Method of excavating gravel deposits

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to excavation of mineral deposits, and particularly to gravel deposits, and can be used in the mining industry. The method involves pre-formation of a basin, formation of a dry zone on the productive stratum and basin in the stripped area, fitting interconnected, mining, transport and dump systems into the basin. Formation of the basin in the stripped area is done after piling up sand in it, with further extraction of the latter using a subsurface technique. The minimum distance from the basin to the heap of sand, as well as the depth of the basin, is determined from the maximum degree of weakening of the latter and technological parameters of the mining equipment.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of excavating high-clayey alluvial deposits.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of development of mineral deposits, namely gravel, and can be used in the mining industry.

The known method of placer developments, including pre-excavation, placement in the pit of interconnected production and transport ore beneficiation, mining slaughter productive formation with the filing of the rock mass on the complex, leaching and enrichment of the rock mass and the deposition of tailings (Smokov. Technology and complex mechanization of placer developments. M.: Nedra. 1973).

The closest to the essential features is the way of placer developments, including the creation of the pit, forming a dry zone in the reservoir with the placement of the mining complex and the pool in the developed space before land tailings disposal with placing in it afloat transport-wash-dressing-dump complex (A.S. No. 1795103, CL IS 45/00, publ. 15.02.93. Bull. No. 6).

The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of development of high-clayey alluvial due to incomplete disintegration trudnoponimaemyh Sands and large technological losses of valuable components.

The objective of the invention is to improve the effectiveness of development is influenced by high-clayey placers by increasing the degree of disintegration trudnoponimaemyh Sands and reduction of technological losses of valuable components.

The invention consists in that after removing high-clayey Sands from the last array are placed in mined-out space on the raft, limited to dams and flooded for a certain period of time by the water, which creates conditions for softening cohesive clay fractions contained in the Sands, and the liberation of the grains of the useful component. Use as excavation and loading equipment machinery cyclical or continuous action in combination with various types of transport determines the method of forming and settings warehouse Sands. Each of the options, excavation and loading-transport-warehouse complex is located in a favorable working conditions on the dry ground of the productive formation and provides a preliminary softening cohesive clayey Sands. The gross development of complex arrays clayey Sands with the content of macro-grained rock pebble material increases and decreases the disintegration time in the introduction in a homogeneous clay mass particles pebble fraction. The time of the formation of a warehouse clayey Sands should not prevent them from caking and seals. Technological parameters of the basin, representing an intermediate stage between the process of extraction of sand from the array and their prey to further processing, predelete based on the conditions of disintegration of clayey Sands and characteristics of mining equipment. The length of the pool, distance, limited by two dams along the length of the scattering can be obtained based on the known speed of the mining face and the time required for maximum softening high-clayey Sands; pool width (length of the dam) regulates practising single-pass mining of complex or wide distribution of placers; the depth of the pool is determined based on the method of forming a warehouse Sands, requires placement of the last below the water surface and the required depth of development. Mining complex produces mining of sand from the pool underwater way. The relationship of the parameters of the warehouse clayey Sands, swimming pools and time effective disintegration of the sand determines the intensity of exploitation.

The method of sequential execution of complex of works illustrated by scheme 1 - excavation and loading equipment, 2 - transport equipment, 3 - array Sands, 4 - warehouse Sands, 5 - dam, 6 - warehouse Sands, flooded with water, 7 - pool, 8 - mining equipment, 9 - pipeline on the pontoons, 10 - wash-Talnoe equipment 11 to the waste rock dump; I - area excavation of sand from the array, II - formation zone warehouse Sands, III - area of mining works, IV - area of dumping.

The invention is carried out as about what atom.

At the landfill mining operations create pit, which form a dry area excavation of sand from an array I in the square of the productive formation and the formation area of the warehouse Sands II in the developed space; with a slope of from the bottom of the array Sands 3 to the place of formation of a warehouse clayey Sands 4, where the post excavation and loading 1 and 2 transport complexes that carry out the notch clayey Sands of the array, their transportation and storage in mined-out space. When the stock set parameters it is limited to 5 dams, flooded with water, thus forming a pool 7 and the area of mining works III. The mining equipment 8 in the pool and wash-dump complex 10 on the dam is determined by the degree of disintegration in the pool sand 6. Forming waste rock dumps, 11 is in the area of dumping IV consistently for the area of mining works III.

