Method of excavating deep-seated deposits of mineral deposits

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to mining and can be used in excavating deep-seated deposits of minerals, formed by layers with different strength. The method of excavating deep-seated deposits of minerals involves excavating a mining horizon, hydraulic mining of wells on the mining horizon, when mining waterlogged minerals, lying under the mining horizon. From the heading to the deposit of the mineral, dewatering wells are drilled and the head of ground water, in the productive stratum of the deposit, is lowered to a level lower than the sill of the mining horizon. To lower the head of ground water over the deposit to a level safe for mining, in the water bearing bed from the mining horizon, rising, inclined-rising, horizontal guide holes are made, and from the surface to the heading, wells with cased hole filters are made. All these wells are hydraulically linked to each other and to a pump system, from which water is supplied to a domestic water head works, undergoing preliminary purification. The invention can also be used for washing out mineral deposits when hydromining and for water collection in underground water catch basins.

EFFECT: safer mining when flooding minerals and layers above them, as well as increased efficiency of mining and improvement of environmental conservation.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to mining and can be used in the development of deep-seated mineral deposits, composed of rocks of different strength.

Known the Way of a hydraulic borehole mining of minerals" (RU # 2081325, publ. 1997.06.10), including the opening of the deposits in each working cell of the Central and peripheral wells, education slash space jet, draining slaughter slash space produced by feeding it with compressed air.

The disadvantage of this method is that when there are large volumes of water in ore deposits and ore over the breed, it is difficult to produce drying with air, because you want to create an air pressure of more than 5 MPa.

The closest in technical essence is "the Way of the development of deep-seated mineral deposits (RU # 2235206, publ. 2004.08.27), including conducting mining working horizon, hydropobic wells from the working horizon in the development of irrigated minerals located under the working horizon of the openings in the Deposit minerals are drilling vodopadnyaya well and produce a reduced pressure of groundwater held in productive thicker deposits, below the soil workings of the working horizon.

The disadvantages of this SPO is both are:

- lack of drainage and removal of groundwater pressure above the ore Deposit, which leads to unsafe mining operations;

- lack of distribution and control groundwater flows from the drained breeds;

- the absence of underground storage of water.

The task of the invention is to provide a safe, environmentally and economically beneficial ways to develop deep-seated mineral deposits.

To solve this problem is proposed a method of developing a deep-seated mineral deposits, including conducting mining working horizon, hydropobic wells from the working horizon in the development of irrigated minerals located under the working horizon of the openings in the Deposit minerals are drilling vodopadnyaya well and produce a reduced pressure of groundwater held in productive thicker deposits, below the soil workings of the working horizon. In the aquifer above the mineral Deposit, from the workings of the working horizon of the construct itself, the inclined rising, horizontal pre wells and boreholes with continuous filters, passed from the surface to the mine workings, and produce a reduced pressure of groundwater over the oil up to a level safe Vedas is of mining operations. In addition, vodopadnyaya, rising, sloping rising, horizontal pre wells and boreholes with continuous filters are hydraulically interconnected and pumping system from which the water enters the drinking water, after preliminary purification, and the erosion of mineral deposits in the conduct of works on hydropobic and catchment in underground tanks store.

Distinctive features of the claimed method is that:

- invented itself, inclined rising, horizontal forward bore of the workings of the working horizon and well-through filters, passed from the surface to openings in the aquifer above the mineral Deposit, thereby producing a decrease in groundwater above the reservoir of minerals, which leads to the safe conduct of mining operations;

- vodopadnyaya, rising, sloping rising, horizontal pre wells and boreholes with continuous filters are hydraulically interconnected and pumping system from which the water enters the drinking water, after passing through the clearance, the conducting of erosion of mineral deposits, underground tanks store water when draining rocks allows to distribute and pack ablate flows of groundwater and store them in underground conditions, and it is economically and environmentally more efficient.

The proposed method is illustrated in the drawing, which depicts the construction of all wells and communications connecting them together.

The claimed method is the development of deep-seated mineral deposits is as follows.

From the surface 1 in the side rocks 2 construct a vertical shaft 3, which carry out work horizon 4 mining works 5 so that the horizon 4 were above the mineral Deposit 6. Hydropobic mineral 6 producing wells 7 from the working horizon 4 delivery obtained slurry of minerals 6 work on the horizon 4. When watered minerals 6, lying under the working horizon 4 of the openings 5 in the Deposit of minerals 6 Buryats, vodopadnyaya wells 8 and produce a reduced pressure of groundwater held in productive thicker deposits below the soil 9 working horizon 4. In the aquifer 10 above the mineral Deposit 6 from the openings 5 of the working horizon 4 build rebels 11, the inclined rising 12, the horizontal leading 13 wells and oil wells 14 through filters, passed from the surface 1 to 5 workings. These wells produce a reduced pressure of Pozen the x water from the aquifer 10 for safe mining operations, often up to level 9 soil horizon 4.

