Die for hot die forging of axisymmetric forged pieces with single flat end
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: die forging applies die that comprises upper and lower parts with working surface having stream. Pusher and movable spring-loaded ring are installed in upper part of die. Ring produces die cavity together with upper and lower parts. Surface of die lower part stream is made as flat. Specified lower part represents elastic element having possibility of bending of stream middle portion. Bending value is within the limits of die cavity closed height allowance.
EFFECT: higher quality of forged pieces and die resistance.
2 dwg, 1 ex
The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in particular for hot die forging of axisymmetric forging with one flat end face of the type wheel hubs, flanges and other products.
Known die for closed forging, a top plate attached to the matrix within which is inserted a stripper, an intermediate plate mounted on the support bars with the formation of a beam on two supports that perform the function of the elastic element, the plug located on the intermediate plate, which is placed around the clamp-clamp, and the bottom plate. The use of the elastic element allows to compensate the excess metal with the fluctuation of the volume of the workpiece due to the increase in tolerance of the thickness of the stamped part, which prevents overload and increased die wear (USSR author's certificate 782930, MCL.3B21J 13/02).
However, the need to use the stamp intermediate plate complicates the design of the stamp, and the placement of the clamp-down on the intermediate plate complicates the cleaning of the stamp from scale and grease. This reduces the efficiency of the stamp and the quality of the details.
Also known stamp for hot die forging of axisymmetric forging with one flat end face, comprising upper and lower the Yuyu part, made with the working surface with the stream, and placed at the top of the ejector and movable spring-loaded ring that forms with specified upper and lower parts of the cavity of the stamp and the surface of the stream bottom is planar. At the top of the stamp are the ejector and movable spring-loaded ring. The use of the rolling spring ring placed at the top of the stamp, and a flat surface at the bottom of the stamp facilitates cleaning of the surface streams stamp after each stamping that improves the quality of the forgings. This technical solution is the closest to the essential features and selected as a prototype (USSR author's certificate 1007816, MCL.3B21J 13/02, B21J 5/02).
The main disadvantages of the above stamp are lower quality forgings due to the formation of burrs and durability of the stamp due to increased wear of the mating surfaces and overload stamp, due to the inevitable release of the excess metal with the fluctuation of the volume of the workpiece in the gap between the contact surfaces of the upper and lower parts of the die and rolling a spring-loaded ring with the formation of burrs.
The basis of the invention is the task of improving the quality of forgings and durability of the stamp.
The solution of the task in the stamp for hot die forging of axisymmetric forging with one flat end, contains the upper and lower parts made with the working surface with the stream, and placed at the top of the ejector and movable spring-loaded ring, forming together with the specified upper and lower parts of the cavity of the stamp and the surface of the stream bottom is made flat, according to the invention the lower part is made in the form of an elastic element, with the possibility of deflection of the middle surface of the stream to a value within the tolerance of the closed cavity height of the stamp.
The execution of the lower part of the stamp in the form of an elastic element, with the possibility of deflection of the middle surface of the stream to a value within the tolerance of the closed height of the cavity stamp provides compensation excess metal with the fluctuation of the volume of the workpiece by increasing the thickness of stamping forging, which avoids the release of excess metal into the gaps between the contact surfaces of the upper and lower parts of the die and rolling a spring-loaded ring, thereby allowing you to avoid the formation of burrs and handling stamp, to reduce die wear, resulting in increasing the quality of the forgings and the resistance of the stamp.
Figure 1 shows the position of objects proposed for hot stamp die forging in the moment of contact of the upper stamp with the original blank; figure 2 - end position of objects shtam the A.
Stamp for hot die forging of axisymmetric forging with one flat end consists of the top 1 and bottom 2 pieces made with the working surface with the stream, and the surface of the stream bottom 2 of the stamp, which is the source of the workpiece 3, is made flat, and the lower part 2 of the stamp is made in the form of an elastic element consisting of a body 4 and the wall 5 of the stream, representing an elastic plate with clamped circuit (Bezukhov NI Theory of elasticity and plasticity/N.I. Bezukhov. - M: Gosizdat. 1953. - S, ri), and with the possibility of deflection of the middle surface of the stream to a value within the tolerance of the closed cavity height of the stamp (figure 1, 2). On the top 1 of the stamp is fixed cylindrical guides column 6 installed on them ring 7, which in the initial position of the stamp due to the spring 8 is pressed against the head 9 column 6 (figure 1). In the closed position of the stamp (figure 2) ring 7 is fixed on the cylindrical projection 10, is made on the bottom 2 of the stamp, and together with the upper 1 and lower 2 parts of the stamp forms a closed cavity corresponding to the configuration forgings 11 (figure 2). In the hole of the top 1 of the stamp placed ejector 12.
