Method of improvement of safety of work of erecting crane (versions)

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: method envisages preliminary determining or setting of admissible values of parameters characterising loading and/or attitude position of outrigger or crane cargo-handling device, memorising this data, measuring of these parameters during crane operation, comparing of measured values with admissible values, and further forming of control signals or blocking of control by execution units in order to prevent exceeding of admissible values. Prior to commencement of crane work or in process of lifting and movement of cargoes crane-operator additionally performs preliminary visual control of crane operation condition or presence of people along way of crane or cargo movement or automatic control of correctness of slinging (securing) of cargo, or automatic check of correctness of crane installation on outriggers or optical measurement of crane performance parameters or automatic change of coordinate parity parameters using GPS receivers, radio-frequency or inertial determination of position devices located on obstacles, clothing or equipment of people. Results of this check or control ensue implementation of additional control or information signals.

EFFECT: enhancement of safety of crane operation and of crane efficiency.

24 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to hoisting and transport machinery and can be used in control systems and protection of cranes to prevent accidents and prevent injury to operating personnel.

There is a method of protection of crane overload by setting the allowable load values for different angular positions of his arrows, control of the current values of these parameters during operation of the crane, comparing the current value of the load are valid for the current boom and generation of warning signals and control signals actuators crane depending on the results of this comparison [1].

Its disadvantage is the lack of protection of hoisting crane from collisions with obstacles (coordinate protection) when the crane is in cramped conditions.

The closest to the invention is a method of increasing the safety of crane by pre-determining and memorizing the allowed values of the parameters of the crane, characterizing the load and the spatial position of the boom or lifting body, the measurement of these parameters during operation of the crane, the comparison of measured values with valid and the subsequent formation, taking into account the results of this is even, warning signals and control signals actuators crane, designed to prevent exceeding these parameters valid values [2, 3].

The disadvantage of this method is the reduced safe working load-lifting crane due to the lack of control:

- conduct a crane operator visual inspection of the technical condition of the crane before starting his work and identify defects of the crane;

- finding people on the path of movement of the crane, its mechanisms or cargo;

- the spatial position of obstacles and people in the working area of the crane taking into account possible changes of this regulation;

- the correctness of strapping or tying of the goods;

- proper installation of the crane on outriggers;

- load parameters and coordinate protection before starting the process of lifting/moving cargo crane.

The main technical problem which the claimed invention is directed, is to improve the safety of crane, including security staff. This problem is solved by removing at least one of the above mentioned disadvantages.

Additional technical objectives are:

- increasing the productivity of the crane by reducing loss of time due to the automatic parameter input CCW is dinates protect and prevent cycles of lifting and/or moving cargo, during which it is possible to exceed the allowed values of the parameters of the crane and, accordingly, the stop valve;

- expand the functionality of the security system;

- simplification of input parameters coordinate protection and improvement of the working conditions of the operator by automatically entering these parameters.

In the first variant of the proposed method to improve the safety of crane pre-determine or specify the valid values of the parameters characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of faucet direct or indirect method specified parameters, comparison of measured values with valid and the subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking actuators control valve, designed to prevent exceeding the parameters of acceptable values, the technical problem solved by the fact that before operation of the crane by means of an automated control system additionally reveal conducting visual crane checking the technical condition of the crane and after this verification form warning signal or signal is l enable start of the crane is in operation. This automated control system equipped with a device for determining the position of the operator relative to the valve and/or valve, and the detection of visual inspection by the operator of the technical condition of the crane is carried out by controlling the location of the crane in areas of possible visual observation nodes and elements of the design of the crane to be inspected. Parameters and/or the coordinates of the zones of visual observation can be determined from the condition of possibility of visual inspection by the operator of these zones, the technical condition of the suspension, and/or metal tower structure and/or arrows and/or connections of the individual sections of the tower and/or arrows and/or suspension of the boom and/or the Executive actuators, and/or cables and their attachment, and/or hauling, and/or brakes, and/or crane rails and end stops, and/or anti-theft seizures, and/or flexible conductor cable, and/or the availability and health of the fencing of machinery and electrical equipment of the crane.

This provision shall define, in particular, with the use of receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning such as GPS (Global Position System) system Navstar or GLONASS (global navigation system), contactless radio frequency identification (RFID)tags, radiochastotny is or inertial device location.

In the second variant of the method that implements the same principle to avoid exceeding the allowed values of the parameters of the crane, the process additionally reveal the presence of people in the path of movement of the crane and/or its mechanisms, and/or cargo, through automated monitoring system to detect the presence of a hazard of personal injury and, if so, generate a warning signal to the operator about the need to stop lifting crane or signal blocking movements of the crane, either automatically transmit people a warning signal about the need to be careful or to leave the operating area of the crane. Identification of people is carried out by monitoring their location relative to the crane using receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning such as GPS (Global Position System) system Navstar or GLONASS (global navigation system), contactless radio frequency identification (RFID)tags, radio frequency or inertial device location.

