Method for soil deoxidation

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and may be used to reduce soil acidity, improve its structure and fertility. Method implies soil application of deoxidiser, which is a mixture of organic and mineral components with a deoxidising agent. Peat of 30-70% decay degree and pH 3.5-4.5 is used as organic component, borogypsum is used as mineral component and 53% alkaline solution (potassium hydroxide) is used as deoxidising agent. Ratio of components (kg per 1 tonn of resulting deoxidiser) is as follows: peat of 30-70% decay degree and pH 3.5-4.5 1200-1230, 53% potassium hydroxide solution 48-49, borogypsum 70-74. Deoxidising agent is applied in amount of 2-3 t per 1 ha.

EFFECT: reduced soil acidity, improved structure and fertility.

4 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used to reduce the acidity of the soil, improve its structure and fertility.

Acid soils in Russia account for more than half of agricultural land, much of which is used for growing crops. It is known that the growth and development of many cultivated plants, as well as the activity of beneficial soil microflora strongly suppressed at high acidity. Improving the fertility of these soils is possible only when systematic liming, application of organic and mineral fertilizers, and other reclamation activities. Known methods of reducing the acidity of the soil by making it of high doses of lime (Liming of acid soils. Ed. by Acad. Avdonina and other Meters, spike, 1976, 304 S.; Vneshnej. Liming of acid soils. Rosselchozizdat, 1982, 64 S.; Liming of cropland in the Khabarovsk region. Recommendations. Novosibirsk, 1990, 23 C.).

Existing methods do not solve along with neutralizing soil acidity problems enrichment of soil organic matter, and, on the contrary, reduce its quantity. This deteriorates the quality of their products, because lime and, especially, waste containing it, are not free from Negele the nutrient admixtures and including from heavy metals. In addition, when the liming of soils (starting with doses of lime 0.5 and above t/ha), such batteries as potassium, sulfur, boron, manganese and others, become inaccessible form for plants (Rasinsky, Ivanov, Gritsun. Liming and potassium mode meadow brown bleached soils. In the book: Processes of soil formation and transformation of elements in soils. Vladivostok, 1983, s-149). And, finally, the introduction of lime at the recommended doses (more than 8 t/ha) require high material costs.

Closest to the claimed method is a method of reducing soil acidity using a deoxidizer "Lime-Gumi" (Catalogue of agrochemicals permitted for use. Number of state registration 22-14051 (14052)-0168, 1996). Rescission substance that perform the function of neutralizing soil acidity, is a mixture of carbonates of calcium and magnesium. As the source of this component use the by-product of sugar production - precipitate defecatory beet juice. The source of the organic component is a by - product of soil and humus mass (mainly Chernozem)remaining after the washing of sugar beets. In the composition, in addition to these components, includes nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and boron. As sources of these elements are used is described conventional mineral fertilizers and fertilizing preparations: urea, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and boric acid. Humic substances are added in powder form Gumi. Soil humic substances and mineral fertilizers to maintain soil fertility, boron accelerates germination and further growth of the shoots, and the presence of Gumi stimulates root formation and activates soil microflora. This drug make in powder form during the fall or spring tillage.

However, as mentioned above, the action of lime is ambiguous and largely depends on the biological characteristics of crops, chemical properties of soils and weather conditions. For example, if you make the recommended doses of lime, rainy weather can cause too sharp decrease in soil acidity and the fixation of some nutrients (K, S, B, Cu and others)that, in turn, can reduce the yield of crops. In addition, this product is only partially or even not at all solve the problem of enrichment of soil organic matter as soil humus mass that remains after washing beet, insufficient to compensate for the required amount of organic substances.

The present invention is to reduce the acidity of soil to improve the soil and its structure. The problem is solved in that the manual deoxidation soil includes soil deoxidizer in the form of a mixture of organic and mineral components with rescission substance, at the same time as the organic component use peat decomposition degree of 30-70% and a pH of 3.5 to 4.5, as mineral - borovits, and as rostislaleva substance - 53% solution of alkali is potassium hydroxide, the following ratio of components, kg per 1 ton of finished product:

peat decomposition degree of 30-70%,
and pH 3.5-4.51200-1230
53% solution of potassium hydroxide48-49
borovits70-74