Stamp for hot die forging works as follows. The heated workpiece 3 is mounted on a flat surface rucl the bottom 2 of the stamp (figure 1). When working stroke of the press slide ring 7 is lowered, enters the cylindrical protrusion 10 of the lower part 2 of the die and forms a closed cavity, which is formed by the forging 11 (figure 2). After forming forgings 11 (2) in the cavities of the stamp, there is tension, reaching stresses in the elastic deformation of the wall 5 of the Creek bottom 2 of the stamp. In the middle surface of the Creek bends to the value within the tolerance of the closed height of the cavity stamp, compensating for the excess metal with the fluctuation of the volume of the original piece 3. When reverse motion of the press slide forging 11 is ejected from the Creek upper 1 part of the stamp ejector 12.
Example. Experimental stamping forging wheel hub diameter Dcm=144 mm, the thickness of the blade 15 mm, hub height of 36 mm Dimensions workpiece: diameter(car standard accuracy); workpiece height HC=88+1,5mm (cutting by scissors). Steel 45. The temperature of the end of the stamping 900°C, the tensile strength at this temperature σin=77 MPa.
The thickness of the wall 5 of the Creek bottom 2 pieces lab stamp, made in the form of an elastic element received from the condition of strength and amounted to 21 mm Material of the lower part of the stamp steel CHIMPS.
The calculations are carried out in the following order: 1) determine the pressure p at the end of the stamping by the formula (Koukai forging steel: a Handbook / Washenko [and others]; edited Mavlonov. - M.: Mechanical Engineering. 1968. - S):
where Fn=12675 mm2- area projection forgings in the direction of the action force;
Vn=262125 mm3- volume forgings;
2) determine the amount of possible on condition that the elastic deflection of the middle surface of the stream (wall 5 of the Creek) bottom 2 of the stamp according to the formula for plates with clamped circular contour (Bezukhov NI Theory of elasticity and plasticity / Niyazov. - M: Gosizdat, 1953. - S):
where ω0- the amount of deflection of the middle surface of the plate with a clamped circular contour (middle surface of the stream bottom stamp);
r is the radius of the forgings;
μ is the Poisson's ratio for steel;
E - the modulus of elasticity of steel;
h is the wall thickness of the lower part of the stamp;
According to GOST 7505-89 permissible positive deviation of the thickness of forgings up to 40 mm when the source index 15 is equal to 1.8 mm, this value is consistent calculated amount of deflection ω0=1,85 mm;
3) determine the amount of excess metal, which can be compensated at the maximum deflection Sredin the second surface of the stream bottom 2 of the stamp, by the formula for a spherical segment of a thickness of ω0=1,85 mm:
V[Izl]/Vn=14386/262125=0,054 - which is quite acceptable for hot die forging;
4) determine the maximum positive deviation of the volume of the original piece (the maximum possible surplus volume of the original piece):
where ΔVmax- maximum positive deviation of the volume of the original piece, due to the positive tolerances of the diameter of the rent and the length of the workpiece after cutting;
Vmax- the maximum amount of the original piece based on the positive tolerances on the dimensions of the rent and the length of the workpiece;
Vn- the volume of the original piece, calculated on the nominal sizes;
ΔD - maximum positive tolerance on the diameter of the Bicycle;
ΔH - maximum positive tolerance on the length of the original piece after felling;
5) compare the values of the volumes of surplus metal of the original piece: from the comparison of the values of Vtechnology=14386 mm3and ΔVmax=11379 mm3it is seen that the actual maximum positive deviation of volume (ΔVmax) the source of the workpiece is substantially less than the volume of excess (V[Izl]), which can be compensated at the maximum deflection of the CPE is Inna surface of the stream bottom part of the stamp.
Received forgings had a good quality surface without burrs, which reduces the wear of the mating surfaces of the upper and lower parts of the die and rolling a spring-loaded ring.
Thus, the execution of the lower part of the stamp in the form of an elastic element improves the quality of forgings and durability of the stamp.
