Facility for continuous angular pressing
SUBSTANCE: facility contains driving rotor wheel with gauge, shoe with insert and support. Specified elements have work surface, forming pressing channel. Support is installed on area, which is moved by means of thrust screw for slide control of pressing channel height. As a result of this regulation cross-section of channel on outlet from deformation site have to be 3-5% exceeding cross-section at inlet into deformation site.
EFFECT: cost cutting of blanks treatment.
The invention relates to deformation processing of metals and can be used to obtain long ultrafine-grained (UMP) metal parts and products with improved physical-mechanical properties for engineering and other industries.
The known device for hardening materials in a manner equal channel angular pressing (pressing), which implements the scheme of deformation in simple shear. The deformation of workpieces and, accordingly, the hardening of the material occurs due to, for example, changes in the vertical direction of the channel on the horizontal, while the deformation zone is formed in the area of change in this direction. Typically, these devices consist of a matrix with intersecting it at an angle channels pressing and punch (Wmel, Vigaplus, Viesnica "a plastic structure formation metals", Minsk: Nauka and Technica, 1994). The process of formation of UMP patterns involves multi-cycle processing of a single workpiece with the number of cycles from 4 to 12 (Valiev R.Z., Alexandrov I.V. "Nanostructured materials from severe plastic deformation", M, Logo, 2000).
The main disadvantage of these devices is limited geometrical parameters of the processed workpieces, their length about what commonly is 5-7 source diameters. Also UMP billets produced at such facilities, are characterized by low use of metal (KIM) in the range of 0.5-0.7 due to distortion of the end parts of the blanks and the need to remove them to make the blanks the correct shape in the form of a cylinder or a parallelepiped, which negatively affects the economic performance of the process of formation of UMP patterns. At the same time, the use of such blanks to obtain UMP long rods or wire requires further processing, for example, by rolling or drawing, which also increases the intensity of obtaining long UMF products.
The closest technical solution is a device for pressing in terms of "conform" with the aim of strengthening materials (Wmel, Vigaplus, Viesnica "a plastic structure formation metals", Minsk: Nauka and Technica, 1994, s). The device includes a housing with fixed therein driving the impeller with a U-shaped gauge block with insert and emphasis. Channel extrusion is formed by walls of a U-shaped caliber drive the impeller and the working surfaces of the inserts and emphasis. Grip the workpiece at the initial stage and power conditions the pressing process are formed by creating active friction forces that occur on the walls of a U-shaped gauge the wheel. Creating active friction forces this installation is ensured due to the gradual narrowing and reduction of cross-section of the channel extrusion, which provides an eccentric insert secured in the Shoe. Arc length of capture is initially calculated value and, as practice shows, is largely dependent on the process parameters, the brand of the compression of the material, temperature, lubrication, surface roughness of the working surface, etc. Optimization of geometrical parameters of the arc of engagement with the point of view of the selection of the minimum required length requires the installation of the insert with a new geometry or Refine an existing one. Moreover, as the wear of the working surfaces of the stop and insert pads increases the cross-sectional dimension of the workpiece and, accordingly, the arc of engagement, and a higher torque is needed for carrying out the pressing process. All of this ultimately leads to higher material and energy costs during long-term operation.
The objective of the invention is a device that allows the process of formation of long metal materials with a ratio of long diameter of more than 100 UMP patterns with minimal material and energy costs. In this case, the proposed design of the device is equipped with an option that allows you to ensure that% the SSE prolonged use the lowest possible arc grip and torque to drive the impeller, at a fixed eccentricity of the insert, which is a calculated value.
This object is achieved due to the fact that the device for continuous angular pressing, includes driving the impeller with the caliber of the pad with insert and emphasis, done with work surfaces forming the channel of the extrusion. When this channel extrusion has a cross-sectional area at the exit from the area of deformation by 3-5% greater than at the entrance. The emphasis is set on a sloping site with the ability to move and smooth height adjustments cross-sections, respectively, and its area to ensure the above-indicated difference of squares by the propeller thrust.