As a result of implementing the proposed package of works provided favorable conditions for the location of mining and transport equipment on soil productive formation Sands, there is an increase in the degree of disintegration trudnoponimaemyh clayey Sands at 15-18% and reduction of technological losses of valuable components at 20-23%.

The way to develop ODI placer deposits, including preliminary creation of the pit, forming a dry zone in the reservoir and basin in the developed space, placement in the pit of interrelated mining, transport and dump complexes, characterized in that the formation of pools in the developed space is performed after storing it Sands with a further recess last underwater method, and the minimum distance from the place of formation of the basin to collect sand, as well as the depth of the pool is determined based on the maximum degree of softening of the latest and technological parameters of mining equipment.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to mining and can be used in excavating deep-seated deposits of minerals, formed by layers with different strength. The method of excavating deep-seated deposits of minerals involves excavating a mining horizon, hydraulic mining of wells on the mining horizon, when mining waterlogged minerals, lying under the mining horizon. From the heading to the deposit of the mineral, dewatering wells are drilled and the head of ground water, in the productive stratum of the deposit, is lowered to a level lower than the sill of the mining horizon. To lower the head of ground water over the deposit to a level safe for mining, in the water bearing bed from the mining horizon, rising, inclined-rising, horizontal guide holes are made, and from the surface to the heading, wells with cased hole filters are made. All these wells are hydraulically linked to each other and to a pump system, from which water is supplied to a domestic water head works, undergoing preliminary purification. The invention can also be used for washing out mineral deposits when hydromining and for water collection in underground water catch basins.

EFFECT: safer mining when flooding minerals and layers above them, as well as increased efficiency of mining and improvement of environmental conservation.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering and can be used directly in development of subsea mineral deposits, where mineral components are pumped out by airlift. Method for starting and stopping of offshore airlift, where starting process includes compressed air supply via pressure pipeline from compressor to mixer of lifting pipe, while stopping process includes stopping of compressed air supply via pressure pipeline from compressor to mixer of lifting pipe, compressed air supply from compressor to upper part of said offshore airlift's lifting pipe and its discharging to atmosphere, as well as compressor stopping. In the course of offshore airlift starting process amount of sea water supply to lifting pipe of offshore airlift is pre-defined, connection between upper part of lifting pipe and atmosphere is closed, compressed air is supplied into upper part of lifting pipe of offshore airlift, sea water is displaced from lifting pipe to ocean through connecting pipe, compressed air supply into upper part of lifting pipe is stopped after the required air pressure in said pipe is achieved, connection of lifting pipe with ocean through connecting pipe is closed, connection between upper part of lifting pipe with atmosphere is restored with simultaneous supply of compressed air into mixer of lifting pipe. After that, connection between lifting pipe and ocean is provided through connecting pipe, amount of sea water supplied into lifting pipe is monitored, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined target value and balanced with it through adjustment of sea water flowrate in said connecting pipe. And when water-air mix is spread over the entire length of lifting pipe, unrestricted supply of sea water through connecting pipe to lifting pipe is restored. And in the course of offshore airlift stopping process, pressure value in upper part of lifting pipe is pre-defined, then this value is monitored during compressed air supply from compressor to upper part of offshore airlift's lifting pipe, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined value and as soon as they become equal said compressor is stopped. After that, connection between lifting pipe and ocean through connecting pipe is closed and connection of upper part of lifting pipe with atmosphere is opened again.

EFFECT: improvement of offshore airlift starting and stopping method.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: improvement of method for starting and operating of offshore airlift, as well as system for its implementation.

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FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: improved dredger performance, reduced loss of mineral in the soil, and lower unit costs of dredging of hard-dredging placers.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to combined development of gold placers using mini-dredges. Complex consists of a dredge with a stacker and installations meant for deep processing of sandy and clay rock of gold placers, a high-head hydromonitor device with a system controlling the barrel movement in a vertical plane, and a hydraulic transport free-flow system. Complex is equipped with a bridge rigidly fixed in the dredge nose part. Bridge is provided with a round divertor intended for movement, and a round divertor meant for a support, which are rigidly fixed on the bridge posts. High-head hydromonitor device is installed on a base rotated by means of a drive. Rotary base is hinged to the platform and equipped with linear guideways. Platform is equipped with a drive of linear guideways which are connected with a round divertor intended for movement, and provided with an additional support connected with round divertor meant for the support.

