Method of degreasing sheepskin-fur raw material

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves degreasing sheepskin-fur raw material and can be used in fur production during degreasing of sheepskin-fur coat and fur raw material. Processing of the raw material is carried out in a degreasing bath containing a bacterial suspension, which has both lipolytic 50-60 units/gram and proteolytic 8-10 units/gram activity, with the total product of life activity of the microorganisms at a value of 5-6 g/dm3, synthetic surface-active substance - 0.5-1.0 g/dm3, catalase-positive procariotic culture of genus Erwinia sp. in the quantity 109-1010 cells/cm3 in the degreasing bath hydrogen peroxide is additionally added in the quantity 0.1-1.0 g/dm3, preliminarily dissolved in a tenfold amount of piped water. Processing is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°C, for 60 min., with some mechanical action from time to time and liquid crystallisation=10.

EFFECT: increase in quality of degreasing sheepskin and reduction in the level of toxic sewage production.

4 tbl, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to light industry and can be used in fur production during the process of degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials.

There is a method of degreasing and weakening bristle pork skins, namely, that after treatment with lime and washing the skins are treated in a bath containing the drug of mold Aspergillus oryzae and ammonium sulphate. Under the action allocated to the preparation of lactic acid is observed degradation of fatty substances. Resulting lime plumping raw material falls down into the tub, where simultaneously there is a further loosening of the connection between the bristles and hair bag. This achieves the required reduction of the bristle (see A.S. SU 61614, CL SS 1/08. Method of degreasing and weakening bristle pork skins. Publ. 31.08.1942).

The disadvantage of this method is the weakening of the link bristle pork skins with Koshevoy cloth, which is unacceptable in the processing of sheepskin and fur raw materials.

There is a method of degreasing fur sheepskin, in which the removal of organic substances washed out by using enzyme preparations lipolytic action (liposyn and/or lipase), isolated from porcine pancreas, as well as from cultures of Pseudomonas acrudinase with the addition of various adjuvants (bile, calcium chloride). When using the quiet enzyme preparations qualitative reactions on zagarenski negative (see Fomin L.A., Rochwarger OD, Zubin A.M. and other study of the process of enzymatic degreasing fur sheepskin. - Sat. scientific papers VNIIMP - M., 1980, p.3-7).

However, when degreasing the lipases of animal origin there is some weakening of bonds of the hair with Koshevoy cloth, which is undesirable for fur pelts.

The main disadvantage of the above methods is the formation of toxic wastewater containing difficultly oxidizable organic compounds, such as synthetic surfactants and formaldehyde.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result of the present invention is a method of degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, which consists in the processing of raw materials bacterial suspension with both the lipolytic - 20-30 units/g, and proteolytic - 2,5-3,5%/year activities, containing the cumulative product of vital activity of microorganisms in the amount of 4-8 g/DM3synthetic surfactant - 0.25-0.5 g/DM3and prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 107-109cells/cm3water - the rest, the treatment is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°, duration 45 min, AC mechanical impact and volume ratio 7-10 (see patent No. 2287590, IPC SS 1/08 5/00; C12S 7/00. The way degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, publ. Bull. No. 32 dated 20.11.2006,).

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to completely remove yellowness natural non-pigmented hair, caused by the presence of extraneous inclusions, chemically joined the keratin of the hair during the life of the animal (urea), in the process of slaughter, when removing the skins, processing, preservation, storage or technological treatments, which is a defect, greatly reduces the value of the sheepskin and fur skins.

The problem to be solved in the present invention is the development of technology, conducted by the additional introduction to working bath containing bacterial suspension, the hydrogen peroxide to remove yellowness natural non-pigmented hair sheepskin fur.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of sheepskin degreasing and bleaching of hair, reducing toxic pollution of sewage.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved by a method for degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, lies in its processing in a degreasing bath bacterial suspension with lipolytic and proteolytic activities, containing amounts of the RNA product of microorganisms, synthetic surfactant, prokaryotic culture, water - the rest, the treatment is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°C, AC mechanical action, LC=10, according to the invention, the bacterial suspension has lipolytic 50-60 units/g and proteolytic 8-10 units/g activities, contains the total product of vital activity of microorganisms in the amount of 5-6 g/DM3synthetic surfactant 0.5-1.0 g/DM3and as prokaryotic culture - catalanopolonesa prokaryotic culture of the genus Erwinia sp. in the amount of 109-1010cells/cm3while advanced in a degreasing bath introduce the hydrogen peroxide in the number 01-1,0 g/DM3at the stage of processing of sheepskin and fur raw material, which is dissolved in ten times the amount of tap water, with the processing of raw materials should be performed within 60 minutes

