Damless hydroelectric station

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and is designed to transform the power of river streams and tides into AC or DC electric power. The damless hydroelectric power station comprises a confuser-diffuser cylindrical-entrance water duct whereat a quick-acting gate and turbine are located. The said gate is arranged in the turbine and represents a double-acting facility operating depending upon the water flow direction in the aforesaid water duct. The said cylindrical entrance communicates via bypass branch pipes with check valves fitted therein with two buffering capacities communicating via a bypass pipeline. The pipeline houses the turbine connected to the electric generator. Each buffering capacity communicates with the aforesaid cylindrical entrance with the help of two bypass branch pipes, one being located ahead of the gate while the other one operates behind it along the stream in water duct.

EFFECT: all-season acting damless hydroelectric power station.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of energy, namely hydropower, and is designed to convert the energy flows of the rivers, tides into electrical energy AC or DC.

Known dam hydroelectric power plant, comprising a plate, recessed inclined towards the flow at 1/3 depth, with the possibility of removing the top energy, the high-potential layer of the stream, elevation of the specified layer at a certain altitude and direction to the mouth of the funnel vertical cavity, the turbine placed at the base of the vertical cavity on the vertical axis (see Shirinsky A.F. New technical means of adaptation energy systems to natural conditions, journal of Hydraulic engineering. NTA "power progress" - 1993, No. 11, p.3).

A disadvantage of the known dam hydroelectric is the fact that the work of the turbine depends on the level and height of the raised layer flow using an inclined recessed plate, and therefore the potential energy of such a block (flow) is small, while the turbine is placed on the vertical axis, which leads to an increase of the dimensions of hydroelectric power.

Also known free-threaded unit installed near the dam and contains installed in the housing of a turbine connected to an electric what eneration, (see JP patent No. 58183870, CL. F03 13/08, 27.10.1983).

This free-threaded hydraulic unit mounted on the bottom of the river near the dam, allows you to generate electrical energy, but it has relatively low efficiency, which is due to the fact that the water pressure created almost only the slope of the river valley, so the capacity of these hydropower plants is relatively small, and slow rotation of the impeller turbines requires the use of heavy and expensive multipliers for transmitting rotation to the generator.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is dam hydroelectric containing conduit defined therein shutoff valve and the turbine (see patent RU No. 2241092, CL EV 9/00).

The construction of this dam hydroelectric allows you to use the energy of the hammer to increase the efficiency of the plant. However, the need to raise the flow of water above the level of the river to supply water flow to shut-off valve leads to additional energy losses of the water flow, which reduces the efficiency of converting the energy of water flow into electrical energy. In addition, the need to create a vertical channel for supplying water to the impeller of the turbine leads to the complexity of the design the dam hydroelectrolytic and increase its size, while hydroelectric power is only functional when the flow of water in one direction.

Task to be solved by the present invention is directed, is the creation of a relatively simple free-threaded Assembly that can be installed below the water level in a floating state or at the bottom of the river, in the coastal zone of seas, oceans or lakes in places the tides.

The technical result achieved from the implementation of the invention is to increase the economy and efficiency through better use of the energy of water flow and the possibility of year-round use dam hydroelectric, especially in freezing rivers.

This problem is solved and the technical result is achieved due to the fact that dam hydroelectric power plant contains a conduit defined therein by a high-speed shutter, check valves and turbine, the conduit is made confused-cone with a cylindrical neck, and check valves installed in the past on different sides of the shutter and made in the form of two-way valves actions which are triggered depending on the flow direction in the conduit, a cylindrical neck communicated through the bypass pipe with installed non-return valves with two buffer tanks accumulating liquid with p is increased and decreased pressure, last communicated with each other through the bypass pipeline, which has connected to the turbine generator, and each buffer capacity is reported with a cylindrical neck with two bypass pipes, one of which is located in front of the high-speed shutter, and the other behind him in the course of the flow in the conduit.

Analysis of the known dam power plants has shown that it is possible to improve work efficiency and reduce specific consumption of power plants due to more fully utilize the energy flow of the stream of water in one and in the opposite direction that occurs when the tides and low tides in coastal areas of seas and oceans. This is due to the fact that dam hydroelectric power plant contains a conduit defined therein by a high-speed shutter, check valves and turbine, the conduit is made confused-cone with a cylindrical neck, and check valves installed in the past on different sides of the shutter and made in the form of two-way valves actions which are triggered depending on the flow direction in the conduit, a cylindrical neck communicated through the bypass pipe with installed non-return valves with two buffer tanks, accumulating the liquid with high and low pressure, last communicated with each other through the bypass pipeline, which has connected to the turbine generator, and each buffer capacity is reported with a cylindrical neck with two bypass pipes, one of which is located in front of the high-speed shutter, and the other behind him in the course of the flow in the conduit. In the result, we can solve two problems at once is to reduce the hydraulic resistance of the conduit and partially convert the potential energy of the flow of water into kinetic energy of the flow, with greater speed runs on a fast shutter, which, in turn, can increase the energy of the artificially created water hammer. In addition, the implementation of dam hydroelectric two buffer tanks allows, due to the energy of the hammer to create one buffer capacity of high pressure fluid and the other, on the contrary, to reduce the pressure of the liquid, thus increasing the pressure drop in connecting the buffer tank bypass pipeline installed therein and connected to a generator turbine with a corresponding increase its effectiveness. Performing a high-speed shutter with the possibility of double-acting and the message of the cylindrical mouth of the conduit with each of the buffer tanks by using dvuhterabaytnyh nozzles, one of which is located in front of the high-speed shutter, and the other behind him in the course of the stream in conduit allows dam hydroelectric work, changing the direction of water flow on the opposite that takes place during low tides and high tides and, in some cases, during periods of river flooding, taking into account local features of the area. The ability to install dam hydroelectric below water level, for example in the river, allows to use it in the winter during coating the surface of the water ice and avoid strong wave impacts at the location of it in the sea or ocean.

