Method and device for production of cylindrical hollow products from billets

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: processed part is opened in core area with the help of serial forging deformations displaced at the angle relative to each other around part axis and simultaneously is placed on piercer. At that in process of forging deformations processed part is pressed to piercer with previously specified force, and piercer is moved towards this axial force, and in intervals between forging deformations following one after another it is returned in initial position synchronously with axial feed of processed part. Method is realised in device that comprises at least two forging tools that are diametrically opposite in relation to processed part, grip head with end support, axial feed and rotary drives. There is also piercer that moves axially with the help of actuator from the side of forging tools, and also working cylinder that serves for support of processed part.

EFFECT: improved quality of piercing.

9 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a cylindrical hollow products from the workpiece, whereby the workpiece using a serial forging deformation shifted by an angle relative to each other around the axis of the piece, open in the area of the core and simultaneously placed on the drift-pin strengthening, as well as to a device for the manufacture of cylindrical hollow articles from blanks.

The level of technology

It is known that for the manufacture of cylindrical hollow products from solid billet through forging (EP 0610509 B1) the workpiece is subjected to successive radial forging deformation and in the intervals between the individual deformations rotate around its axis. It was found that with a certain degree of deformation, covering the core area of the workpiece, by acting on the workpiece from opposite sides of the forging forces in the zone of the core blanks occur tensile stresses, which cause the disclosure of the core so that the result of the gradual rotation of the workpiece between the individual forging deformation of solid billet can be forged hollow cylindrical product. The disadvantages, however, include the fact that the core material because of the inevitable inhomogeneities revealed deregula is but in the area of the internal wall formed of hollow articles remain the cracks, significantly reducing the mechanical properties of the workpiece. To prevent such cracks in the inner surface of the hollow product has already been proposed (SU 715195 A) to reveal the core of the drift-pin strengthening within the area of the forging deformation, i.e. in the area where tensile stresses occur due to the forging deformation. These tensile stresses acting on the core and facilitate the implementation of the drift-pin strengthening in the core of the workpiece, if the axial position of the drift-pin strengthening prevents the disclosure of core in front of him. Since the drift-pin strengthening is embedded in the workpiece mostly only during the forging deformation of the workpiece, the axial flow is carried out in the intervals between individual strains, which greatly limits the workpiece. If the drift-pin strengthening is used mainly for the expansion of already disclosed core (EN 2010655 C1), surface cracks that occur during the opening of the core, can only be smoothed and partially overlapped by a drift-pin strengthening, as the material in the cracks so oxidized and cools that even during hot forging welding cracks in the area of the drift-pin strengthening becomes impossible.

Description of the invention

The basis of the invention is to provide a method of the above type for the manufacture of Jindrisska hollow products from the workpiece, allows you to significantly increase the workpiece, without fear of cracking in the area of the inner surface of the hollow product.

In the invention the task is solved in that the workpiece during the forging deformation with a pre-defined force press to the drift-pin strengthening, which is to promote items towards this axial force and in the intervals between consecutive forging deformation returns to its original position synchronously in the axial direction of the workpiece.

As a result of these measures, the drift-pin strengthening to promote the workpiece during the forging deformation, then in the intervals between the individual forging deformation during axial parts to return it to its original position synchronously with the workpiece, the workpiece depends on the stroke of drift-pin strengthening that allows you to choose the feed items in accordance with the terms of firmware. The prerequisite is that the loading of the workpiece sufficient axial force precluding give details on the drift-pin strengthening during its stroke. Therefore, applied to the workpiece axial force depends, among other things, on the material, temperature and plastic properties of the parts, and the friction conditions between the por is sunim tool and the workpiece.

If before forging deformation of the workpiece with its front side facing the drift-pin strengthening, to provide a Central hole, in which at the beginning of the forging deformation is the drift-pin strengthening, it gives the opportunity already in the area facing the drift-pin strengthening of end items to create the conditions of deformation, ensuring free from cracks the inner surface of the manufactured hollow products.