The invention is illustrated by a drawing depicting a schematic diagram of the device. The device consists of a casing 1 and installed in it the drive of the impeller 2, the pad with insert 3 (insert not shown), the stop 4, the inclined platform 5, the screw thrust 6.
The principle of operation of the device for the formation of UMP patterns in the metallic material includes a step of setting the optimal conditions of capture and their adjustment during operation. Stage setting the optimal conditions of capture includes the following operations. By rotation of the screw thrust 6 and the vertical movement of the movable super is 5, the output of the deformation zone cross-section of the channel extrusion is set to 5 - 6% more compared to weekends. After this initial billet is placed in a U-shaped caliber of the drive impeller 2 and the delayed active forces of friction in the channel of the extrusion. Resting on the working surface of the stop 4, the workpiece changes its direction of motion, warping scheme is simple shear. While the cross-section takes the form similar to a parallelepiped. When the second loop and the subsequent workpiece is rotated clockwise by 90 degrees around the longitudinal axis and is placed in the channel of the extrusion. Changing in the next round trips height output channel pressing in towards its reduction by rotation of the screw thrust 6 select the minimum length of the arc of engagement, in which there is a capture of the workpiece and its deformation. Typically, the difference of the squares of the channel pressing at the entrance to the deformation zone and the exit for optimal conditions is 3%-5%. Creation of optimal conditions for the arc of the grip ensures minimum friction path with insert pads surface of the workpiece, which contributes minimal wear insert from passive friction forces. These conditions correspond to the minimum necessary time for carrying out the deformation. As wear of the working surfaces of the stop 4 and the insert during long-term operation is conducted to retireve cross section of the channel pressing the exit of the deformation zone, that allows you to provide baseline minimum required torque for holding the strain.
Thus, the claimed invention allows long metal materials with the ratio of length to diameter of more than 100 UMP structure with minimal material and energy costs over a long period of operation.
Device for continuous angular pressing, containing driving the impeller with the caliber of the pad with insert and emphasis, done with work surfaces forming a channel pressing, characterized in that the emphasis placed on the platform, with the ability to move through the thrust screw to ensure a smooth height adjustment channel pressing obtaining cross-sectional area at the exit of the deformation zone, which is 3-5% greater than the cross-sectional area at the entrance to the deformation zone.
FIELD: metallurgy, possibly production of homogenous fine-grain titanium material.
SUBSTANCE: according to first variant of invention method comprises steps of first heat treatment of blank of titanium material due to heating it till β-region; quickly cooling blank till (α + β)-region and forging it while creating at deforming process super-plasticity condition; then performing second heat treatment due to realizing recrystallization annealing for producing grain size in range approximately from 5 micrometers till 20 micrometers. According to second variant of method blank of double-phase titanium material is subjected to first heat treatment due to heating it till β-region. Heating temperature is in range approximately from 600°C till approximately temperature of polymorphous phase conversion of titanium material. Blank is quickly cooled till (α + β)-region and it is subjected to forging while creating super-plasticity condition. Then second heat treatment is realized due to performing recrystallization annealing. In the result double-phase material with grain size 15 - 20 micrometers is produced.
EFFECT: possibility for producing material that may be subjected to ultrasound flaw detection at high accuracy.
14 cl, 8 dwg, 3 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of blanks designed for producing hollow thin-wall articles such as aluminum tubes, bottles.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of feeding initial predetermined-size material to pressing machine having working units. In said working units initial material is subjected to successive parametric pressing by transitions. Pressing is realized at speed directly proportional to specific pressure of pressing process according to relation: Vt = KPt where Vt -parametric pressing speed at time moment t; Pt - specific pressure of pressing process at time moment t; K = (Pend - Pst)tk - proportionality coefficient; Pend - specific pressure at pressing process termination; Pst - specific pressure at pressing process starting; tk - time period of pressing process.