Positioning people can use their cell phones, are equipped with devices determine their location, such as GPS or GLONASS, and send data about this m is the location in the automated control system using the wireless interface of the cell phone, for example, Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, or ZigBee, or a cellular network such as GSM/GPRS or CDMA. This cell phone can be used for the transmission of sound and/or voice signals from the operator and/or automated control system.

In the third variant of the method with the same principle to avoid exceeding the allowed values of the parameters of the crane delivered the technical problem is solved in that the permitted and/or prohibited values of parameters describing the spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the faucet, set by the installation of a mobile or stationary obstacles on the clothing or equipment of people in the work area crane, mobile devices location, radio frequency identification (RFID)tags, receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning such as GPS (Global Position System) system Navstar or GLONASS (global navigation system), or inertial device positioning, output signals of which are transmitted into the automated control system of the lifting crane. These devices are, in General, determine their angular positions and the formation of the permitted and/or prohibited values of spatial parameters p is the position of the boom or lifting of the body of the crane is in the form of regions of the working space of the crane depending on these angular positions. These areas can be defined as the maximum or minimum height restriction type "ceiling" or "roof"), the position in the horizontal plane of constraints of type "wall") and/or angular position (constraint type "rotate left" and "rotate right").

These radio frequency or inertial device location, radio frequency identification tags (RFID), the receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning to automatically change the settings of the working area of the crane can be attached to the surface of the building/facility and transported as its construction or attached to the structural elements of the building/structures prior to their installation and subsequent transfer crane together with these elements. They can be made with the possibility of transmission of signals in automated control systems of two or more cranes, working with overlapping work areas.

In the fourth variant of the method with the same principle to avoid exceeding the allowed values of the parameters of the crane delivered the technical problem is solved by the fact that additionally carry out automatic control of parameters characterizing the pre-established requirements for safe slinging or binding podnimaem and/or moved. In case of violation of these requirements form the warning signal for the operator and/or for the slinger and/or signal blocker lift and/or move the load.

For this requirement to secure the strapping or binding lifted and/or moved may be taken under the sling load weight of the load limit of a predetermined maximum angle between the sling arms, the absence of knots and loops by means of straps, preset requirement of uniformity of tension of the sling and/or the location of the lifting body above the center of gravity of the lifted cargo, and the parameter characterizing this requirement, the diameter of the rope sling, the number and/or straightness of the lines, the angle between the sling arms, the difference of efforts in slings and/or the average angle of the sling relative to the gravitational vertical. These parameters are measured by sensors diameter and/or angle of the sling, efforts in slings, etc. or form video of strapping or tying cargo and determine these parameters by video processing in automatic control.

In the fifth embodiment, the method of increasing the safety of the crane with the above principle to avoid exceeding the allowed values of the parameters of the crane will deliver the main technical problem is solved by further control parameters that characterize the pre-established requirements for safe installation of the crane on outriggers and in case of detection of violations of any requirements generate a warning signal to the crane operator and/or signal blocker lift and/or move cargo. Beyond these requirements take, in particular, the nomination and installation of all existing outriggers, a predetermined minimum distance between the rotary part of the valve at any position and buildings or other objects, the presence of linings or base plates under outriggers, a predetermined minimum distance between the supports and the edge slope of the trench or ditch, and/or a preset maximum value of the slope of the site of the installation crane. As the parameter characterizing the implementation of the relevant requirements, take the number of nominated and installed outriggers, the distance between the rotating part of the crane and buildings or other objects, the number of pads or bearing plates under the outriggers, the distance between the outriggers and the edge slope of the trench or ditch and/or the angle of site of the installation crane. The system can be monitored specified (or the number of the x parameters in various combinations) with the use of sensor spatial position of outriggers, sensor spatial position or availability of linings or base plates, gauge the distance from the crane to the building or to a different subject and/or a proximity sensor from the outriggers up to the edge of the slope of the trench or ditch. Any of the sensors may be radar or optical. In the latter case, a video installation of the crane on outriggers, and the parameters describing the requirements for safe installation on supports, are determined by processing this video. The angle of site of the installation crane can be determined using the output signals of the sensors of the spatial position of outriggers, plates or base plates height.

In the sixth embodiment, the method uses a similar principle to avoid exceeding the permissible parameters of the crane work, the technical problem is solved by the fact that the measurement of these parameters is carried out by an optical method, for this crane equipped with a vision system, by means of which form the video process of lifting and/or moving cargo, and then determine the value of this parameter by processing the video image. The vision system is made, in particular, determine the mass addressed the constituent and/or moved, its size, distance from the load to buildings or other objects and/or distances to people in the work area crane. When detecting a decrease in the distance from the load to buildings, other objects and people in the work area of the crane, up to the preset value may optionally be formed a warning signal to the operator or persons in the work area of the crane.

In any case the proposed method to achieve the technical result parameters characterizing the load and/or the spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the crane, the control signals, warning signals, the video process of lifting and/or moving cargo, slinging cargo and/or installation of the crane on retractable supports, signals about the location of the operator and people in the work area crane, if any, recorded in non-volatile memory of the automated control system crane read if necessary.