A distinctive feature of the proposed method biotech degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw material is then processed in a bacterial suspension having a maximum lipolytic and minimal proteolytic activities, including fewer synthetic surfactants (detergents) to 1.0 g/DM3total product life microorganisms to the number of 5-6 g/DM 3as prokaryotic culture catalanopolonesa prokaryotic culture of the genus Erwinia sp. in the amount of 109-1010cells/cm3and additional infusion of hydrogen peroxide in the stage of processing of sheepskin in an amount of 0.1-1.0 g/DM3pre-dissolved in ten times the amount of tap water. The effect of scouring-bleaching due to the fact that after cleavage of the protein coat of the fat cells is observed decay of lipids from microorganisms which happens biocatalytic under the action of the enzyme lipase, and the destruction of pigment yellow (urea) is due to the accumulation in the environment of the ions HO-2that and have basically the bleaching effect. When this bacterial suspension is characterized by a high value of lipolytic activity, with minimal proteolytic, ensure communication of hair with Koshevoy cloth fur at the optimal distance of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather. The presence of bacterial suspension detergents ensures removal of mineral impurities from the surface of the hair, and the presence in it of the proposed catalogoplantillas prokaryotic microorganism cultures of Erwinia sp. allows you to dispose of fatty substances without red is their deposition on the surface of the fur and leather. The treatment is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°, duration 60 min, AC mechanical impact and the amount of liquid coefficient (LC)=10.

Minimum consumption of synthetic surfactants (detergents) in a degreasing bath of 0.5-1.0 g/DM3the exclusion of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde can significantly reduce the level of toxic pollution of wastewater after you finish this process and additional introduction in a degreasing bath of hydrogen peroxide in an amount of 0.1-1.0 g/DM3- remove the yellowness natural non-pigmented hair. While the waste water generated after the biotechnological process of degreasing, may be directed to otmichnii drum. The degreasing process of the proposed method is proposed to conduct low proteolytic activity 8-10 units/g and increased the amount of lipolytic - 50-60 units/g, which provides optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather, while maintaining the connection of the hair with it. Use as a bleaching agent hydrogen peroxide is due not only to its high oxidative ability, but also with the ecological purity of the product is its restoration - water.

Conducted by the applicant ur analysis is VNA equipment, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not found the source, which is characterized by symptoms that are identical to all the essential features of the claimed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype, which is closer to the totality of symptoms analogue, has allowed to establish the essential towards perceived by the applicant to the technical result is to improve the quality of degreasing and bleaching of hair, reducing the level of toxic pollution of sewage - distinctive features set forth in the claims.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the conditions of "novelty" and "inventive step".

To perform the present invention is a method of degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials were carried out semiindustrial studies, which were found to be optimal concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the time of its introduction in the degreasing bath.

Bacterial suspension prepared on the basis of the synthetic environment, including water, mineral and organic components, detergents and catalanopolonesa culture kind Erwini sp. Culturing duration is 24 hours, at a temperature of 37±0,5°and periodic mechanical action. At the end of the cultivation assess the content of the total product of microorganisms, lipolytic and proteolytic activities of the bacterial suspension, the residual concentration of detergents and active acidity (pH). Options prepared bacterial suspension are presented in table 1.

Table 1
The name of the parameterQuantitative expression
1. Total bacterial count, cells/cm3109-1010
2. Lipolytic activity, units/g50-60
3. Proteolytic activity, units/g8-10
4. The concentration of the total product of microorganisms, g/DM35-6
5. The concentration of detergents, g/DM30,5-1,0
6. Active reaction (pH)7,0-7,5

As can be seen from table 1, the prepared bacterial suspension has a low proteolytic activity 8-10 units/g with a predominance of lipolytic 50-60 units/g, which in our opinion will ensure optimum removal W the world of substances from the surface of the fur and leather. Low value proteolytic activity allows the degreasing process not only in a fairly wide time range, but also significantly reduce the impact on proteins malpighiales layer - inner layer of the hair of the bag, thereby reducing the likelihood of teclast hair.

After the analysis in the barge pour water, add the calculated amount of water volume of bacterial suspension, then the barge is placed sheepskin fur in the expanded form. The hydrogen peroxide is injected in a degreasing bath at the beginning or during the process, pre-dissolve it in 10-fold amount of water, depending on its intended flow rate and the desired amount of white hair. The process is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°With variable mechanical action within 60 min, when the value of LC=10. After biotech degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 40-42°C for 30 minutes

The finished semi-finished product is characterized by a white, clean, crisp hair. Symbiotic action of the enzyme protease and lipase, present in a bacterial suspension provides additional abating the leather, and this is caused by the improvement of the quality polyfibre the ATA. As used prokaryotic culture is catalogoplantillas, it translates reacting the reactive substance in the state, representing an unstable active complex, the decay of which is formed products of the reactions.

