid level in the floats. Because from time to time, devices are flooded, additional protection g is neration from ingestion of water. So, according to the invention in the patent RU 2010995 is supposed to cover the surface of the working fluid mineral oil, it follows that the flooding of the device part of the oil, and possibly all the oil will flow from the flooded float and contaminate the surface of the sea. Thus, it appears that the reliability of the proposed technical solutions are very low. Because of the presence of the additional equipment required the additional protection of the generator, cables and hoses, and a choice of mineral oil environmentally harmful. In addition, the design features of these plants do not allow them large. Therefore, the amount and pressure of air flowing to the air turbine, small wind turbines themselves turbines are axial type with a low efficiency, which implies that the power generated by these plants will be small.

In the case of variable direction of air movement and alternating the direction of rotation of the air turbine and generator doubts about the efficiency of these devices. It is known that the motion of the wave is calculated in a few seconds, of course, and the oscillation of these devices will be the same as the generator rotor and the turbine wheel have inertia. For repayment of inertia and spin in the other direction will take time, therefore, the rotor is of enerator if will alternately rotate, then very slowly, because he will not have time to spin up. The effectiveness of such installation is very low.

Known Wave power plant" (Patent RU 2049928 C1, 6 F03B 13/18, publ. 10.12.1995), selected as a prototype, containing mounted on the bottom of the reservoir cylindrical tank provided in the lower part of the reservoir, and a float cover with buoyancy compartments, forming with the reservoir cavity, connected to the air turbine through the channel and the holes drilled in the Central part of the cover, a turbine connected to a generator, the tank is open at the bottom, in the upper part of its walls formed by the open top of the annular cavity, the lid is made in the form of two coaxial cylinders, rigidly interconnected at the top, and the compartments are connected with the outer cylinder is made with a constant buoyancy and posted by can travel in the annular cavity and the side walls of the annular cavity at the level of the undisturbed surface of the water holes and the total area of the holes of the inner wall is smaller than the total area of the holes of the outer wall. The bottom of the inner cylinder cover is installed directly above the undisturbed water surface. In addition, the holes of the outer wall installed shut-off non-return valve, open the surrounding inside the ring cavity, and in the holes of the inner wall installed shut-off adjustable valve connected to the pressure sensors, placed on the inner wall.

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is its structural complexity and low power. According to the description of the patent RU 2049928 the bottom of the cover is installed and supported on the intermediate level of the amplitude of the wave, i.e. the cover does not react on every wave and, therefore, it would seem more efficient use of the air volume of the tank. It turns out that in a long time cover will be fixed. It is not clear what is efficiency, because with a stationary cover the number of displaced and the intake air does not depend on the height of the bottom of the cover, and depends only on the amplitude of the wave. From this it follows that there is no need to change the mounting height of the cover, i.e., the system changes the height of the cover is impractical. In addition, the design of the device is such that during a storm or hurricane during the passage of abnormally high waves cap will be raised to the maximum height and actually discharged from the device. Further, as seen from the diagrams, the air channel in the bottom cover has a small diameter, respectively, and the diameter of the wheels of the air turbine is small and hence torque m is a COP on the shaft of the turbine is too small, i.e. the output power will be low. A feature of the device is such that the air turbine should rotate alternately in one and in the other direction, however, the efficiency of such a system is highly questionable. The transit time of the wave is calculated in a matter of seconds, i.e. variation of the liquid level inside the device occurs on average within 3-6 seconds, and the system turbine-generator rotor has inertia. From this it follows that to stop rotating of the rotor and spin it in the other direction takes time, therefore, of the time of the raising and lowering of the fluid level will go on to overcome the inertia of the rotating system turbine-generator rotor. While this mode of operation, to speak about the efficiency of this power plant is not necessary, and indeed the performance of the system is doubtful.

The proposed solution is devoid of the above disadvantages, can work during the storm, can give quite a lot of power, is a universal device for driving the generator with a rotating rotor, the linear generators, piezoresistors, pumps and other devices that use rotary or reciprocating motion.

The basis of the invention given the task of implementing a universal, simple, effective the th, cheap wave or tidal power plants, which could be installed in any location along the sea and the ocean and to obtain environmentally friendly electricity.