Implementation of system protection and control valve with these distinctive features of the independent claims can prevent the start of the crane is in operation without operator visual inspection of the technical state is s, to prevent personal injury moving mechanisms of the crane or load, to carry out automatic adjustment of the working range of the crane directly in the course of its work, taking into account changes in the spatial position of obstacles and people in this area, to control the correctness of strapping or tying of the goods and successful installation of the crane on outriggers, as well as to determine the parameters of the load and coordinate protection before starting the process of lifting/moving cargo by crane without approximation to limiting values of these parameters. This improves the safety of operation of loading of the crane, including the safety of personnel.

Distinctive features of the proposed method in all variants of its implementation lead to expand the functionality of the security system is additionally provided a video of the process of lifting and moving cargo, passing parameters coordinate protection on a group of cranes, the control actions and the location of staff, transfer of service personnel of warning signals, etc

At the same time is achieved by reducing the loss of time due to the automatic parameter input coordinate protection and prevent cycles of lifting and moving cargo with invalid what values of the parameters of the crane, that increases the productivity of the crane. Automatic input parameters coordinate protection also leads to simplification of the input devices of these parameters and to improve the working conditions of the operator.

These distinctive features of the process are in direct causal connection with the achievement of main and additional technical results.

On the drawing as an example of one possible functional diagrams of the system of protection of the crane.

Protection system, which may be cited as the system of automated control and management device or the safety device and the like, contains information managing unit 1, is made on the basis of the microcontroller 2, and connected to this unit using a wired or wireless interface sensors 3 load and/or the spatial position of the boom, and/or hauling crane and actuators 4.

In the information-control unit 1, which may be cited as well as the data processing unit, a display unit, a controller, etc. can enter the bodies of the control system 5, a display 6, a memory unit/logger parameters 7, the wireless device transmit/receive data 8, the device input/output information 9 and, if necessary the cost, other devices, such as a real time clock connected directly to the microcontroller 2 or to the device input/output information 9. Part of these devices may not be included in the information control unit 1. These devices can connect to the device input/output information 9 as the external device information control unit 1.

Additionally, in the system, depending on the variants of its implementation, may include a vision system 10, the position sensors outriggers 11, the sensors location of the crane 12 and, optionally, other sensors.

For checking the presence of people in the path of movement of the crane, boom or cargo, monitors, and controls the spatial position of obstacles in the work area of the crane, these obstacles, on clothing or on the outfit of people, the sensors of their position 13. These are receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning GPS (Global Position System) systems Navstar or GLONASS", contactless radio frequency identification (RFID)tags, radio frequency or inertial device location, made with the possibility of data transmission in a wireless device transmit/receive data 8.

The device input / output information 9 provides the coordination logich the ski levels of input and output signals of the microcontroller 2 with other functional units of the system. Data transfer in the system, depending on the version of the device input / output information 9 and the interface circuits connected devices is performed via the radial circuit using individual wires, on the multiplex channel of communication (CAN, UN, RS-485 etc) and/or over the air (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, CDMA etc). In the latter case, all connected devices, including sensors 3, 10-12, transceivers are installed with respective antennas.

Wireless device transmit/receive data 8 and the device input / output information 9 can be combined.

Actuators 4, usually combined into a single output or power unit, expansion unit, the output controller, etc. and is made in the form of a set of electromagnetic power relay or power electronic switches connected to the control inputs of the electro-hydraulic or Electromechanical actuators mechanisms crane. This block, if necessary, may contain a microcontroller and an interface circuit for wired or wireless communication with the information-managing unit 1.

If the crane is used for manual control mechanism, the actuating devices 4 provide blocking (disabling) actuators (actuators) of the crane in a dangerous modes Rabson electric actuating mechanisms of the crane, for example, using controls 6. In this case, the actuators are forming control signals actuators (actuators) of the crane.

A set of sensors 3 depends on the implementation of the proposed protection system and on the type of crane - bridge or : crane, crane with telescopic or lattice boom crane, hydraulic or cable-driven lifting mechanism arrows, etc. In General they include the sensor elevation (tilt) of the boom, the sensor length of the boom, a load cell or weight (force sensor or pressure sensors), the angle sensor crane (sensor azimuth), the limit switch hoist lifting body proximity sensor to the transmission line, the sensors of the provisions of the manual controls actuators and other sensors.

These sensors 3 can be combined into groups by their location on the crane, for example on top Telescopium arrows, at its root partition on non-part crane, etc. In this case, each group of sensors is supplied by the controller implemented on the microcontroller and converts the level, gain, normalization and/or processing of their output signals filtering, temperature compensation, linerization etc. before PE is educa these signals in the information control unit 1.

The vision system 10 made in the form of video cameras, one or more stereo pairs, located on the boom or on the crane cabin with a view of the working area of the crane, and a digital signal processor engaged in the processing and analysis of video.

The sensors of the provisions of the outriggers 11 is made, usually in the form of switches, and a location sensor of the valve 12 is in the form of a GPS receiver, a radio frequency or inertial device positioning. In the latter case, the sensor contains at least one-axis or multi-axis accelerometer and integrator, connected to its output.

The system, if necessary, may have a pin (powered) or proximity sensors diameter rope sling, sling arms, the angle between the sling arms, the angle of the sling relative to the gravitational vertical strain gauges efforts in the branches slings, etc. connected to the device input/output information 9.