EFFECT: intensifying mining process including development of terrace high-level placers.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to development of closely cemented and high plasticity sandy and clay rocks of terrace gold placers combined with development of the dredge range. Complex consists of a dredge with a stacker and installations meant for deep processing of sandy and clay rock of gold placers, a high-head hydromonitor device with a system controlling the barrel turn in a vertical plane, and a hydraulic transport pressure system. Complex is equipped with a bridge one end of which is hinged to a cross member of the dredge nose part posts and connected with a bridge turn drive, and free end is equipped with a linear guideway moving in a horizontal plane by means of a drive. Free end of the bridge by means of guides and sliding supports is telescoped with a crossbar with a stable support, which moves by means of a drive, and bridge is equipped with an additional stable support adjustable as per position relative to the hinge and movable linear guideway. Bridge is provided with longitudinal holes and guides. Additional stable support comes into contact with the bridge longitudinal holes, and is equipped with linear guideways coming into contact with the bridge guides. High-head hydromonitor device is installed on the end of the movable crossbar so that it can move in a vertical plane by means of a drive. The bridge turn drive is installed on a movable base connected via linear guideways to the guides.

EFFECT: intensifying mining process.

6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety of development.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: increased efficiency of hydraulic borehole mining of minerals and increased output owing to extension of development zone.

7 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: improved dredger performance, reduced loss of mineral in the soil, and lower unit costs of dredging of hard-dredging placers.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to loose ground mining devices, and can be used for deep alluvial deposits of hard mineral resources, and mainly coastal shelf deposits. Alluvial mining device includes a body with a suction connection pipe and with scouring atomisers connected with a discharge cavity. Body is made in the form of a tubular shell the height of which exceeds the distance from surface to rim rock, and lateral dimensions of the body do not exceed a double action radius of scouring atomisers. Body cross section is square-shaped, at that scouring atomisers are arranged on the sides of the square, and suction connection pipes are located at its angles. Body is equipped at least with one vibrator. Internal wall of the body is equipped with a device forming a force impact which is perpendicular to internal surface of the body; device is made in the form of a hollow torus-shaped shell attached to internal surface of the body and equipped with the device changing pressure in the shell cavity, mostly with a reversible hydraulic pump.

EFFECT: providing the possibility of removing loose materials, and maintaining a vertical position of the resulting cavity walls.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to extraction of valuable minerals from hard and high viscous sand-clay rocks at open development of auriferous gravel deposits. The hydro-transporting pressurised system with the static cavitator consists of a tube bend and reflection elements. Elements of narrowing, elements of expanding and a reducing ring are located inside the straight section of the tube and are made complex from parts, the interior surfaces of which form conic surfaces with gaps. Tops of formed conic surfaces are turned to each other, while the reflection elements are conjugated with thrust collars and assembled before the narrowing elements and after the expanding elements down the hydro-stream motion; they are oriented along the axes of symmetry and axes of gaps of the narrowing and expanding elements of the static cavitator; the reflection elements are made in form of a right triangle, acute angles of which are oriented counter the hydro-stream motion before the narrowing elements, while they are oriented down the hydro-stream motion after the expanding element.

EFFECT: intensification of process of directed destruction of sand-clay rock by means of hydro-mechanical cavitation at pressurised hydro-transporting to systems of deep processing.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and can be applied in dragging of tiered gravel deposits. The method involves combined dragging of valley placer tier together with bench and bench hillside placer sands, which are developed, shifted and laid by earth-moving machines to a surface of valley placer tier prepared for dragging in advance.

EFFECT: higher degree of deposit development.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining engineering.