Wells 8, 11-14 hydraulically interconnected links 15 and pumping system 16 for controlling and distributing the flow of groundwater from all wells. From the pumping system 16 water after cleaning (item cleaning not shown) enters drinking water through a closed drainage communication 17, further along the line 18 water is supplied to the holding of silt deposits of minerals 6, line 19 water enters underground tank vault 20 and the line 21 may be generated on the surface 1.

The stated set of characteristics of the proposed method of development of deep-seated mineral deposits allows to safely conduct mining operations in flooding rocks as minerals and rocks lying above it, as well as to improve the efficiency of mining operations and to improve the environmental safety of the environment.

1. How to develop deep-seated mineral deposits, including conducting mining working horizon, hydropobic wells from the working horizon in the development of irrigated minerals located under the working horizon of the openings in the Deposit minerals are drilling vodopadnyaya well and produce a reduced pressure of groundwater, náchod is working in productive thicker deposits, below the soil workings of the working horizon, characterized in that in the aquifer above the mineral Deposit, from the workings of the working horizon of the construct itself, the inclined rising, horizontal forward well from the surface to the mine workings - well-through filters, and produce a reduced pressure of groundwater on Deposit for safe mining operations.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that well - vodopadnyaya, rising, sloping rising, leading, well - through filters are hydraulically interconnected and pumping system from which the water enters the drinking water, after preliminary purification, and the erosion of mineral deposits in the conduct of works on hydropobic and catchment in underground tanks store.



 

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FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering and can be used directly in development of subsea mineral deposits, where mineral components are pumped out by airlift. Method for starting and stopping of offshore airlift, where starting process includes compressed air supply via pressure pipeline from compressor to mixer of lifting pipe, while stopping process includes stopping of compressed air supply via pressure pipeline from compressor to mixer of lifting pipe, compressed air supply from compressor to upper part of said offshore airlift's lifting pipe and its discharging to atmosphere, as well as compressor stopping. In the course of offshore airlift starting process amount of sea water supply to lifting pipe of offshore airlift is pre-defined, connection between upper part of lifting pipe and atmosphere is closed, compressed air is supplied into upper part of lifting pipe of offshore airlift, sea water is displaced from lifting pipe to ocean through connecting pipe, compressed air supply into upper part of lifting pipe is stopped after the required air pressure in said pipe is achieved, connection of lifting pipe with ocean through connecting pipe is closed, connection between upper part of lifting pipe with atmosphere is restored with simultaneous supply of compressed air into mixer of lifting pipe. After that, connection between lifting pipe and ocean is provided through connecting pipe, amount of sea water supplied into lifting pipe is monitored, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined target value and balanced with it through adjustment of sea water flowrate in said connecting pipe. And when water-air mix is spread over the entire length of lifting pipe, unrestricted supply of sea water through connecting pipe to lifting pipe is restored. And in the course of offshore airlift stopping process, pressure value in upper part of lifting pipe is pre-defined, then this value is monitored during compressed air supply from compressor to upper part of offshore airlift's lifting pipe, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined value and as soon as they become equal said compressor is stopped. After that, connection between lifting pipe and ocean through connecting pipe is closed and connection of upper part of lifting pipe with atmosphere is opened again.

EFFECT: improvement of offshore airlift starting and stopping method.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering and can be used directly in development of subsea mineral deposits, where mineral components are pumped out by airlift. Method for starting and operating of offshore airlift includes pumping out of components from subsea mineral deposits as a part of hydromixture, supply of compressed air into mixer of lifting pipe, creation of multicomponent mixture after the compressed air is injected into hydromixture flow, and transporting of multicomponent mixture flow in lifting pipe of offshore airlift. In this method pressure value of air-water mixture is pre-defined in operating mixer of lifting pipe, where compressed air is supplied from compressor during airlift operation at its operating performance rate. Then compressed air is supplied from compressor into lifting pipe mixer, which is located above operating mixer, the air localised in accumulator is additionally compressed up to the pressure in operating mixer by supplying sea water into said accumulator under its static pressure. Then this additionally compressed air is supplied into operating mixer, pressure of sea water in operating mixer is monitored during the process of compressed air supply into it, measured pressure value is compared with pre-defined target value and as soon as they become equal supply of compressed air into said mixer is stopped, as well as supply of sea water into accumulator, while compressed air from compressor is supplied simultaneously into operating mixer through accumulator. After that, during offshore airlift operation, accumulator is charged with compressed air from compressor by means of parallel supply of sea water from said accumulator into operating mixer, when a difference is established between supply of compressed air from compressor to accumulator and supply of compressed air from accumulator to operating mixer.