Controls 5 made in the form of a set of keys/buttons, switches, touch screen display, the display unit 6 and the like, If necessary, use an additional controller controls 5, for example, the keyboard controller.

The indicating unit 6 may contain both character and graphic, for example inconsistency TFT, indicator (display) and/or led indicators. In its composition, if necessary, includes audio or speech detector.

The system may further comprise a memory block (register settings) 7 built-in information-management unit 1 and/or removable (external). It is mainly in the form of a block of non-volatile Flash memory connected to the microcontroller 2 and/or to the device input / output information 9. (Conventionally in the drawing shows the first option). This unit may further comprise a real time clock.

Wireless device transmit/receive data 8 performed using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, CDMA, etc. or in the form of reader contactless radio frequency identification (RFID)tags. This device can be configured to determine the distance to the signal source and the direction to the source, using time-pulse or phase of the principle of construction of such devices.

Protection system (automated control) works as follows.

In memory of the microcontroller 2 or in the memory unit 7 in the form of formulas routines of the microcontroller, are designed using a mathematical model of the crane, or in the form of tables, pre-recorded allowable loads of the crane is in a different dir is the max of his work (complete or incomplete reference circuit, with a variety of loaded equipment etc) and for various positions of the boom or lifting of the body.

Before you begin lifting crane the crane operator using controls 5 sets of parameters crane, describing its geometry, conditions, and mode of operation. The number and type of these parameters are determined by the structure of the crane and the requirements for its safe operation. These include the type used on the boom equipment (availability, length and angle of inclination of the jib), characteristics of the reference circuit, restrictions on coordinate protection, etc. If necessary, the crane operator using controls 5 introduces the microcontroller 2 parameters limits the working area of the crane on coordinate protection. The entered parameters are saved in the memory of the microcontroller 2.

In the first variant of the proposed method described system implements automated monitoring of the operator's visual inspection of the technical condition of the crane. To do this, in memory of the microcontroller 2 or in the memory unit 7 pre-recorded parameters (coordinates) zone provisions of the crane relative to the crane or the crane, from which the operator has the possibility of visual inspection of the technical condition. Crane supply device determine its positioning is I 13.

During the visual inspection of the crane chassis, metal tower structure and arrows, connections of the individual sections of the tower and boom, suspension boom, Executive drives, cables and fix them, hauling, brakes, crane rails and end stops, anti-theft hooks, flexible conductor cable, fencing of machinery and electrical equipment of the crane and, if necessary, other mechanisms crane his movements are registered by the position determination device 13, the signals from which a wireless device transmit/receive data 8 are transmitted to the microcontroller 2. Next, the microcontroller 2, comparing the received data with the recorded parameters (coordinates) zone provisions shall, where it should be during this visual inspection, confirms its execution. After the scan is finished, the microcontroller 2 via the display unit 6 forms for the operator warning signal and transmits it to the device I/o 9 signal, allowing the start of the crane is in operation. Accordingly, the start of the crane is possible only after visual inspection by the operator of its technical condition, or, at least, after confirming that the crane operator was in those areas near the crane or the crane, from which you can check upon the other units and mechanisms of the crane.

After commissioning of the crane is in operation and the operations of lifting and moving cargo microcontroller 2 operates according to the program stored in its built-in program memory or in the memory unit 7 and through the device input/output information 9 communicates with the sensors 3, 10-12 total multiplex communication line, separate the wires and/or radio. After receiving information from the sensors to the microcontroller 2 determines the actual values of the operating parameters is the current load of the crane, his stock freight sustainability and the actual position of the boom or lifting body. If necessary, to determine the current values of these parameters are converting the output signals of the sensors 3. This takes place when the current load of the crane and/or the position of his arrows are measured indirectly, for example, when determining the load on the boom hydraulic crane on the pressure rod and the piston cavities of the hydraulic cylinder of lifting. The algorithms of these transformations are implemented in software by the microcontroller 2.

Next, the microcontroller 2, working on the program, compares the current values of the parameters characterizing the load and the spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the faucet, with valid values of these parameters and forms of the plans, depending on the results of this comparison, the control signals or blocking control actuators 4 crane, designed to prevent exceeding the allowable values of these parameters. Thanks to this protection of crane overload and from collisions with obstacles (coordinate protection).

In the system that implements the second variant of the proposed method, during operation of the crane is additionally revealed the presence of people (workers) in the path of movement of the crane, its mechanisms or cargo (hauling). For the people in the work area crane, equipped with contactless sensors monitoring their location 13, the signals from which through a wireless device transmit/receive data 8 is passed to the microcontroller 2.

The microcontroller 2, analyzing the output signal of the sensor 12 determines the location of the crane, using the output signals of the sensors 3 performs the calculation of the trajectory of the boom or load, and then using the location data of people received from device 8, detects the presence of the danger of injury to the faucet or a floating cargo.