SUBSTANCE: excavation method of alluvial deposits includes preliminary preparation of riffled opening and disruption module, preliminary mechanical breakage and fluid wash of formation in mine face, its distillation and direction into riffled opening, free-flow formation water transportation with its free slacking in transportation process. Following breakage, disintegration and supplying on formation processing are made consequently in disintegration module of technological complex, at that formation breakage is made under the influence of surface-active environment - water and moving with periodical vertical deepening of disintegrating scoop with cone bottom, and formation disintegration and carrying out of dead ground into barrow are made with moving of module fixed at the traverse pier with disintegrated scoop before carrying of prepared formation on processing complex conveyer.

EFFECT: effectiveness improvement of excavation with intensification of the formation breakage process with complex mechanical-and-physical properties while alluvial deposits working.

6 dwg 2 cl

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said geotechnological complex is provided for disintegration of high-strength rock by means of disintegration automatic control system. The complex is provided with a rigidly supported trestle and mechanical disintegrators. The trestle cross beam has a centered and pivoted platform, which can be moved by means of rolling contact bearings, while mechanical disintegrators are provided with independent positioning system.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.

6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said geotechnological complex for gold dredging and placer mining incorporates a module for preliminary disintegration and hydroerosion of rock in the face with guiding shields, a disintegrating module located below the level of grooved trench for rock hydraulic transportation, a processing complex with hydrotransportation systems and waste dumping system. The disintegrating module has a chute located inside the closed loop of trench for disintegrated rock accumulation. The chute is directed along the rock inflow for rock hydrotransportation and is sloped in the direction of waste dumping. Along the chute and over it, a rigidly supported trestle is installed. The trestle is provided with a bucket driven along the cross beam for rock disintegration. On both sides of the chute, at an angle, transverse flaring chutes with rigidly wall-mounted disintegrators are installed.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.

6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said complex is provided with a supported trestle and an ultrasonic and mechanical tumbling module. Rotatable ultrasonic radiation module is connected to movable carriage rim by means of a hub and sliding supports. The movable carriage is provided with a drive for moving it along the trestle cross beam and a drive for turning the ultrasonic radiation module around the movable carriage yoke axis. The rotatable ultrasonic radiation module has drives for moving the ultrasonic sources in the vertical plane, a dual drive for moving the ultrasonic sources in horizontal plane, sensors to determine the rock physical and mechanical state, and communication links with functional module of disintegration process automatic control system.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said geotechnological complex incorporates a trestle with a tumbling bucket, a tumbling module with a chute located inside the closed loop of trench for disintegrated rock accumulation. The chute is directed along the rock inflow. The tumbling bucket installation provides for possibility of linear and angular displacement in the vertical plane; the bucket has slots and L-shaped rippers.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits of both mineral resources of high density (gold, platinum, etc), and valued minerals of low density.

SUBSTANCE: method for softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits includes driving a water-feeding trench, driving a water-collecting trench in 80-100 meters along direction of fall of deposit bed in parallel to water-feeding trench, depth of water-collecting trench providing for difference of bottom levels in trenches 1,5-3 meters, filling water-feeding trench with water and recharging it to maintain constant water level by means of gate and spillway with raised spillway gate, building walling dam 1-1,5 meters high, limiting the part of deposit being processed in plan, with spillway, after that outputs of filtration flow into water-collecting trench are constructed which are fixed by wetting of upper slope for height of 1-2 meters, then spillway gate is lowered onto spillway spine, and that part of deposit is flooded with water for depth of 0,8-1,3 meters and this level is maintained for initial softening of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits, after that dredger plant is assembled, consisting of suck-in line with suction device, dredger itself and force sludge duct. At the end of force sludge duct, vortex generator is mounted together with hydrodynamic cavitator, due to which during launch of operation of dredger plant argillaceous sands of gravel deposits along the way from face and suction device of dredger to hydrodynamic cavitator are subjected to second stage of softening and disintegration, and in hydrodynamic cavitator - to third-stage final disintegration, and then are dispatched to dressing plant.

EFFECT: increased productiveness and extraction efficiency during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits due to efficient softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits and release of valued components during hydro-transportation of sands to dressing equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has screw, having transporting spiral ribbon held on the shaft. Equipment is provided with U-shaped chute and perforated drum with armature in form of screw ribbon, having curvilinear shape in cross-section, arched in the direction of movement. Drum is mounted in upper portion of U-shaped chute. In its lower portion a screw is mounted.

EFFECT: higher productiveness.

3 dwg

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