The problem is solved in that in the universal sea of energy installation comprising a hollow cylindrical body, an open bottom which is connected with the water environment and still attached to the seabed, the body in its upper part has a constriction forming the upper small cylinder, to which is attached a casing placed inside the impeller, driven by air, alternately sucked and displaced from the inner cavity of the housing through the air channels formed by the casing, and irrevocable (intake/exhaust) valves installed inside the top of the small cylinder, changing water level from passing waves. To the output shaft impeller is attached to the generator and, if necessary, water pump. At the bottom of the underwater part of the hull has a constriction forming a confuser, designed to reduce the rate of change of the water level inside the housing in storm conditions, to prevent possible pneumatic and hydraulic shocks. When medium and small wave impact confuser slightly. For the case of a linear generator or piezogenic the rum inside in the upper part before narrowing of the installed membrane, connecting with generator a rigid connection, and the generator is mounted above the upper cylinder, the air space above the membrane should be communicated with the atmosphere. For all cases the dimensions vary from the mean wavelength and the maximum possible height of the wave crest. The inner diameter of the confuser or minimum inner diameter narrowing in the lower part of the body should be in the range of 1/6 to 1/4 of the average length of a wave, and the height of the hull to the narrowing in the upper part must be higher than the maximum possible high crest of a wave, measured from the average level of calm water. For different areas of the sea and the ocean, there are special directories with tables of values of the average wavelength, the maximum height of the wave crest, charts, tides. The device is installed on piles driven into the bottom so that when the passage of the wave with the maximum amplitude of the lower part of the body is not drained into the trough of the wave, and the upper part of the area of the narrowing was not zahlstelle crest of a wave.

Figure 1 shows a General view from the shore installation with a horizontal axis of the impeller, figure 2 is a side view in section, figure 3, 4, 5 - installation with vertical, Central location of the axis of the impeller in figure 3 - view from the shore of the set is, figure 4 is a side view, figure 5 is a bottom view of the casing and impeller, 6, 7 - non-return valve, on Fig - side view of the installation with the vertical axis of the shaft impeller mounted eccentric to the axis of the casing installation, figure 9 - section b-b, figure 10, 11 - water pump, Fig, 13 - impeller, Fig - installation for linear generator or piezoresistor, Fig diagram of wave cumulative hydropower, Fig - tidal power plant, Fig, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 - charts of tides in different parts of the globe.

Universal power unit includes: a housing 1, a confuser 2, the upper cylinder 3, the casing impeller 4, the air duct 5, the exhaust valve 6, the intake valve 7, an impeller 8, the generator 9, the gear 10, the water pump 11, the pile 12, the diaphragm 13, a hard link 14, the generator (linear generator/piezoresistor) 15. Cumulative hydroelectric contains: pressure tank 16, the reservoir 17, the turbine 18, the pump unit 19, the installation of 20 linear generator or piezoresistors.

Universal power unit operates as follows: with the passage of the waves inside the enclosure 1 is the fluctuation of the water level and thus is alternately displacement and suction air. With the passage of the crest of a wave, the water level is inside the body 1 rises and displaces the air from it, the air exits through the exhaust valve 6 and the air channel 5, acts on the blades impeller 8 and causes it to rotate. With the passage of the trough, the water level falls, the air is sucked through the opposite air channel and the inlet valve 7, again acts on the blades of impeller 8 and also spins an impeller. It turns out that any fluctuation of the water level displacement and the intake air does useful work on the spin wheel. The direction of rotation depends only on the installation of non-return valves 6 and 7, i.e. the side which will be sent to the valves. Themselves valves are exactly the same, made in the form of a rectangular frame with horizontal baffles, which on the one hand attached overlapping strips of soft material such as rubberized fabric, rubber or synthetic material. To turn valves 6 and 7 180° enough to move the mounting plate with handles on one side to the other. The power is supplied from the shaft of the impeller 8. As the torque on the shaft of the wheel is large, the drive generator 9 is advisable to carry out through Overdrive gearbox. The device with the vertical axis impeller (figure 3 and 8) are set so that the open is part of the wheel was turned towards the shore, a device with a horizontal axis of the wheel (figure 1) is oriented so that the axis of the wheel and the shore line were approximately parallel. The blades of the impeller 8 may be straight or curved. For power plants with a linear generator or piezoresistors (Fig) the device is even easier. The average position of the diaphragm 13 corresponds to the calm water level, in this position, the air pressure between the membrane and the surface of the water is equal to atmospheric, the cavity above the diaphragm communicates with the atmosphere, the cavity between the membrane and the surface of the water closed and any fluctuation of the water level inside the enclosure immediately causes the oscillation of the membrane 13. The reciprocating motion from the membrane via a hard link 14 is transmitted to a linear generator or piezoresistor 15.