The drawing shows schematically described dam hydroelectric power plant.

Dam hydroelectric power plant contains a conduit 1 defined therein a fast shutter 2 and the turbine 3. The conduit 1 is made confused-cone with a cylindrical neck 4. Fast shutter 2 is installed in the past and made double-acting, operating in dependence on the direction of the water flow in the conduit. Cylindrical neck 4 communicated through the bypass pipes 5 and 6 with installed non-return valves 7 and 8 with two buffer tanks 9 and 10, the latter communicated with each other through the bypass pipe 11, which has connected with elec is regeneration (not shown in the drawing) turbine 3. Each buffer tank 9 and 10 is in communication with the cylindrical neck 4 with two bypass pipes (for buffer capacity 9 bypass pipes 5 and buffer capacity of 10 the bypass pipe 6), one of which is placed in front of a fast shutter 2, and the other behind him in the course of the flow in the conduit.

Dam hydroelectric power plant is placed in the water stream, for example, under the surface of the water in a floating state or at the bottom of the river, or in the coastal area along the direction of water flow.

The free flow speed U0and pressure in the Central stream of p0at the entrance to the conduit 1 is slightly braked to a speed U1with a small increase in pressure up to p1and then increases the speed of confused on the site of a conduit 1 to the value U>U0with a corresponding pressure decrease to a value of p<R0<p1. This pressure decrease is accompanied by release of air (gas mixture)dissolved in water. Water flows into the cylindrical neck 4 and runs on a fast shutter 2, providing closure of the bore cylindrically cap 4 and, as a consequence, the hydraulic impact of the abrupt increase of pressure. In the cylindrical neck 4 of the conduit 1 occurs pressure wave, propagating with the speed from the high speed shutter 2 is to stretch the thread with pressure on the front

.

At the same time downstream from the high-speed shutter 2 shock wave propagates with the same decompression

.

The check valve 7 bypass pipe 5 located in front of the cut-off valve 2 is opened for the passage of water from high pressure in the buffer tank 9, and the check valve 8 by-pass pipe 6 located behind a fast shutter 2, is opened to release the water from the buffer tank 10 in the area of low pressure in the cylindrical neck 4 of the conduit 1. This happens as long as the pressure wave does not return, reflected from the free ends of the conduit 1. At this point, the check valves 7 and 8 are closed, fast shutter 2 is opened and the flow in the conduit 1 accelerates to its original condition. Then the process repeats. The difference between the pressure in the buffer tank 9 and 10 gradually and continuously perpetuated at the turbine 3. If the flow direction is changed (tide low tide), the process is essentially unchanged - it only changes the bypass pipes 5 and 6 (open the second pair of nozzles). A buffer tank 9 and 10 retain their functions, and the turbine 3 operates in the same direction.

It should be noted that aeration even small concentration of air in water is sharply reduced the t of the velocity of propagation of shock waves in water, giving you enough time to fill the buffer tank 9 from the zone of overpressure and emptying another buffer tank 10 in an area of deficient pressure and provides a stable work flow high-speed turbine 3.

The advantages described hydroelectric power at low flow velocities are that the pressure drop across the turbine 3 can reach 4ρcU0and more, where ρ - the density of water, C is the speed of propagation of elastic waves in the conduit 1, U0- the speed of the water on the approach to the conduit 1.

The speed of propagation of waves in water with air bubbles, in which the pressure is equal to p, is determined by the density of the mixture ρ0, the modulus of elasticity of water E, concentrations of air s:

At small concentrations of air and low stiffness of the walls of the conduit 1 in the formula (3) you need to enter the known corrections in theory of water hammer in the pipes.

The present invention can be used wherever there is natural or artificial flow of water for electric power generation, particularly in forestry, agriculture and other farms, as well as for individual use in remote areas of the country.

Dam hydroelectric containing conduit defined therein quick ZAT is the PR and the turbine, characterized in that the conduit is made confused-cone with a cylindrical neck, a high speed shutter is set to last and made in the form of a high-speed shutter bilateral actions which are triggered depending on the flow direction in the conduit, a cylindrical neck communicated through the bypass pipe with installed non-return valves with two buffer tanks, the latter communicated with each other through the bypass pipeline, which has connected to the turbine generator, and each buffer capacity is reported with a cylindrical neck with two bypass pipes, one of which is located in front of the high-speed shutter and the other for high speed shutter in the course of the stream in the conduit.



 

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