When such a risk microcontroller 2 via the display unit 6 to generate a warning signal to the driver of the necessity of recovering the Cai crane or signal blocking movements of the crane, which goes to the executing device 4, or automatically with the use of devices 8 and 13 transmits the people a warning signal about the need to be careful or to leave the operating area of the crane. For transmitting the warning signal and, simultaneously, as the proximity sensors detect the location of people (workers) it is convenient to use their cell phones equipped with GPS receivers or other means of positioning. This transfer is performed using the wireless interface cell phone - Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi, or ZigBee, or a cellular network such as GSM/GPRS or CDMA. The transmitted warning signals can be both sound and speech. In the latter case, the microcontroller 2 implements the synthesis of the corresponding speech warning messages. Voice warning signals are also possible from the operator, for which the system is additionally equipped with a microphone connected to the device input/output information 9 (conventionally in the drawing not shown).

In the system that implements the third variant of the proposed method, permitted and/or prohibited values of parameters describing the spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the faucet, set by the installation of a mobile or fixed ven is dtweak, on the clothing or equipment of people in the work area crane, proximity sensors 13 determine their location.

These devices can be made with the ability to determine their angular positions in a horizontal and/or vertical plane (using inclinometers, magnetic compasses and the like). In this case, the microcontroller 2 to generate a valid and/or prohibited parameter values or zones (areas) of the spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the faucet, depending on the angular positions. In particular, in the form of maximum or minimum height restriction type "ceiling" or "roof"), the position in the horizontal plane of constraints of type "wall") and/or angular position (constraint type "rotate left" and "rotate right").

The transfer or rotation sensors (devices) location 13 results in an automatic change of the permissible working area of the crane that enables operational (dynamic) change settings for this zone, including during the lifting and moving cargo crane.

These sensors (devices) 13 can be attached to the surface of the building/facility and transported as its construction or attached to the structural elements of the building/structure to their montazas subsequent transfer crane together with these elements. Due to this, during the construction of the building/structure is implemented automatically change settings or zones coordinate protection, which leads to saving time and eliminating errors. At the same time eases the work of the operator and provides simplified management bodies 5, by which the security systems traditionally, the parameters of the coordinate protection.

The output signals of the sensors 13 can be transmitted in information and control blocks of automated control systems of two or more cranes, working with overlapping work areas, thereby reducing implementation costs of the protection system.

Another way to improve the safety of crane is the automatic control of the correctness of strapping or tying lifted and moved. To implement pre-defined and stored in the memory of the microcontroller 2 or in the memory unit 7, the parameters characterizing the requirements of this strapping or binding. These include, in particular, are under-duty sling load limit of a predetermined maximum angle between the sling arms, the absence of knots and loops by means of straps, the requirement of uniformity of tension of the sling and the location of the lifting body above the center of gravity of the lifted load is. For control parameters reflecting these requirements, mainly on lifting the body, the sensors diameter rope slings, tilt sling and effort in slings and other sensors connected to the device input/output information 9. Another variant of the control of these parameters is based on forming a video image of strapping or tying cargo using the vision system 10 and the subsequent determination of these parameters, including identification of missing nodes and loops by means of straps, the microcontroller 2 video processing or processor digital signal processing of the vision system 10.

Next, the microcontroller 2 compares the pre-stored values of parameters characterizing the correctness of strapping or tying of the goods, obtained by means of sensors or vision system 10, and when discrepancies are identified, generates a warning signal to the operator (the signal indicating unit 6) and/or for the slinger (signal passed at his disposal device 13), and/or signal blocker lifting and/or moving of cargo arriving at the executing device 4.

Another possibility to improve the safety of crane is implemented by preventing improper installation of the crane on outriggers. For this is also pre-defined and stored in the memory of the microcontroller 2 or in the memory unit 7 options, characterizing the set of requirements for safe installation of the crane. These include, in particular, the nomination and installation of all existing outriggers, compliance with a predetermined minimum distance between the rotary part of the valve at any position and buildings or other objects (e.g., 1.0 m), the presence of linings or base plates under outriggers, compliance with a predetermined minimum spacing and edge slope of the trench or trenches (e.g., 1.5 m), and/or adherence to a predetermined maximum angle of inclination of the platform is installed on the crane.

To control the parameters characterizing these requirements, the system can be equipped with appropriate sensors connected to the device input/output information 9. These include sensors spatial position (extension) outriggers 11, the sensors spatial position or availability of pads under the bearing points or bearing plates, gauges the distance from the crane to the building or to another object and the sensor distance from the outriggers up to the edge of the slope of the trench or ditch. You can use a single sensor or multiple sensors of different types in any combination.

To control the spatial position (extension) outriggers can use is to use limit switches - the sensors 11. Can also be used as sensors 11 devices positioning (radio frequency, inertial or GPS receivers) directly on the supports. The signals from these devices can act as a device input/output information 9 and the wireless device is receiving/transmitting data 8.

This solution can also be used for checking the availability of the lining or base plates under the outriggers. Another option is the implementation of this control can be based on the use of radio frequency identification (RFID)tags that are installed on the linings or base plates, and readers of these labels placed on sliding bearings or other points of the lifting crane.