The proposed facility with the impeller 19 (Fig) can be used for cumulative hydropower. For this purpose, to the other end of the axle shaft 8 is attached water pump 11 through a gearbox or directly. Wheel 8 drives the water pump 11, which is pumping sea water through the pipe to the pressure tank 16 mounted on the shore. In the pressure tank sea water is poured from above, and from the water tank by gravity through the pipe enters the artificial reservoir 17, which is at some distance from the shore. From this reservoir the water itself is ECOM through the drain pipes back to the shore, trickle down. Below, on the beach, the water enters the turbine 18, actuates a generator and then back into the sea. The proposed device can be placed along the shoreline in large quantities, they can gather in groups of different configurations, or to build in the chain, it all depends on the topography and the coastline. Pressure tanks can take water from one or more pumps, the distance between the pressure tanks is limited only by the terrain and the condition that the water from the tank to the reservoir is only by gravity. Given that the calm weather it happens infrequently and briefly, by this, you can fill the reservoir of large capacity or a group of interconnected bodies of water capable of supporting the operation of the turbines of generators for 10-15 days in the case of calm weather.

From the above it follows that the proposed solution provides the ability to get clean, free electricity generated sea wave. Because of the cumulative hydropower sea, the water is constantly updated, these reservoirs can be used as pools for swimming, and a part of the produced electricity can be used to heat the water in these reservoirs. Thus, the reservoirs and the territory around them can be used on lesofat for rest and health improvement. This is especially true for areas with seasonal changes in air temperature. The installation of the devices along the coastline groups of various configurations will contribute to the strengthening of bottom and partially to extinguish the right to shore wave, i.e. to perform a protective function for beaches and coastal structures.

In addition, the proposed device with the paddle wheels can be used for tidal power. As the tide this is the same wave, only stretched in time, and it employs the same principle - the change in water level. The proposed option tidal power station is an inverted box-like structure based on vertical walls 21 and driven into the bottom support 22. The vertical walls 21 are on the perimeter and form with the upper platform 23 sealed cavity. In the lower part of the walls, under water, at a depth below the lowest low tide level Hminthere are window 24 for the passage of water. The upper space 23 is located at a height above the maximum height of the water level Hmax. On the upper horizontal surface 23 has openings 25 on which is mounted the upper working part 26 of the wave power station valves, air ducts, the impeller and the generator.

Tidal power plant operates as follows: in BP the two tides inside the hollow box-shaped the water level changes and the displacement of air from the cavity or suction of air into the cavity. The movement of air through the work items 26, that is the same workflow as in the wave power plant, only stretched in time. Chart the tides in most part of the Earth has a smooth curved line at the maximum upper Nmaxand the minimum lower Nminlevels, i.e. the rate of change of water level in these areas of the chart gradually decreases to 0 and then slowly starts to increase from 0. Depending on the geographical latitude, the length and height of the tide in different parts of the globe different and these areas account for from 30 minutes to 9 hours. However, there are areas where the tide chart has the appearance of an irregular curve, for example in the areas of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vancouver. Chart tide in these places has two peaks at Hmaxand actually for 8-13 hours fluctuation of the water level is very small. It turns out that in these areas the chart tidal power plant is practically not working. From this it follows that it is reasonable that the flow area of the Windows 24 of the proposed design was such that the water level inside the structure has changed with some delay from the change of water level in the sea. The delay should be the same, or approximately so, to chart changes in water level inside the cavity max is approached form the polyline curve, i.e. in the provisions of the Hmaxand Hminthe curve should be strongly curved and more like broken. Thus, it is possible to minimize downtime generators, between the end of the tide and the beginning of low tide and the end of low tide and high tide. The most preferred places for the construction of such power plants are bays, coves or artificial ponds, communicating with the sea through the Straits, channels or tunnels. On Fig presents one possible tidal power station, located in the reservoir 27 to the shore 28 at some distance from the sea and communicating with the sea 29 via an underground tunnel 30.

The proposed solution is a universal marine power plant, as one body with minor modifications can be used in three variants with the paddle wheels for power generators with rotating rotor, and the same case can be used to power with a linear generator or piezoresistors. In addition, the wave power plant with paddle wheels can be used as pumping systems for cumulative hydropower, and as work items tidal power.

1. Universal marine energy installation comprising an open bottom polycylindrical case, communicated with the water environment and still attached to the sea floor, characterized in that the housing upper part is narrowing, forming the upper small cylinder, to which is attached a casing placed inside the impeller, driven by air, alternately sucked and displaced from the inner cavity of the housing through the air channels formed by the casing, and non-return valves installed inside the top of the small cylinder, changing water level from passing waves.

2. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that any output end of the shaft impeller attached to the generator.

3. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the lower part of the housing has a constriction forming the confuser.

4. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that from the shaft and impeller made the drive to the water pump.



 

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