The proposed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials is as follows.

When preparing raw materials for processing pre-picked batch of skins sheepskin fur one conservation method weighed. Raw materials are : soaking off, according to the processing Technology of fur skins (1988). Then the raw material is squeezed and punish him biotechnology degreasing. Pour water, warmed up to 37-40°add the estimated amount of the bacterial suspension with a temperature of 40±2°C. characterization of the bacterial suspension: total bacterial count 109-1010CL/cm3, the lipolytic activity of 50-60 units/g, proteolytic activity 8-10 units/g, the concentration of the total product of microorganisms 5-6 g/DM3the concentration of detergents 0.5-1.0 g/DM3active pH 7,0-7,5 (see table 1). Thus prepared working solution is mixed and loaded into a degreasing bath raw materials. Duration 60 min at AC mechanical impact and LC=10. The end of the degreasing assess the reaction of Lieberman. The hydrogen peroxide in an amount of 0.1-1.0 g/DM3dissolved in ten times the amount of tap water, add in a degreasing bath or in the beginning of the process or during the process of degreasing, depending on the desired effect white. Upon completion of the conduct process flow. Washing raw materials provide running water at a temperature of 40-42°C for 30 minutes Then the treatment is carried out according to the processing Technology of fur skins (1988). In the standard version (see processing Technology fur sheepskin, 1988) use a composition that includes: NP sulfonic acid-3 - 8 g/DM3, sodium carbonate and 0.5 g/DM3and formaldehyde - 0.5 cm3/DM3.

To further carry out the process of pickling, tanning-fatliquoring and finishing operations according to the processing Technology of fur skins (1988). After the finishing operations are evaluating the physico-mechanical and chemical properties of the finished product. The results are presented in table 2.

Table 2
Name of indicatorGOST 4661-76PrototypeGeneric version
For leather
Temperature welding, °Not below 70 77±0,178±0,1
Mass fraction of moisture, %No more than 148,9±0,112,1±0,1
Mass fraction of chromium oxide, %0,8-1,81,54±0,21,48±0,2
Mass fraction of ash, %No more than 8the 5.45±0,26,23±0,2
Mass fraction of unbound fatty substances, %10-2013,2510,22
the pH of aqueous extract4,0-7,55,3of 6.96
The load at break of the whole lambskin, N.Not less than 200>200>200
The bond strength of the hair with Koshevoy cloth N-118112
For hairline
Mass fraction of unbound fatty substances, %No more than 21,91,95
White hair, %-79,4±1,3474,6±1,52
Yellow hair, %6,6±0,9512,3±1,22

As can be seen from the obtained results, physico-mechanical and chemical properties of fur sheepskin, tanned on the claimed technology is technology, meet the requirement of GOST 4661-76 "Sheepskin fur tanned. Technical conditions". Evaluation of bond strength hair fur sheepskin with dermis showed that the value of this parameter for the experimental and control options amounted to 118 and 112 MPa, respectively. This indicates that the weakening of bonds of the hair with Koshevoy tissue does not occur.

After experimental degreasing of the proposed method and the control variant carry out sampling of wastewater to assess their quality and level of toxic pollution. Assessment of the quality of water carried out by the following indicators: active reaction (pH); chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended sediment concentrations, synthetic surface-active substances (detergents), formaldehyde, dissolved oxygen, and smell, transparency, color extract solution and the level of toxic pollution (UTZ). As a test object to determine the level of toxic pollution of wastewater use Daphnia magna Straus. The criterion of toxicity the survival rate of the test object. Characteristics of wastewater are presented in table 3.

Table 3
Water quality indicatorsExperienced obese Rivonia Typical degreasing
The concentration of suspended solids, mg/DM36004750
COD, mg O2/DM3968,41982
BOD5mg O2/DM3210,4244
Active reaction (pH)7,258,8
The concentration of detergents, g/DM30,354,8
The concentration of formaldehyde, g/DM30,00,45
Dissolved oxygen concentration, mg/DM36,27,3
Smell (20° (C), point24
Transparency mm1,510
The level of toxic pollution (UTZ), class aβ-mitotoxicityPolitoxicosis
Classification of water according to the classification of the state Committee for HydrometeorologyModerately dirtyDirty

Analysis of waste wastewater after the test and control degreasing showed that less toxic effluents are formed on the basis of bacterial suspension. A significant decrease in COD characterizing the content difficult and Le is cooksley substances, including fatty substances in the waste water for an experienced option to 968,4 mg/DM3whereas for standard options - 1850 mg/DM3due to destruction microorganisms contained in the bacterial suspension. The reduction of this indicator suggests that the destruction of the fatty material flows not only in the leather and the hairline, but in the spent solution.