Distance sensors (distance) from the crane to the building or to another object, and the sensor distance from the outriggers up to the edge of the slope of the trench or ditch, can be radio frequency, ultrasonic or optical type. You can also use the vision system 10 with the implementation of the control extension supports and linings or base plates by analyzing the video microcontroller 2 or processor digital signal processing of the vision system 10.

The angle of site of the installation crane defines who I am based on the difference of the heights of the sensors spatial position of outriggers, linings or base plates.

The microcontroller 2, by controlling the output signals of these sensors and recorded in its memory the parameters describing the requirements for safe installation of the crane on outriggers, provides the correct installation and detect violations generates a warning signal to the crane operator and/or signal blocking operation of the crane.

Another effective way to improve the safety of crane based on the implementation of the principle of non-contact optical "weight" lifted by crane cargo and determine its size, and optical control distance from the load to buildings, other objects and people (workers)in the operating area of the crane. For this purpose, the vision system 10 generates a video image of the process of lifting/moving of goods, and these settings are determined by processing the video controller 2 or the vision system 10.

The algorithm for determining these parameters is based, in particular, on the formation of three-dimensional video images, and pattern recognition using a database stored in the memory unit 7 or the vision system 10. In particular, this database contains images of various cargoes raised by the crane.

Before lifting the system, the application of the specified database, provides recognition (identification) type of cargo and determines its size, by analysing the three-dimensional image. Then, using data on the parameters of the cargo - its specific weight, mass, etc. determines the possibility of lifting and moving of cargo. If the cargo weight exceeds the capacity of the crane, the lift is blocked by the microcontroller 2. This prevents attempts to lift loads that exceed the capacity of the crane which enhances the safety of its operation.

A similar approach is used for collision avoidance crane or cargo with obstacles (buildings, structures, moving and stationary machines and so on), as well as to prevent injury to persons in the work area of the crane. This protection is implemented taking into account the dimensions of the cargo and its orientation in space. When detecting a decrease in the distance from the load to structures or people to the preset value, the microcontroller 2 generates a warning signal to the operator (the signal indicating unit 6) or for people in the work area crane (signal to a wireless device transmit/receive data 8 and next on their device 13, in particular on personal cell phones), and/or signal blocking dangerous movements of the crane, the village is opause to actuators 4.

To document the work of the crane system may contain built-in or external Registrar settings implemented on the basis of the memory unit 7, in which the microcontroller 2 writes the values of the operating parameters of the crane (load, the spatial position of the boom and so on), warning signals and control signals cock, video of the process of lifting and moving cargo slinging cargo and crane on retractable supports, signals about the location of the operator and people in the work area crane with a view to their subsequent reading for analysis on a computer for evaluating the efficiency of the crane, control of observance of the established rules for its use and to investigate possible causes of failures and accidents.

In this specification, schematically shown only private options for implementation of the proposed protection system of hoisting crane. The invention encompasses other possible variants and equivalents without departure from the invention set forth in the formula.

Literature

1. SU 1654256 A1, MPK B66C 23/90, 07.06.1991.

2. US 5730305 A, MPK B66C 13/16, 13/18, 24.03.1998.

3. EN 2282577 C2, B66C 23/88, 15/00, 27.08.2006.

1. The way to improve the safety of crane pre-determine or specify the valid values of the parameters characterizing the load is/or spatial position of the boom or lifting body remember them, the dimension in the process of hoisting crane direct or indirect method, at least one of the specified parameters, comparing the measured values with valid and the subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control at least one actuating device lifting crane, designed to prevent exceeding this parameter, valid values, characterized in that before you begin lifting crane through an automated control system additionally identifies the holding crane visual inspection of the technical condition of lifting crane and after this verification form information signal to the crane operator or signal enable start lifting crane.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the automated control system equipped with a device for determining the position of the operator relative to the crane and/or lifting crane, and identification of visual inspection by the operator of its technical condition is carried out by controlling the location of the crane in areas of possible visual observation nodes and elements of the construction crane, subject to this check.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the parameters and/or the coordinates of the zones of visual observation pre-determine from the condition of possibility of visual inspection by the operator of these zones, the technical condition of the suspension, and/or metal tower structure and/or arrows and/or connections of the individual sections of the tower and/or arrows and/or suspension of the boom and/or the Executive actuators, and/or cables and their attachment, and/or hauling, and/or brakes, and/or crane rails and end stops, and/or anti-theft seizures, and/or flexible conductor cable, and/or the availability and health of the fencing of machinery and electrical equipment hoisting crane.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the positioning of the crane relative to the crane and/or lifting crane in the automated system of control is carried out by using receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning such as GPS (Global Position System) system Navstar or GLONASS (global navigation system), or contactless radio frequency identification (RFID)tags, or radio frequency device location, or inertial device location.

5. The method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the signals for positioning the research Institute of the crane during the visual inspection of the technical condition of lifting crane writes in non-volatile memory of the automated control system with scanning capability if necessary.