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FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: intensifying mining process including development of terrace high-level placers.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining.

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2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining.

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7 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: increases the efficiency of the process of caving in, cuts expenses on secondary crushing, reduces ore loss during discharge.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to uncovering and preparing ore zones and lifting-transport plants, and can be used in mining industry, for example, in development of ore fields with small reserves. Method incorporates construction of inclined shaft, uncovering workings of production levels, laying guiding rails over them, using lifting machines and lifting vessels at ore output. Uncovering workings of production level enter ore zone in inclined manner at an angle, which is smaller than inclination of uncovering shaft, and in the ore zone they are connected with workings of haulage levels by accumulating rise or reloading chambers. Also a lifting-transport plant is proposed, which includes a connecting platform implemented in the form of rigid frame made of curved guiding rails and gimbaled in the soil of inclined workings of production levels, while angle pulleys are installed in the roof of joints of inclined shaft and workings of production levels.

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3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry, and can be used during underground mining of flat beds of coal, salt, and shale with selective mining of mineral resource. Underground mining method of flat beds of mineral resources includes development of a mineral resource bed thus erecting rock packs 4 in the working space and leaving solid blocks 3 of mineral resource in the working space. On rock packs 4 there installed are pneumocylinders 5, and compressed air is supplied to them thus blowing pneumocylinders 5 between roof and rock packs 4. On the sides of pneumocylinders 5 there laid are wooden poles 6 which are higher than pneumocylinders 5 in a folded position. After the roof comes into contact with wooden poles 6, pneumocylinders 5 are removed from rock supports. Width of solid blocks 3 of mineral resource is accepted smaller than limit width of solid blocks left in the working space, at the reduction of which solid blocks are damaged with underground pressure, and yield of rock packs 4 is accepted equal to yield of mined rock being the result of damaged solid blocks. When developing combustible shale beds with angle of dip of up to 3-5 degrees, width of solid block 3 of mineral resource left in the working space is accepted 0.9-0.8 of the limit width of solid blocks.

EFFECT: reducing losses of mineral resource in solid blocks, and improving roof control efficiency.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining engineering, and to underground ore deposit mining technology. Layer development method of deep diamond leads with diamond ore cavities available in mine take circuits includes mechanical development of upper layer with chambers with the following development of support solid blocks, and by erecting a flexible covering, and development with modular break system of lower layer which includes diamond ore cavities. Flexible covering is mounted only above diamond ore cavities. First, there mounted is a flexible covering on the soil of chambers being developed together with their development, then - on the soil of support solid blocks being developed together with their development, and after that flexible coverings of adjacent chambers and support solid blocks are connected to each other.

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6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining engineering, and can be used when developing flat beds - with selective mining of mineral resource. Method includes excavating mineral resource by entry ways close to a working space. Roof is controlled by building a goaf pack 5 in the working space. Then, on goaf pack 5 there installed are pneumocylinders 6, and compressed air is supplied thereto. Excavation is performed from drifts by two entry ways I, II simultaneously directed towards each other. When mine faces 3 and 4 come to each other by the value equal to double value 2 lf of the winning machine frame, one of the mine faces is directed to mineral resource mass by the value of entry way le. When that entry way intersects the other one, the latter is directed to mineral resource mass by the value of entry way le. After winning machines reach the drifts, excavation is repeated by two simultaneous entry ways directed towards each other.

EFFECT: increasing load on the mining face.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method refers to mining at development of bedded deposits with long pillars along strike by upward mining with destruction of rocks of immediate roof. Method of development of bedded deposits consists in opening a mine field to a lower horizon with main, auxiliary and ventilation inclined bores, in preparing by means of running floor entries to boundaries of the mine field and in developing floors with upward mining. While preparing a lower floor rock produced at drive working is stowed in under-entry packs. After upper floors have been developed rock of drive workings is stowed in extracted entries of developed underlying floor and in opening inclined entries - in the main, auxiliary and ventilation bores, thereof simultaneously with development of stock there is performed a complete liquidation of developed space.

EFFECT: ensures operation of ecologically clean enterprises and increases efficiency of mineral extraction process.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method of prevention of development entries in coal bed areas at development of coal beds by means of mechanised complexes consists in performing development entries 1, arranging outpost columns of mineral, then loosening of mineral bed in wall of working. Loosening is performed by means of drilling bores 2, 3 simultaneously with driving of development entries. The depth of mineral bed loosening from the side of driven area from the entry and from the side of massif is assumed as exceeding the depth of spread of intensive destruction of mineral bed in the edge zone. Bores 2, 3 are arranged in a staggered order along the thickness of a developed bed and have diameters equal to ½ of developed bed thickness. Soft cases are installed into bores 2, 3; then compressed air is supplied into soft cases till their strutting off in walls of bores 2, 3. When the column is reversed driven, soft cases are extracted before the line of a mining face 5 into conveyer 1 and ventilation 6 entries. Behind face support 7 of the mining face 5 "П"-shaped supports 9 are laid on the floor of the bed where a long face interfaces with conveyer entry 1; pneumatic tanks 8 are assembled in the supports; and a compressed air is supplied into tanks strutting off supports 9 and pneumatic tanks 8 between the top and floor of the bed. After descent of rock under the influence of the rock pressure and after walls of "П"-shaped supports 9 have contacted with floor, pneumatic tanks 8 are decompressed and taken out into conveyer entry 1.