Stamp for hot die forging of axisymmetric forging with one flat end face, comprising upper and lower parts made with the working surface with the stream, and placed at the top of the ejector and movable spring-loaded ring, forming together with the specified upper and lower parts of the cavity of the stamp and the surface of the stream bottom is planar, wherein the bottom part is made in the form of an elastic element, with the possibility of deflection of the middle surface of the stream to a value within the tolerance of the closed cavity height of the stamp.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises fixed plate for installation on press table, cylinder with semi-matrices and upper movable plate with shape puncheons. Upper plate is connected to press slider by means of tailpiece. Gasket with inclined surface and guides is rigidly fixed to stationary plate. Cylinder equipped with mechanism of its sliding moves in guides. Device is provided with hold-down connected to upper movable plate and polyurethane component. Semi-matrices have cavity, where pusher is installed. Working opening of semi-matrices is provided along extruded bar within the limits of the upper allowance for its manufacture. Upper hold-down and semi-matrices have cone to arrange stock hold-down together polyurethane component, whenever upper plate moves down.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: creation of ultrafine-grained structure in metal stock by means of its strain treatment with upthrust includes staged compression of stock with vertically compressing puncheon in die mold that contains matrix limited down with flat bottom, with cavity for stock installation in it and intended for treatment of stock in three orthogonal directions with provision of plastic flow of stock material along directions that do not coincide with direction of compression force. At every stage of strain treatment the stock is placed in matrix cavity, compressed, and deformed stock is taken out from matrix cavity. Prior to installation of stock in matrix cavity the bottom part of matrix cavity is filled with charge of refractory powder for 0.1-0.5 of compressed height of stock, then stock is placed for filling, charge is filled into free space created between two pairs of sliders and stock to the level that exceeds top point of stock by 0.1-0.5 of its compressed height, matrix is inserted into puncheon, displaced to provide stock compression of 10-60% from its height. Stages of deformation treatment of stock are repeated, changing directions of its strain, until ultrafine-grained structure is formed in the whole volume of stock. Device for formation of ultrafine-grained structure in metal stock during its strain treatment with upthrust arranged in the form of die mold that contains matrix with rectangular base plate, puncheon and two pairs of sliders installed in two mutually orthogonal directions. Upthrust is arranged in the form of charge from refractory material that fills the free space between sliders, matrix bottom, puncheon and stock.
EFFECT: production of bulky metal stocks with different ratios of size and increase of finished product output.
5 cl, 4 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: half-finished product with business end is obtained from workpiece and processed. It undergoes thermal processing and polishing. Then cog profile is worked out by method of electroerosion on the lateral surface of business end of half-finished product.
EFFECT: improved quality of obtained item.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: for parts production cold-upsetting tool is used in the form of multi-position unit. Unit includes five positions and contains puncheons, thrusters, assembled matrixes and strippers. Assembled matrix in the fourth position is installed motionlessly and is equipped with reduction step at the insert. Stripper of the fourth position is arranged with the opening, in which spring-loaded puncheon is installed. Cut billet is subjected to setting and calibration with leveling of butt ends and formation of conical marks. By means of further billet setting head is created. Then opening is pressed out in the billet and its external diameter is reduced with formation of step. Reduction of diameter is carried out in motionless matrix with insert, which has reduction step. For that purpose billet is displaced until it thrusts stripper with spring-loaded puncheon with its butt-end. Puncheon is installed in billet pressed out opening. Later billet is displaced together with puncheon and stripper via reduction step of matrix. After that billet opening is interweaved.
EFFECT: expansion of technological resources.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: for one technological operation two types of pressing are carried out. As one type direct pressing of metal is used from container to its exit via calibrating zone. The second type is equal-channel angular pressing with provision of shift deformations in metal. Direct pressing is carried out prior to angular pressing. Shift deformations at angular pressing are provided immediately after metal exit from calibrating zone of direct pressing. Pressing is performed in the device that contains puncheon, matrix with two crossing channels and container. Container is installed above the matrix. Container cavity forms inlet part of vertically installed matrix channel. Area of inlet part cross section exceeds cross section area of vertically installed channel. The latter is arranged in the form of calibrating belt for direct pressing of metal from container. Height of belt makes 4-10 mm, and its diameter is equal to diameter of matrix second channel.
EFFECT: production of long-length items with high mechanical properties from different structural materials with simultaneous reduction of power intensity.
6 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: construction equipment.
SUBSTANCE: rod ends are made with thickenings which have screw. For rods joining joiner is used with inner screw. Thickenings on rod ends are received on forging press fitted with equipment for cold heading of reinforcing rod ends. As stated device for disembarkation forging die is used, having longitudinal channel along the length for operation security with long reinforced rods.