6. The way to improve the safety of crane pre-determine or specify the valid values of the parameters characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of hoisting crane direct or indirect method, at least one of the specified parameters, comparing the measured values with valid and the subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control at least one actuating device lifting crane, designed to prevent exceeding this parameter, valid values, characterized in that in the process crane additionally reveal the presence of people in the path of movement of the crane and/or its mechanisms, and/or cargo, through automated monitoring system to detect the presence of a hazard of personal injury and, if so, generate a warning signal to the driver of the need to stop the crane, or signal blocking movements of the crane, or automatically transmit people a warning signal about the need to be careful or to leave the operating area of the crane, and the detection of the presence of the Oia people carried out by monitoring their location relative to the crane using receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning, for example, GPS (Global Position System) system Navstar or GLONASS (global navigation system), or contactless radio frequency identification (RFID)tags, or radio frequency device location, or inertial device location.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the positioning of people perform using their cell phones, are equipped with devices determine their location, such as GPS or GLONASS.

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the data on the location of people passed in the automated control system using the wireless interface of the cell phone, such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, or ZigBee, or a cellular network such as GSM/GPRS or CDMA.

9. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the cell phone used for transmission of sound and/or voice signals from the operator and/or automated control system.

10. The method according to one of p-9, characterized in that signals the location of people in the work area crane writes in non-volatile memory of the automated control system with scanning capability if necessary.

11. The way to improve the safety of crane pre-determine or specify the permitted and/or prohibited the breeding values of the parameters, characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of hoisting crane direct or indirect method, at least one of the specified parameters, comparing the measured values with the allowable or prohibited and the subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control at least one actuating device lifting crane, designed to prevent exceeding this parameter valid values or warnings find this setting in the area of prohibited values, characterized in that the permitted and/or prohibited value parameters describing the spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the crane, set by the installation of a mobile or stationary obstacles, or on clothing or equipment of people in the work area crane, mobile devices location, or radio frequency identification (RFID)tags, or receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning such as GPS (Global Position System) system Navstar or GLONASS (global navigation system), or inertial Stroiteley location the signals which are transmitted into the automated control system of the crane.

12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the radio frequency device location, or radio frequency identification tags (RFID), or receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning, or inertial device positioning, designed to determine their angular positions and the formation of the permitted and/or prohibited parameter values of the spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the crane, depending on the angular positions in the areas of working space crane.

13. The method according to item 12, wherein the workspace pane crane, define the permitted and/or prohibited parameter values of the spatial position of its boom or lifting body, set as maximum or minimum height restriction type "ceiling" or "roof"), and/or position in the horizontal plane of constraints of type "wall"), and/or angular position (constraint type "rotate left" and "rotate right").

14. The method according to one of PP-13, characterized in that the radio frequency device location, or radio frequency ID is ntification tags (RFID), or receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning, or inertial device location, attach to the surface of the buildings/structures and transfer as its construction, or attach to structural members of the building/facility and transferred by crane together with these elements during their installation.

15. The method according to one of PP-13, characterized in that the radio frequency device location, or radio frequency identification tags (RFID), or receivers of signals from satellites of the global positioning, or inertial device location, made with the possibility of transmission of signals in automated control systems of two or more cranes.

16. The way to improve the safety of crane pre-determine or specify the valid values of the parameters characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of hoisting crane direct or indirect method, at least one of the specified parameters, comparing the measured values with valid and the subsequent formation, depending on the results of this cf is Vania, control signals or blocking control at least one actuating device lifting crane, designed to prevent exceeding this parameter, valid values, characterized in that it further automatically control at least one parameter characterizing at least one preset requirement to secure the strapping or binding lifted and/or moved, and, in case of violation of this requirement, generate a warning signal to the crane operator and/or for the slinger, and/or signal blocker lift and/or move the load.

17. The method according to item 16, characterized in that the requirement to secure the strapping or binding lifted and/or moved to accept the compliance of the sling load weight of the load, and/or restriction of a predetermined maximum angle between the sling arms, and/or absence of nodes and loops by means of straps, and/or a preset requirement of uniformity of tension of the sling, and/or arrangement of the lifting body above the center of gravity of the lifted cargo, and the parameter characterizing this requirement, take the diameter of the rope sling and/or sling arms, and/or straightness sling, and/or the angle m is waiting for the sling arms, and/or difference of effort in slings, and/or the average angle of the sling relative to the gravitational vertical, and the specified parameter measured by at least one sensor diameter slings, and/or angle of the sling, and/or efforts in slings, or form video of strapping or tying cargo and determine the specified parameter by processing the video in the above-mentioned automatic control.

18. The way to improve the safety of crane pre-determine or specify the valid values of the parameters characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of hoisting crane direct or indirect method, at least one of the specified parameters, comparing the measured values with valid and the subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control at least one actuating device lifting crane, designed to prevent exceeding this parameter, valid values, wherein the additional control at least one parameter characterizing at least one has preliminarily the requirement for secure installation of the crane on outriggers and in case of violation of this requirement, generate a warning signal to the crane operator and/or signal blocker lifting and/or moving cargo, and the requirement for secure installation of the crane on outriggers accept the nomination and installation of all existing outriggers, and/or a predetermined minimum distance between the rotary part of the valve at any position and buildings or other objects, and/or the presence of linings or base plates under outriggers, and/or a predetermined minimum distance between the at least one external support and the edge of the slope of the trench or ditch, and/or a preset maximum value of the slope of the site of the installation crane, and the parameter characterizing this requirement, take respectively the number of nominated and installed outriggers, and/or the distance between the rotating part of the crane and buildings or other objects, and/or the number of pads or bearing plates under outriggers, and/or the distance between the outriggers and the edge slope of the trench or ditch, and/or the angle of site of the installation crane.