EFFECT: invention facilitates increased efficiency of protection of development entries and also decreases costs for development entries maintenance at their reuse.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: complex method of hydro excavation of minerals consists of development mining, of equipping with ventilation system and system of heating of mine working, of hydraulic breaking up of bed with an automated mining combine in a continuous mode of operation with installation of face supports, of hydraulic transporting of broken rock, of concentration of obtained mass and its further dehydration, of drying of water encroached beds, and of purifying of process liquid with its recirculation. Hydraulic breaking up of a bed is carried out simultaneously with its impulse mechanical destruction by means of introducing an abrasive material of upgraded hardness into a liquid jet; further abrasive material is separated from broken rock at the time of its hydraulic transporting and concentrating; concentration of broken rock and partial separation of liquid pulp with abrasive material from broken rock are performed by means of transporting and mixing them at the roller type facility; flowing down pulp with abrasive material is driven to purification by means of a pumping system wherein solid particles of abrasive material are separated from the rest of the pulp and where abrasive material is saturated with solid particles of broken rock of specified dimension. Saturated abrasive material is directed to recirculation, while partially purified process liquid is mixed with the liquid obtained at drying of water saturated beds; then process liquid is finally purified by cold evaporation and is brought to recirculation. A portion of purified process liquid is supplied to the ventilation system of mine working and is dispersed in air in form of fine dispersed particles; continuous control measurements of air temperature, of explosion hazardous particles and coal dust contents in air are carried out during mine working operations.

EFFECT: upgraded versatility, efficiency, automaton, quality and reliability of process behavior in constraint conditions of mine working, improvement of ecological situation at mine.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and can be used at stratum development of minerals with swelled ground rock for guarding of district development drifts. Guarding method includes implementation of district development drifts 1, fixing of district development drifts, stratum weakening of minerals be making grooves 2,3. Powers of swelling layers of minerals stratum are defined. Stratum weakening is implemented by creating of vertical rooves 2,3 in sole, in the immediate vicinity of wall of working, from side of gradient and pitch of seam, at that groove length from side of gradient 2 is accepted as equal to maximal power of swelling stratum, but not more then 2000 mm, and groove length from the side of seam pitch 3 is equal to minimal power of swelling stratum.

EFFECT: decreasing of swelling of soil rocks, decreasing of costs for supporting district development drafts, increasing of spatial work concentration, providing of easier method of groove implementation.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and can be applied in protection of surface and/or underground objects against undermining. The method involves defining the border 4 of the protected zone (PZ) 5 of object 2 in the form of geometrical position of the points located at distance equal to the width b of safety berm from outline 3 of object 2 and at distance of ri and rj along the given radius-vectors and from the central point O fixed within the border 4. The radius-vectors cross vertical axis (VA) passing through the given central point O. Then a side surface (SS) of the protected zone (PZ) 8 is formed by generating lines (GL) 9 oriented along the mentioned radius-vectors and and drawn from the border 4 under the displacement angles of alluvium (AS) 10 and parent rock (PRS) 13 solids, defined for each direction of and . Further from a crossing line of the SS with roof (RS) 13 and ground (GS) 15 surfaces of a mineral deposit (MD) 6 borders 16 and 17 of the protection pillar (PP) are defined against the mentioned RS and GS in the form of a geometrical position of the points located at distances and along and directions from the VA to the border 16 and at distances and to the border 17, while the values of these distances are defined by the functional dependencies with account to displacement angles of AS and PRS, dip angles MD RS and GS and the ground surface of AS, distances ri and rj from the VA to the border 4 at the respective directions, depth of MD RS and GS occurrence, alluvium thickness under the PZ and VA plane, height marks difference at the PZ base (or day surface) in the central point O on the VA and on points i and j where respective radius-vectors and cross border 3. Functional dependencies are defined according to the geometrical constructions and have the one form for PP area 1 at the downslope of the MD 6 strike line (SL) 7 crossing VA, and another form for the upslope area of SL 7.

EFFECT: ensuring sufficient safety of an object protected against undermining in any direction.

4 dwg, 2 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

7 cl, 11 dwg

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