EFFECT: provision of process capability widening of used equipment with serviceability and economic feasibility preservation.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: forging is performed in several passes by means of an upper flat and a lower cut out strikers. The lower striker has an impression in a shape of a scalene triangle. During the first pass a blank by compression is shaped into a scalene triangle with an obtuse angle 100-105° and a lesser acute angle 29-34°. During the following passes the blank is placed in the same strikers with support of a lesser side of the triangle of its cross section on a bigger side of a scalene triangle of cross section of the impression of the lower striker.
EFFECT: risk of defect formation is excluded.
12 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: pressure shaping; manufacture of blanks from materials at preset structure including submicro-crystalline structure and nano-crystalline structure at respective level of physico-mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in successive deformation cycles of initial blank by compression in height, thus obtaining blank with lateral faces. Proposed method ensures smooth plastic flow of material of blank in opposite directions along axis perpendicular to direction of application of deformation force. Each deformation cycle includes placing the blank in device, subjecting it to deformation, withdrawing the blank from device and re-setting for next cycle. Device proposed for realization of this method has working part with cavity and upper and lower punches. Working cavity consists of two parts: upper and lower. Lower part is widened along one of its horizontal axes.
EFFECT: enhanced homogeneity of ultrafine-grained structure at improved mechanical properties.
9 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly ingot and billet forging in forging presses and in radial-squeezing machines.
SUBSTANCE: four strikers are mounted in holders having inclined planes supporting anti-friction plates. Holders of upper and lower strikers are joined through kinematics links holders of lateral strikers. Centering guides are mounted on inclined planes of holders of upper and lower strikers or on inclined planes of holders of lateral strikers. Centering guides are arranged in centering grooves restricted by walls of grooves of lateral striker holders or holders of upper and lower strikers and lateral planes of respective anti-friction plates. Apparatus also includes lateral transferring guides with F-shaped cross section. Width of working surface of each striker consists 0.5 - 0.9 of width of its supporting surface. Relation S1/S2 of total surface area of contact of anti-friction plates of holders of lateral strikers and anti-friction plates of holders of upper and lower strikers in closed apparatus (S1) and total surface area of projections of working surfaces of lateral strikers on lengthwise symmetry plane of apparatus (S2) exceeds value 2.5.
EFFECT: increased useful life period of apparatus.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of metal, possibly manufacture of hollow thin-wall parts.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of producing initial blank; calibrating it; then pressing it out and drawing. Near-bottom cylindrical portion of wall and bottom portion are shaped in die. Diameter of said die is less than diameter of part by value of elastic deformation of wall of near-bottom portion of part.
EFFECT: improved quality of ready part.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: metal working.
SUBSTANCE: hard alloy matrix has casing, bushing pressed in the case and hard alloy insertion. Bushing has multifaced hole. Hard alloy insertion is composed by several sections made in form of trapezoidal-section prisms which have cut angles at their non-working edges. Number of sections corresponds to number of faces of item to be headed. Cuts of angles are made symmetrically to faces of working edge. Slits are made in several places of multifaced hole bushing at the ponts where faces cross each other.
EFFECT: improved resistance of matrix; simplified assembly.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: forging and forming processes and equipment, namely manufacture of elongated forgings with thickened portions and lateral branches.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes deforming punch, die with vertical parting, struts in the form of truncated pyramids having wedge-shaped slopes for mounting die; units for securing struts to supporting plate. Die is placed in struts with possibility of motion relative to them. Struts have double-sided mutually opposite slopes. Elastic member is placed under die. Maximum compression value of said elastic member by means of effort corresponding to effort of clamping die halves in struts is equal to value of descending die at forging process.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and rigidity of die set.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly operations for finish working of forgings of double-end box nut wrenches.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes upper and lower plates with guiding columns, punch for punching operation mounted on upper plate, stripper, lower die for punching, half-open trimming lower die and trimming punch. Trimming lower die is mounted on upper plate; it has cutting edge and cavity arranged behind collar of cutting edge and designed for freely placing forging of nut wrench. Trimming punch is mounted on lower plate and it has embracing supporting surface for fixing forging at trimming and straightening operations.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of forging.
9 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals with use of intensive plastic deformation, production of nano-crystalline materials with improved mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes band in which cone insert having several parts is pressed; lower support; inlet and outlet ducts; ram. According to first variant of invention contours of parts of cone insert are restricted by means of two mutually normal planes and cone surface portion cut by said planes. Crossing line of said planes does not coincide with symmetry axis of cone surface. Inlet duct is formed by faces of cone insert parts arranged normally one relative to other and mutually joined; walls of said duct are in the form of portions of said planes. According to second variant of invention contours of cone insert parts are restricted by radius surface, by two mutually crossing planes and portion of cone surface cut by said planes. Crossing planes are mutually normal or they are inclined one relative to other by angle 120°. Axis of radius surface coincides with crossing line of said planes. Faces of cone insert parts are mutually joined; inlet duct is formed by their radius surfaces and outlet duct is formed by radius grooves.