Examples of implementation of the proposed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials.

Example 1. Party fur sheepskin fresh-dry method of canning after soaking, pressing, made according to the processing Technology of fur (1988), subjected to microbiological degreasing when the LCD 10, a temperature of 40°C for 60 min, with variable mechanical action.

The composition of the bacterial suspension: total product life microorganisms - 5.0 g/DM3, lipolytic activity - 50,0%/g, proteolytic activity to 8.0 units/g, the optical density of the medium, D540- 0.2, concentration of detergents to 0.5 g/DM3, prokaryotic culture of the genus Erwinia sp. in the amount of 109cells/cm3consumption of hydrogen peroxide, 0.1 g/DM3enter in a degreasing bath for 10 min before the end of the degreasing process.

The amount of injected bacterial suspension working in the Anna - 100%.

In a degreasing bath contribute 100% of the bacterial suspension is then filled sheepskin fur after soaking in expanded form in the barge containing the bacterial suspension. The processing time of 60 min, with variable mechanical action, the LCD 10, the solution temperature - 40°C. For 10 min before the end of the process degreasing injected hydrogen peroxide in an amount of 0.1 g/DM3pre-dissolving it in 10-fold amount of water. After degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 40°C for 30 minutes

Example 2. Party fur sheepskin macromolecule conservation method after soaking, pressing, made according to the processing Technology of fur (1988), subjected to microbiological degreasing when the LCD 10, a temperature of 41°C for 60 min, with variable mechanical action.

The composition of the bacterial suspension: total product life microorganisms - 5.5 g/DM3, lipolytic activity - 55,0%/g, proteolytic activity, and 9.0 units/g, the optical density of the medium D540- 0,25, the concentration of detergents - 0.75 g/DM3, prokaryotic culture of the genus Erwinia sp. in the amount of 109CL/cm3consumption of hydrogen peroxide 0.55 g/DM3enter in a degreasing bath at the beginning of the process of degreasing. To icesto introduced bacterial suspension in the working bath - 50%.

In a degreasing bath pour water and make 50% of the bacterial suspension from the volume of the working bath, then put the sheepskin fur after soaking in expanded form in the barge containing the bacterial suspension and the hydrogen peroxide in the amount of 0.55 g/DM3pre-dissolving it in 10-fold amount of water. The processing time of 60 min, with variable mechanical action, the LCD 10, the temperature of the solution - 41°C. After degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 41°C for 30 minutes

Example 3. Party fur sheepskin fresh-dry method of canning after soaking, pressing, made according to the processing Technology of fur (1988), subjected to microbiological degreasing when the LCD 10, a temperature of 42°C for 60 min, with variable mechanical action.

The composition of the bacterial suspension: total product life microorganisms - 6.0 g/DM3, lipolytic activity - 60,0%/g, proteolytic activity to 10.0 units/g, the optical density of the medium D540- 0,20, prokaryotic culture of the genus Erwinia sp. in the amount of 1010CL/cm3consumption of hydrogen peroxide and 1.0 g/DM3enter in a degreasing bath for 20 min before the end of the degreasing process.

The number of input bacter what happens in suspension in the working bath - 100%.

In a degreasing bath contribute 100% of the bacterial suspension from the volume of the working baths and detergents 0.5 g/DM3, then put the sheepskin fur after soaking in expanded form in the barge containing the bacterial suspension. For 20 minutes before the end of the process degreasing introduce the hydrogen peroxide in the amount of 1.0 g/DM3pre-dissolving it in 10-fold amount of water. The processing time of 60 min, with variable mechanical action, the LCD 10, the temperature of the solution - 42°C. After degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 42°C for 30 minutes

Example 4. Party fur sheepskin macromolecule conservation method after soaking, pressing, made according to the processing Technology of fur (1988), subjected to microbiological degreasing when the LCD 10, a temperature of 42°C for 60 min, with variable mechanical action.