If the deformation of the workpiece, carried out using a single drift-pin strengthening in collaboration with forging across the fibers is insufficient to achieve a given hole diameter, the hole diameter of the workpiece can be increased stepwise at successive stages of the forging deformation.

For the implementation of the method of manufacturing a cylindrical hollow products can come from the device containing at least two diametrically opposite relative to the workpiece forging tool, the clamping head, located ahead of blacksmith's tools in the feed direction of the workpiece and related drive axial and rotational drive, and moved axially by the actuator, the drift-pin strengthening on the side of the blacksmith's tools, opposite the front clamping head. If such a device to provide the clamping head, located in front of the HPU is echnik tools end stop for the workpiece, a work cylinder supported from the side end parts, the drift-pin strengthening should be run by its Executive mechanism for axial reciprocating movement, depending on the feed drive clamping head, so that when the corresponding axial loading of the workpiece during engagement of blacksmith's tools to promote the drift-pin strengthening between forging tools towards the feed direction of the workpiece for the purpose of its firmware under favorable conditions, at the expense caused by the drift-pin strengthening compressive stress and at the same time acting in the sense of revealing the core of the workpiece tensile stresses from the forging deformation. During insertion of blacksmith's tools out of engagement with the workpiece past with the clamping head is located ahead of blacksmith's tools, rotate by a certain angle around its axis and, accordingly, the working course of the drift-pin strengthening axially serves to forge tools, and synchronously with the workpiece return drift-pin strengthening in its original position, and then to continue and complete the firmware on a recurring stages of deformation. Needless to say that this firmware can run along the entire length of the workpiece of nascu the relationship, and only part of its length.

Axial loading of the workpiece can be performed using the clamping head is located ahead of blacksmith's tools, if provided with an axial bearing parts in the clamping cylinder and the slave cylinder interacts with the clamping head. More favorable structural conditions are achieved if the slave cylinder is provided on the clamping cylinder and pressurizes the end stop for the workpiece, forming a receiving hole drift-pin strengthening. Thereby the drive of the feed clamping head may be separated from the working cylinder, resulting in a stroke of the working cylinder may be small compared to the speed of movement required to actuate the feed. To axial loading of the workpiece through the working cylinder is not hindered required between gearing blacksmith's tools to rotate the workpiece, a work cylinder can be connected with the rotation drive end stops to ensure the turning of the workpiece synchronously with end stops.

If there are two clamping heads mounted in front of and behind the blacksmith's tools, which is usually required in cases when for manufacturing tubular items firmware produce along its entire length, the clamping head, located n the behind the blacksmith's tools, it is also necessary to supply a rotational drive. When, for example, when the firmware of the end of the workpiece facing to the front clamping head, the workpiece must be freed from the front clamping head, the feed items must ensure installed behind the clamping head, which is along the axial direction of the workpiece must also exercise its rotation.

For step increase of the diameter of the hole drift-pin strengthening may have a bonding tool in the form of speed plots diameter. While the drift-pin strengthening should be positioned relative to the blacksmith's tools, respectively, the working area that allows for each section of the diameter of the piercing tool to use for flashing the disclosure of core forging across the grain. However, such manual firmware workpiece need not be limited to one direction of travel details. So it is possible to provide both clamping head working cylinder for mechanical loading of the workpiece to provide a loading items corresponding axial force in both directions of feed. The drift-pin strengthening should in this case axially to penetrate a working cylinder of the respective clamping head. This firmware is in the opposite direction is the second submission may be implemented using a single drift-pin strengthening, if there is a replacement piercing tool, which is crucial for the process of firmware. It is also possible each clamping head to give a separate drift-pin strengthening, which in this case axially penetrates the corresponding working cylinder.

Brief description of drawings

Proposed according to the invention the method is explained in more detail using the drawings, in which

figure 1 shows the device according to the invention for the manufacture of hollow cylindrical articles, a schematic side view;

figure 2 - the same device partially in the area of blacksmith's tools and clamping head, which is located ahead of the specified blacksmith's tools, in schematic axial section on an enlarged scale;

figure 3 is a modified embodiment of the device according to the invention in a schematic axial section fragmentarily in the area blacksmith's tools in an enlarged scale.