EFFECT: lowered number of parts, reduced consumption of material for making cone insert.
4 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of meals, possibly manufacture of hollow parts such as sleeves, tubes, bushes by cold pressing out.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of plastic deforming of blank at translation and rotation of deforming tool; realizing said motions of tool from separate drive units; setting speed of translation less than that of rotation and selecting relation of said speed values less than 2.5.
EFFECT: enhanced manufacturing possibilities of method.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely processes for pressing out shapes of aluminum base alloys, constructions of pressing out tools.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making blank, heating, hot pressing out of blank through die, heat treatment of shape. At pressing out blank is subjected in upper p[art of die to additional shearing deformations due to twisting it by angle in range 40 - 50° relative to axis of die. Die includes deforming cone, working rectangular collar and outlet zone. Deforming cone has two helical protrusions in the form of trapezium. Upper base of said trapezium is equal to length of rectangle of working collar; its lower base consists 1.5 - 2 of parts of said length value. Rotation angle of upper cross section of protrusion relative to its lower cross section is in range 40 - 50° relative to axis of die. In longitudinal cross section said protrusions are in the form of parabola.
EFFECT: possibility for making rectangular aluminum alloy shapes with enhanced mechanical characteristics and low anisotropy of their properties, improved design of die.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly forging ingots and billets in hydraulic forging presses.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes two holders of upper and lower strikers having inclined surfaces. Said holders are kinematically coupled with two holders of lateral strikers having inclined surfaces corresponding to those of holders of upper and lower strikers. Four strikers are secured to respective holders by means of clamps and tightening studs. Each of upper and lower strikers has two working portions mutually divided by cutout. Each of lateral strikers has one working portion entering cutouts of upper and lower strikers. At least one adjusting plate is placed between holder of lower striker and lower striker. Lower striker is secured to its holder by means of two Г-shaped clamps. Inclined surfaces of said clamps are forced to inclined surfaces of holder of lower striker; riffled surfaces of said clamps are forced to two friction plates arranged on lateral surfaces of lower striker. Pins passing through openings of adjustment plates and entering openings of holder of lower striker are mounted in lower striker.
EFFECT: lowered cost of making tool, reduced time period for readjustment of it.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of metal, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making wheels of automobiles and similar articles.
SUBSTANCE: tool includes die, punch, knocking out member with shaped portion, unit for stepped regulation of bottom thickness and height of cup. Said unit is in the form of apparatuses for changing length of punch and depth of die. In upper part of punch female type yoke with through stepped opening is mounted. In upper part of die there is seat whose diameter dimension corresponds to outer diameter of yoke. Depth of die is changed by means of apparatus in the form of flat ring arranged over shaped portion of knocking out member. Apparatus for changing length of punch is in the form of flat round gasket arranged inside yoke over punch. Punch has in its upper portion large-diameter step corresponding to diameter of large step of yoke opening.
EFFECT: possibility for producing by means of one tool semi-finished products of wheels with different combinations of width and thickness values.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy; metal plastic working.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in form forging shops of metallurgical and machine-building plant in manufacture of vehicle wheels and like articles. Proposed tool contains die and punch holder with punch and knock-out with shaped part movable relative to die. Punch is enclosed by replaceable round holder with support flat and support surface. Die is provided with socket in upper part whose diameter corresponds to outer diameter of holder, and with support flat. Holder is installed for longitudinal displacement and engagement by its support flat and support surface with support flat of die and with punch holder, respectively. Shaped part of knock-out is made replaceable to provide possibility of making wheels of different type-sizes using one tool.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: plastic metal working with use of intensive plastic deformation, namely manufacture of nano-crystalline materials with improved degree of mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes slider and plate restricting inlet duct; stationary stop closing inlet duct and restricting together with plate outlet duct; ram and member for knocking out blank. Said member is joined with motion drive unit and it is mounted with possibility of introducing into additional through duct formed in slider. According to first variant of invention at initial position of slider its through duct is arranged in front of outlet duct. Slider may be shifter before starting pressing process by value exceeding size of through duct. According to second variant of invention through duct of slider is arranged in front of outlet duct in lower limit position of slider. Said cone-shape through duct of slider is closed by means of plug pressed-in to it.
EFFECT: improved design providing possibility for extracting last blank out of outlet duct before starting pressing of next lot of blanks.
2 cl, 5 dwg