EFFECT: improved quality of blanks, enhanced efficiency of production of ready articles.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: pressure shaping; manufacture of blanks from materials at preset structure including submicro-crystalline structure and nano-crystalline structure at respective level of physico-mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in successive deformation cycles of initial blank by compression in height, thus obtaining blank with lateral faces. Proposed method ensures smooth plastic flow of material of blank in opposite directions along axis perpendicular to direction of application of deformation force. Each deformation cycle includes placing the blank in device, subjecting it to deformation, withdrawing the blank from device and re-setting for next cycle. Device proposed for realization of this method has working part with cavity and upper and lower punches. Working cavity consists of two parts: upper and lower. Lower part is widened along one of its horizontal axes.
EFFECT: enhanced homogeneity of ultrafine-grained structure at improved mechanical properties.
9 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly production of forged pieces.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for making forged pieces having length to diameter relation more than 3 includes power hydraulic cylinder on plunger of which upper striker is mounted. Lower striker is mounted in rotary mechanism. The last is in the form of kinematics pair having gear wheel and racks rigidly secured to plungers of hydraulic cylinders. Apparatus also includes second power hydraulic cylinder whose plunger is mounted in gear wheel with possibility of axial motion and rigidly joined with lower striker. Both power hydraulic cylinders separately through pipelines and throttles are communicated with respective hydraulic cylinders of rotary mechanism.
EFFECT: improved design of apparatus, increased degree of plastic deformation of blank at its single mounting operation in apparatus.
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly realization of blank working operations designed for developing high technology of thermo-mechanical working.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes housing where lower stop and both movable relative to housing punch and upper stop are arranged. Said stops have notched surfaces for engaging with blank and their ends are in contact respectively with punch and supporting plate. Stops may move relative to punch and supporting plate in mutually opposite directions normal relative to axis of housing. Apparatus is also provided with two wedges. Housing may move relative to supporting plate and it includes two annular grooves arranged in upper and lower parts of housing and designed for placing said wedges. Upper and lower stops form with wedges wedge pairs.
EFFECT: simplified design of apparatus, increased efforts applied to blank.
FIELD: pressure treatment of materials, particularly to obtain parts with predetermined service performance level by cold plastic deforming thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging cylindrical billet in matrix interior on shpero-dynamic fluctuation module so that the billet is supported by pusher, wherein the module comprises cavity with main resonator located in the cavity; performing double-sided billet deformation from the opposite directions thereof, wherein from upper billet end the billet is deformed by applying rolling force thereto by means of die, from lower billet end the billet is deformed by applying summary pulsed force of shpero-dynamic fluctuation module and main resonator. Additional resonator is freely installed in module interior to apply additional percussion force to lower billet end during billet deformation.
EFFECT: provision of wavy plastic deformation and creation of "artificial intelligence" zones in billet.
FIELD: metal working by ultrasonic forging; manufacture of blades at enhanced technical and service characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: edge of plate is placed between taper surfaces of strikers located opposite each other for forming wedge-shaped blade and is subjected to deformation by ultrasonic forging. Plate is moved relative to longitudinal axes of strikers in transversal direction. Strikers connected with ultrasonic oscillation source are rotated about their longitudinal axes with the aid of drive. Taper working surface of each striker has recess whose generatrix corresponds to shape of surface of wedge-shaped blade.
EFFECT: improved quality of tool cutting edge; increased productivity; enhanced wear resistance of fittings.
19 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy; production of semi-finished products from high-temperature high-alloy wrought nickel-based alloys for manufacture of disks for gas-turbine engines working at temperatures higher than 600°C.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preliminary deformation of blank by upsetting by two or more times, final deformation and heat treatment; first upsetting is performed in closed container; during next upsetting, technological metal ring at temperature of (0.02-0.5)Tdef. is placed on blank heated to deformation temperature Tdef. and free upsetting is performed in stamp tool heated to deformation temperature. Geometric parameters of ring are selected from given relationships. Preliminary deformation of blank is performed at intermediate annealing. Height-to-diameter ratio of starting blanks is no less than 3:1. Proposed method ensures forming of homogeneous fine-grain structure over entire volume of blank due to work in end zones.