The way of carrying out the invention

Presents the device comprises forging tools 1 in the form of forges located relative to the workpiece 2 are diametrically opposite one another. Although the drawings show only two blacksmith tools, usually to improve performance are provided two pairs of hammers are displaced relative to each other at an angle of 90°when is entered in the action alternately. The workpiece 2, is supplied in the form of a billet with a solid cross-section, which, however, can be performed and tubular, move with the clamping heads 4, which is located ahead of blacksmith's tools 1, in the feed direction 3 of the workpiece 2. With this purpose, the clamping head 4 mounted for rotation in the housing 5, the carrier rotation drive 6 clamping head 4. The housing 5 with the clamping head 4 is mounted for movement by means of the slide 7 by means of a feed drive 8, preferably of the Executive of the cylinder, along the guide 9. The clamping head 4 has, in addition, the end stop 10 to the workpiece 2. This emphasis 10 axial load through the piston rod 11 of the working cylinder 12, which prepracovan to the housing 5 in the clamping head 4. Collaboration with the clamping head 4 rotation lock 10 mounted in the clamping head 4 with the possibility of axial movement may be a rotation drive 13 for the piston rod 11 is driven synchronously with the drive of rotation 6 of the clamping head 4. It should be noted that despite the rigid connection, resistant to torsion, axial perenesennosti of the piston rod 11 is not disturbed.

How, in particular, can be seen in figure 1, behind the blacksmith's tools 1 is a clamping head 14, which is that the same rotary mounted in the housing 15 and is driven by the drive of rotation 16. Similarly the clamping head 14 with the housing 15 is mounted on the carrier 17 installed so that they can move from the feed drive 18 along the guide 19. The clamping cylinder 14 made of a hollow, permeated by the drift-pin strengthening 20, which by means of the actuator 21 is driven reciprocating depending on the feed of the workpiece. Bonding tool 22 of the drift-pin strengthening 20, which is the area of the forging deformation of the workpiece 2 between forging tools 1 has a tapering end 23 and the adjacent cylindrical gauge section 24, which allows the firmware and calibration for one technological operation.

In order to facilitate the entrance of the piercing tool 22 into the input end face of the workpiece 2 and to prevent the formation of cracks at the beginning of the firmware, the workpiece 2 immediately before the flashing process provide a Central hole 25, which bore through before clamping the workpiece 2 or perform after clamping the bonding tool 22 or special tool, positioned in the middle of the machine.

For flashing the workpiece 2 in the intervals of time when she is released from the blacksmith's tools 1 using feed drive 8 periodically advancing through the forging device is creation and simultaneously with rotation drive 6 rotate at a given angular step around its axis. Forging deformation produced by the forging tools 1 after these movements filing, cause at the core of the workpiece 2 tensile stress acting on the core in the sense of deployment and support compressive stresses created by the bonding tool 22, which allows the firmware of the workpiece 2 by the drift-pin strengthening 20 with a relatively small consumption of energy. For greater performance, drift-pin strengthening 20 in the process of forging deformation promote between forging tools 1 towards the feed direction 3 of the workpiece 2, and the workpiece 2 load the working cylinder 12 with an appropriate pressing force in the feed direction 3. During the feed movement of the workpiece 2 between forging deformations of the drift-pin strengthening 20 by actuating cylinder 21 synchronously with the feed drive 8 return to its original position, so that during the subsequent forging deformation again to promote him to the workpiece 2 to meet the feed direction 3. If the workpiece 2 stitch along its entire axial length, the submission details in the axial direction and in the circumferential direction can no longer be located ahead of blacksmith's tools 1 clamping head 4, as is the processing of the exposed end parts, a corresponding clamping head 4. In this case, the implementation of the movements of the feed in the axial direction and in the circumferential direction assumes opposite the clamping head 14. Loading the workpiece 2 working cylinder 12 in the clamping heads 4, however, remains. The end stop 10 to the workpiece 2 has a receiving hole 26 for bonding tool 22, whereby odpiranje details of the working cylinder 12 is provided continuously.