19. The method according to p, characterized in that the parameter describing the execution requirements for safe installation of the crane on in the house support. measured by at least one respective sensor spatial position of outriggers, and/or linings or base plates, and/or distance from the crane to the building or to another subject, and/or distance from at least one of the outriggers to the edge of the slope of the trench or ditch.

20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that at least one of these sensors use radar type or form video installation crane on outriggers and determine the parameter characterizing at least one pre-set requirement for the safe installation of the crane on outriggers, by processing this video.

21. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the angle of site of the installation of the hoisting crane is determined using the output signals of the sensors of the spatial position of outriggers, and/or linings or base plates height.

22. The way to improve the safety of crane pre-determine or specify the valid values of the parameters characterizing the load and/or spatial position of his arrows or hauling, storing, measuring in the process of hoisting crane, at least one is C specified parameters, comparing the measured values with valid and the subsequent formation, depending on the results of this comparison, control signals or blocking control at least one actuating device lifting crane, designed to prevent exceeding this parameter, valid values, wherein one of the specified parameters use the weight lifted and/or moved, which is measured by an optical method, for which a crane equipped with a vision system, by means of which form a video image of the cargo and by processing the video image to determine the mass of the goods.

23. The method according to item 22, wherein the vision system is implemented with the ability to determine the size of the cargo, and/or distance from the load to buildings or other objects, and/or distances to people in the work area crane.

24. The method according to item 22 or 23, characterized in that the video load and the parameters characterizing the load and/or the spatial position of the boom or lifting of the body of the crane, the control signals and warning signals recorded in non-volatile memory read if necessary.



 

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25 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

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1 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

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16 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

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12 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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EFFECT: improving the hoisting cranes operation standard of safety.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting and transportation equipment and it can be used in protection systems of load-lifting cranes. According to proposed method, tolerable loads are determined and memorized in form of function of spatial position of boom, measuring current value of load in process of operation of crane, comparing it with tolerable load and generating warning signal or signal to crane mechanisms aimed at limiting or preventing overload. In process of lifting and/or shifting of load, change of linear or angular position of crane part is revealed additionally whose change is not allowed in current stage of load lifting and/or shifting process. Depending on value of said change of position, additionally warning information signals or crane mechanism control signals are formed aimed either to prevent further increase in said change or to return said part of crane, for instance, boom, into initial position. Protection of crane from overload is implemented with due account both of absolute value and change of value of angle of tilting of crane component part from horizontal or vertical position in process of lifting and/or shifting of load.

EFFECT: improved safety of crane in operation.

21 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control and protection system of load-lifting cranes. Proposed system contains load pickups 1, boom tilting angle pickups 5, parameters indicator 6 and series-connected tolerable load setting unit 8, comparator 9 and actuating unit 10 whose output is connected to first input of parameters recorder 11, unit to record designed values of parameters 12, correction unit 3, load weight check unit 2, scaling unit 4, variable coefficients unit 14, change-over switch 15, boom deflection recording unit 13 and boom reach calculating unit 7.

EFFECT: improved safety of crane owing to increased accuracy of control of its parameters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety and control systems of load lifting cranes. Proposed method of supply of measuring and control component part of safety and control system arranged on boom or tackle block of load-lifting crane comes to use of self-contained supply source with automatic charging the source from generator - converter of mechanical energy of moving load or boom wire rope of load-lifting crane or block directing or supporting the wire, rope, into electric energy. According to invention, said component part of safety and control system of crane provides measuring of at least one operating parameter and control of loads, particularly, marker light and/or headlight. To charge self-contained supply source, in additional of wire rope motion energy, use can be made of energy of external mechanical actions, solar energy or heat energy of surrounding medium. Transmission of data between component parts of system can be provided by wireless data exchange channel.

EFFECT: facilitated maintenance, increased reliability, provision of serviceability of safety and control system of crane.

16 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: system contains hydraulic, electrohydraulic and/or electric drives of crane mechanisms, control device for these drives, and fuel supply control device connected to it. In process of crane operation automatic fuel supply change is performed depending on load position and/or speed of cargo relocation. In second version of system fuel supply change is automatically related to approach or touch of crane operator's hand to drive control handle. Drive control is made as control unit containing control handle, handle position sensor, and controller with outputs connected immediately, or via additional output device, to control drives' inputs and to device controlling fuel supply. Level of fuel supply in general case is different for different drives and directions of crane movement. After handles of crane drive control are returned to neutral position or after hands are removed from handles, value of motor angular velocity is preserved within preset interval after which minimum preset velocity of motor blank cycle is automatically established.

EFFECT: decrease of specific fuel consumption, efficiency increase, enhancement of usability of crane control and of safety of its operation.

17 cl, 2 dwg

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