EFFECT: simplified procedure; reduced labor consumption.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing cylindrical blank in cavity of lower die on sphere-dynamic fluctuation module and resting part by means of pusher; deforming part by rolling-around punch; imparting to said punch and to pusher motion along curves in the form of logarithmic helixes rising in the same direction. It provides realization of wave structure of plastic deformation and obtaining in blank of material zones of "artificial intellect".
EFFECT: possibility for producing parts with desired level of operational characteristics.
FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing blank onto support; end upsetting of blank and then deforming it with punch; subjecting punch to complex motion in the form of circular rolling out at simultaneous cyclic axial rocking; subjecting blank at side of its support to cyclic striking pulses acting along helical path. Due to such complex motion of punch blank is deformed by value consisting of 5 - 7 % of predetermined deformation degree. Then motion of cyclic axial rocking of punch is interrupted and pulse effort is applied to punch at frequency equal to that of forced oscillations of support. Blank is subjected to finish shaping by rolling it out with use of punch without pulse efforts. Invention provides wave nature of plastic deformation, penetration of rotor to nano-level of blank material for forming in it massifs of material of "artificial intellect".
EFFECT: possibility for forming desired operational properties in material of blank.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises fixed plate for installation on press table, cylinder with semi-matrices and upper movable plate with shape puncheons. Upper plate is connected to press slider by means of tailpiece. Gasket with inclined surface and guides is rigidly fixed to stationary plate. Cylinder equipped with mechanism of its sliding moves in guides. Device is provided with hold-down connected to upper movable plate and polyurethane component. Semi-matrices have cavity, where pusher is installed. Working opening of semi-matrices is provided along extruded bar within the limits of the upper allowance for its manufacture. Upper hold-down and semi-matrices have cone to arrange stock hold-down together polyurethane component, whenever upper plate moves down.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: creation of ultrafine-grained structure in metal stock by means of its strain treatment with upthrust includes staged compression of stock with vertically compressing puncheon in die mold that contains matrix limited down with flat bottom, with cavity for stock installation in it and intended for treatment of stock in three orthogonal directions with provision of plastic flow of stock material along directions that do not coincide with direction of compression force. At every stage of strain treatment the stock is placed in matrix cavity, compressed, and deformed stock is taken out from matrix cavity. Prior to installation of stock in matrix cavity the bottom part of matrix cavity is filled with charge of refractory powder for 0.1-0.5 of compressed height of stock, then stock is placed for filling, charge is filled into free space created between two pairs of sliders and stock to the level that exceeds top point of stock by 0.1-0.5 of its compressed height, matrix is inserted into puncheon, displaced to provide stock compression of 10-60% from its height. Stages of deformation treatment of stock are repeated, changing directions of its strain, until ultrafine-grained structure is formed in the whole volume of stock. Device for formation of ultrafine-grained structure in metal stock during its strain treatment with upthrust arranged in the form of die mold that contains matrix with rectangular base plate, puncheon and two pairs of sliders installed in two mutually orthogonal directions. Upthrust is arranged in the form of charge from refractory material that fills the free space between sliders, matrix bottom, puncheon and stock.
EFFECT: production of bulky metal stocks with different ratios of size and increase of finished product output.
5 cl, 4 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device contains forging machine, mechanism for conveying tube stock into deformation site and mandrel. The mandrel is installed at the front end of a mandrel holder in kind of a rod. The rod is secured in the stationary bracket and is designed to axially travel. The end of the rod, backward of the mandrel travel, is located behind the bracket and has threaded and flat parts. Adjusting components are arranged on the threaded part. A cylinder spring and a block of disk springs are successively arranged on the flat part; at that the block of the disk springs thrusts into the stationary bracket. Rigidity of the disk springs exceeds that of the cylinder spring. Besides, a cylinder cartridge, enveloping the cylinder spring, is placed on the flat part; the said cartridge is situated between the adjusting components and the block of the disk springs. The thrust, adjusted along the axis of the rod, is installed on the part of the rod before the stationary bracket. A cylinder compression spring is installed between the thrust and the stationary bracket.