If the width of the hole is achieved by one diameter of the bonding tool 22 is insufficient, part 2 you can handle the speed. Such processing using a single drift-pin strengthening 20, the bonding tool 22 which has two performed in the stages of plot 27, 28 diameter, shown in figure 3. After flashing the workpiece 2 in accordance with the lower section 27 of the diameter of the existing hole extends through a larger section 28 of diameter, namely again while simultaneously forging deformation that allows to use for flashing process tensile stresses resulting from these forging deformation. For distribution of a hole through the actuator 21 to move the drift-pin strengthening 20 so that the section 28 of the diameter of the bonding tool 22 has been in the area of Kovac what's deformations of the workpiece 2, implemented forging tools 1.

Of course, that the invention is not limited to the above described embodiments. The question is only in the corresponding axial loading of the workpiece during the working stroke of the drift-pin strengthening 20, and the working stroke takes place during the forging deformation. Forging deformation can be carried out as forging hammers and forging presses. The workpiece 2 can, in addition, in the manner described above to expose the hot, warm and cold deformation. In some cases, in addition to control of the forging tools so that after flashing the workpiece to switch them with a sequence of punches, loosening the core, simultaneous attacks, sealing it. The drift-pin strengthening 20 can be performed nevresim, or it may be rotated together with the workpiece or additionally be driven in rotational motion relative to the workpiece.

1. A method of manufacturing a cylindrical hollow articles of procurement, including disclosure of the workpiece in the area of the core with successive forging deformation shifted by an angle relative to each other around the axis of the workpiece, and simultaneously its putting on a drift-pin strengthening, characterized in that the workpiece is about the time of the forging deformation pressed with a predetermined force to the drift-pin strengthening, which to promote items towards this axial force, and in the intervals between successive forging deformation returns to its original position synchronously in the axial direction of the workpiece.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before the forging deformation on the workpiece from its end face facing the drift-pin strengthening, perform the Central hole.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the diameter of the hole of the workpiece speed increase on successive stages of the forging deformation.

4. Device for the manufacture of cylindrical hollow articles by the method according to one of claims 1 to 3, containing at least two diametrically opposite relative to the workpiece forging tool 1, the clamping head 4 located in front of the blacksmith's tools in the feed direction of the workpiece and related drive axial and rotational drive, and axially moved with the assistance of the Executive drift-pin strengthening mechanism 20 from the side of the blacksmith's tools 1, opposite the front clamping head 4 which is provided with an end stop 10 to the workpiece 2, and a working cylinder 12 for resting on the side of the end face of the workpiece 2, and the drift-pin strengthening 20 through its the actuator 21 is made with the possibility of the axial reciprocating movement depending on the feed drive 8 clamping heads 4.

5. The device according to claim 4, in which the working cylinder 12 is connected with the clamping head 4 and is used for loading end stop 10 to the workpiece 2, and the end stop 10 has a receiving hole 26 for drift-pin strengthening 20.

6. The device according to claim 4, in which the working cylinder 12 is connected with the rotation drive 13 end stop 10.

7. The device according to claim 4, in which the drift-pin strengthening 20 has a bonding tool 22 is made in the form of speed sections 27, 28 of the diameter.

8. The device according to claim 4, which is provided with a penetrated by the drift-pin strengthening the clamping head 14 located behind the blacksmith's tools, and associated with the feed drive of the workpiece and a working cylinder 12 for edge loading of the workpiece 2, and the drift-pin strengthening 20 pervades the working cylinder 12 of the respective clamping heads 4, 14.

9. The device according to claim 8, in which each clamping head 4, 14) has a drift-pin strengthening 20, piercing related working cylinder 12.



 

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