The composition of the bacterial suspension: total product life microorganisms - 6.0 g/DM3, lipolytic activity - 60,0%/g, proteolytic activity of 10 units/g, the optical density of the medium D540- 0,25, prokaryotic culture of the genus Erwinia sp. in the amount of 1010CL/cm3consumption of hydrogen peroxide was 0.9 g/DM3enter in a degreasing bath after 10 min after the beginning of the La degreasing.

The amount of bacterial suspension in the working bath - 50%.

In a degreasing bath pour water, contribute 50% of the bacterial suspension from the volume of the working baths and detergents 1.0 g/DM3, then put the sheepskin fur after soaking in expanded form in the barge containing the bacterial suspension. After 10 min after the start of the process of degreasing in a working bathroom contribute 0.9 g/DM3hydrogen peroxide, pre-dissolve it in 10-fold amount of water.

The processing time of 60 min, with variable mechanical action, the LCD 10, the temperature of the solution - 42°C. After degreasing spend washing sheepskin running water at a temperature of 42°C for 30 minutes

The residual content of fatty substances in the leather and hairline in examples 1-4 and model variant are shown in table 4.

Table 4
ExampleWhite/yellow hairline, %Fat content, %
In hairlineIn leather
Generic version74,6/12,31,9510,22
Example 184,11/8,042,1 13,12
Example 276,79/15,862,113,35
Example 374,00/19,121,812,86
Example 481,36/11,471,912,88

The results presented in table 4 show that all methods of microbiological degreasing provide optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather fur sheepskin, and also the whitening hair.

After performing these operations sheepskin are pressed hair, haircut, pickling and tanning-creasing with the consumption of the necessary ingredients according to the processing Technology of fur (1988).

As can be seen from the examples, the proposed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials allows for optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather fur sheepskin, and also the whitening hair. Thus formed biotechnological waste water after degreasing can be attributed to moderately dirty by reducing the consumption of detergents, elimination of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde from prototype

The characteristics of sheepskin fur tanned correspond the requirements by STATE the 4661-76 "Sheepskin fur tanned. Technical conditions".

On the basis of the foregoing that the claimed method degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials meets the condition of "industrial applicability".

The way degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials, which consists in the processing of raw materials in a degreasing bath bacterial suspension with lipolytic and proteolytic activities, containing the cumulative product of microorganisms, synthetic surfactant, prokaryotic culture, water, raw materials processing is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°C, AC mechanical impact, liquid ratio equal to 10, characterized in that the bacterial suspension has lipolytic 50-60 units/g and proteolytic 8-10 units/g activities, contains the total product of vital activity of microorganisms in the amount of 5-6 g/DM3the synthetic surfactant is 0.5 - 1.0 g/DM3and as prokaryotic culture - catalanopolonesa prokaryotic culture of the genus Erwinia sp. in the amount of 109-1010cells/cm3while advanced in a degreasing bath injected hydrogen peroxide in an amount of 0.1-1.0 g/DM3at the stage of processing of sheepskin and fur raw material, which is dissolved in ten times the number of vodoprovod the th water processing of raw materials should be performed within 60 minutes



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.

2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: fur industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, concerns treatment of sea animal fells. Fell is subjected to tanning and treated in aqueous solution of enzyme preparation exhibiting proteolytic andelastolytic activities, its consumption being 0.1-5.0 g/L at pH 3-8. Fell is the dried and greased, after which follow rolling-shaking, straitening-stretching, chipping, rolling, and stretching.

EFFECT: improved strength and elastic-plastic properties of fell tissue of fur semi-finished product, reduced process cycle duration, reduced consumption of greasing substances, and avoided use of organic solvents.

2 tbl

FIELD: defatting of crude sheepskin-and-fur material.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating crude material in bacterial suspension having lipolytic activity of 20-30 units/g and proteolytic activity of 2.5-3.5 units/g. Suspension contains product of total microorganism vital activity used in an amount of 4-8 g/dm3, synthetic surfactant used in an amount of 0.25-0.5 g/dm3, and prokaryotic crop of Pseudomonas sp. type used in an amount of 107-109 cells/cm3, water the balance. Treatment is conducted at temperature of 40±2 C during 45 min by providing mechanical actions, and liquid coefficient of 7-10.

EFFECT: improved quality of defatting sheepskins, improved elastoplastic properties and reduced level of toxic contamination of sewage water.

3 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: method of preparing protein hydrolyzate comprises stripping and enzyme treatment of leather manufacture waste. Treatment is carried out in four stages: using pepsin, oxalic acid, neutral or alkali protease, and acetic acid.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of protein hydrolyzate with low content of mineral substances, high content of solids, and molecular mass comparable with that of collagen (300-360 thousands).

2 tbl

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