EFFECT: upgraded efficiency of forging process and quality of fabricated items.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: half-finished product with business end is obtained from workpiece and processed. It undergoes thermal processing and polishing. Then cog profile is worked out by method of electroerosion on the lateral surface of business end of half-finished product.
EFFECT: improved quality of obtained item.
SUBSTANCE: anvil of hammer comprises rigidly contracted between themselves layers out of vertically and horizontally arranged plates. Layers of vertically arranged plates are placed alternately with horizontally arranged plates.
EFFECT: upgraded resistance of anvil.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: for parts production cold-upsetting tool is used in the form of multi-position unit. Unit includes five positions and contains puncheons, thrusters, assembled matrixes and strippers. Assembled matrix in the fourth position is installed motionlessly and is equipped with reduction step at the insert. Stripper of the fourth position is arranged with the opening, in which spring-loaded puncheon is installed. Cut billet is subjected to setting and calibration with leveling of butt ends and formation of conical marks. By means of further billet setting head is created. Then opening is pressed out in the billet and its external diameter is reduced with formation of step. Reduction of diameter is carried out in motionless matrix with insert, which has reduction step. For that purpose billet is displaced until it thrusts stripper with spring-loaded puncheon with its butt-end. Puncheon is installed in billet pressed out opening. Later billet is displaced together with puncheon and stripper via reduction step of matrix. After that billet opening is interweaved.
EFFECT: expansion of technological resources.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: for one technological operation two types of pressing are carried out. As one type direct pressing of metal is used from container to its exit via calibrating zone. The second type is equal-channel angular pressing with provision of shift deformations in metal. Direct pressing is carried out prior to angular pressing. Shift deformations at angular pressing are provided immediately after metal exit from calibrating zone of direct pressing. Pressing is performed in the device that contains puncheon, matrix with two crossing channels and container. Container is installed above the matrix. Container cavity forms inlet part of vertically installed matrix channel. Area of inlet part cross section exceeds cross section area of vertically installed channel. The latter is arranged in the form of calibrating belt for direct pressing of metal from container. Height of belt makes 4-10 mm, and its diameter is equal to diameter of matrix second channel.
EFFECT: production of long-length items with high mechanical properties from different structural materials with simultaneous reduction of power intensity.
6 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: construction equipment.
SUBSTANCE: rod ends are made with thickenings which have screw. For rods joining joiner is used with inner screw. Thickenings on rod ends are received on forging press fitted with equipment for cold heading of reinforcing rod ends. As stated device for disembarkation forging die is used, having longitudinal channel along the length for operation security with long reinforced rods.
EFFECT: provision of process capability widening of used equipment with serviceability and economic feasibility preservation.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: forging is performed in several passes by means of an upper flat and a lower cut out strikers. The lower striker has an impression in a shape of a scalene triangle. During the first pass a blank by compression is shaped into a scalene triangle with an obtuse angle 100-105° and a lesser acute angle 29-34°. During the following passes the blank is placed in the same strikers with support of a lesser side of the triangle of its cross section on a bigger side of a scalene triangle of cross section of the impression of the lower striker.
EFFECT: risk of defect formation is excluded.
12 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in forging machines designed for making fastening parts.
SUBSTANCE: forging machine includes support with lower and two lateral walls. Two marking out plates are secured to said lateral walls. Lower wall, lateral walls and marking out plates restrict receiving space where slide of punch assembly is mounted with possibility of sliding motion. Two first roller devices having first rollers are arranged near front end of said support on marking out plates. In upper portions of lateral walls near back end of support second two roller devices having second rollers are mounted. Slide has left and right lower lateral surfaces engaging with first rollers, left and right upper flanges arranged with possibility of sliding motion on marking out plates for engaging with second rollers.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of forging process, enhanced quality of ready products.
13 cl, 16 dwg