when the deoxidizer applied to the soil in the amount of 2-3 tons per 1 ha

Part of the deoxidizer peat, especially well-decomposed, and with great acidity contains significant quantities of humus - high molecular weight, dark-colored organic substances, comprising up to 60% humic acids. Humic acids are plant growth regulators. But in natural conditions they form practically insoluble salts with calcium and magnesium and some trace elements, which cannot be assimilated by plants. Processing of peat mass alkali solves the problem of transition insoluble salts in soluble form. During processing of peat alkali is potassium hydroxide, the formation of water soluble potassium HUMATE. Acidic tor the and completely neutralized and gradually becomes alkaline, that provides a yield of humic acids from peat in the form of soluble and colloidal soluble humates, contains well-absorbed by the plant nutrients. The use of potassium hydroxide is preferable to other alkalis, since potassium is one of the most important elements needed by the plants. In this case, the potassium hydroxide is simultaneously the supply of potassium. In addition, it reduces the biochemical stability of the peat to the mineralization of humus, contributing to the accumulation of nutrients. To neutralize soil acidity needs much less neutralizing substances in comparison with the known compounds (lime and others). The use of potassium hydroxide as rostislaleva substances in the production of deoxidizer obviates the need for additional technical measures for liming soils. Borovits, due to the property well to absorb moisture, acts as a binder and which is the source of several nutrients provides a well-mixed structure deoxidizer. Borovits contains 20-30% calcium, up to 15% of sulfur, boron, magnesium is well absorbed by the plants and not washed sediments through adsorption on the surface of humates especially in an alkaline environment. Thus, the proposed method making deoxidizer with the stated according to the current ratio of components ensures the achievement of the technical result of the task.

The deoxidizer to reduce soil acidity is prepared from natural material - peat, Borovitsa (waste production of boric acid) and a 53% solution of alkali is potassium hydroxide.

Peat in the number 1200-1230 kg handle 53% potassium hydroxide solution 48-49 kg, add borovits 70-74 kg, mixed, incubated for 12 hours and granularit. Next, the granules are dried with a soft drying at a temperature of 50°in the drying unit. The mixture of reducing agents applied to the soil broadcast application in the amount of 2-3 tons per 1 ha before sowing or planting vegetables.

To test the effectiveness of the proposed method of deoxidation soil wildebeest in the far East NRS agriculture have been conducted field experiments according to the method described in work Bagasheva (Methods of field experience, ed. "Kolos", M, 1968) - vegetable and some field crops (corn, soybeans, potatoes, cucumbers and other). The deoxidizer was made in the spring before sowing (planting) broadcast application.

Examples of the effective use of the method of deoxidizer in the cultivation of various crops according to Dannish presented in tables 1, 2, 3, 4.

Table 1
The influence of different doses of deoxidizer on the yield of cucumber (average for 3 years, the experiment was repeated 4 times)
OptionsYield in kg/haThe increase in t/haIncrease in %
1. Control147,8--
2. The deoxidizer 2 t/ha164,716,911,4
3. The deoxidizer 3 t/ha191,543,729,5
4. The deoxidizer 4 t/ha186,538,726,2
NDS05=9,4 kg/ha

Table 2
Effect of reducing agents on the yield of maize (average for 3 years, the experiment was repeated 4 times)
OptionsYield, kg/haGain, kg/haGain, %
1. Control252,2--
2. The deoxidizer 2 t/ha364,3112,344,4
3. The deoxidizer 3 t/ha365,0113,144,8
4. The deoxidizer 4 t/ha352,099,839,6
NDS05=35,7 kg/ha

Table 3
Effect of reducing agents on the potato crop (averaged over 3 years, repeated 4 times)
OptionsYield, kg/haIncrease centner/haGain, %
1. Control171,7--
2. The deoxidizer 2 t/ha235,463,737,1
3. The deoxidizer 3 t/ha239,567,839,5
4. The deoxidizer 4 t/ha231,259,534,6
NDS05=20,7 kg/ha

of 60.5
Table 4.
Effect of reducing agents on the cabbage crop (averaged over 3 years, the experiment was repeated 4 times)
OptionsYield in kg/haThe increase in t/haIncrease in %
1. Control216,7--
2. The deoxidizer 2 t/hato 369.6152,970,6
3. The deoxidizer 3 t/ha360,6143,966,4
4. The deoxidizer 4 t/ha347,7131,0
NDS05=55,8 kg/ha

As can be seen from the results given in the tables, the application of the proposed method of deoxidation of the soil, i.e. the soil before sowing (planting), deoxidizer, significantly increases the yield of crops cultivated. Moreover, the optimal dose of deoxidizer for soil should be considered 2-3 t/ha, as a further increase of its quantity, as a rule, does not increase the yield of the test crop.

The use of the proposed method of deoxidation of the soil, carried out by introducing into the soil before sowing or planting deoxidizer, allows to neutralize soil acidity. The pH value of soil extract has grown over the 5 years from 3.9 to 4.2 to 4.8 to 5.1. At the same time improved soil structure and increased its fertility.

The method of deoxidation of soil, including soil deoxidizer in the form of a mixture of organic and mineral components with rescission substance, characterized in that the organic component use peat decomposition degree of 30-70% and a pH of 3.5 to 4.5, as mineral - borovits, and as rostislaleva substance - 53% solution of alkali is potassium hydroxide, the following ratio of components, kg per 1 ton of finished deoxidizer:

td align="left"> peat decomposition degree of 30-70% and a pH of 3.5-4.5
1200-1230
53% solution of potassium hydroxide48-49
borovits70-74,

when the deoxidizer applied to the soil in the amount of 2-3 tons per 1 ha



 

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