Dielectric aerial

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates electric radio engineering and particularly to dielectric aerial containing round waveguide with ribbed flange. The latter is located on the open end of waveguide. There is also a dielectric rod being installed coaxially inside the waveguide and projecting the waveguide limits. Dielectric bushing is also available in the aerial and situated on the projecting part of the dielectric rod. According to the invention the projecting part of dielectric rod is additionally provided with dielectric insertion of the cross section similar to the rod. It is installed at a distance L1=(0.6÷0.7)λ from the open waveguide end. The length is L2=(1.1÷1.3)λ, relative dielectric permeability of insertion material must be ε2=(0.8÷0.9)ε1, where λ - average length of operating wave; L1 - distance from the open waveguide end to dielectric insertion; L2 - length of dielectric insertion; ε1, ε2 - relative dielectric permeability values for dielectric rod and insertion accordingly.

EFFECT: provision of uneven table top part of the aerial beam no more than 1 dB within the frequency band to 17% and minor lobes level not exceeding 10 dB.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to antenna technique and can be used as a stand-alone antenna as the radiating element of the phased antenna array with a special table-like shape of the main lobe of the pattern, as irradiator mirror or lens antennas, as well as the irradiator of the collimator.

Dielectric antenna is characterized by a pattern.

When applying a dielectric antenna as feed mirror, lens antennas, as well as the irradiator of the collimator may require:

1) the Irregularity of the main beamwidths in azimuth is less than 1 dB. This provides uniform irradiation of the reflector.

2) Low level of side lobes (less than 10 dB) pattern provides a low level of illumination of the edges of the reflector, resulting in reduced level of side lobes of the mirror and lens antennas, and also increases the uniformity of the field in the working area of the collimator.

These requirements can increase the gain or utilization of surface antennas that use this dielectric antenna as a feed.

When applying a dielectric antenna as a separate antenna or as element phased antenna array with directional diagram of the special forms may require:

1) the Irregularity of the main beamwidths in azimuth is less than 1 dB.

2) Low level of side lobes (less than 10 dB) radiation pattern.

These requirements allows to obtain a uniform radiation of the electromagnetic field in the sector of angles up to 40° the main lobe of the radiation pattern.

Known antenna (U.S. patent No. 3434166), which is an open end of the circular waveguide flange. However, the directivity of the antenna does not have a table-like tops of the main lobe. Also known antenna in the form of a conical horn (Eisenberg GS, Yampolsky VG, terioshin O.N. The VHF antenna. Volume 1, Moscow, 1977), consisting of a section of waveguide of circular cross section and the mouthpiece representing a circular waveguide with a gradually increasing cross-section. The directivity of such a horn is cosinusoidally view and does not allow to form a table-like shape of the main lobe of the radiation pattern.

Closest to the proposed antenna is a dielectric antenna (ed. St. USSR №1374311, Yurtsev O.A., Kazarin B.A., Bakhrakh L.D., Grigorieva M.I., Schwerin V. Kashin. Dielectric antenna, 1986, publ. BI No. 6), containing a circular waveguide with a ribbed flange located at the open end of the waveguide, the dielectric CTE is Zhen, mounted coaxially inside the waveguide and acting outside of the waveguide, and a dielectric sleeve located on the protruding part of the dielectric rod. The protruding portion of the dielectric rod is made with an abrupt decrease in diameter in the plane of the open end of the circular waveguide.

This antenna allows a 10%band of frequencies to provide a table-like shape of the main lobe of the radiation pattern with the non-uniformity of less than 1 dB, however, it is impossible in a wider band of frequencies.

The invention solves the problem of creating a dielectric antenna with an extended range of frequencies forming a table-like pattern.

The proposed dielectric antenna allows the band up to 17% to provide a table-like unevenness of the main beamwidths not more than 1 dB.

This technical result is achieved by the dielectric antenna containing a circular waveguide with a ribbed flange located at the open end of the waveguide, the dielectric rod mounted coaxially inside the waveguide and acting outside of the waveguide, the dielectric sleeve located on the protruding part of the dielectric rod according to the invention the protruding portion of the dielectric rod EXT is niteline provided with a dielectric insert of the same cross section, as the rod, and it is installed at a distance of L1=(0.6÷0.7)λ from the open end of the waveguide, its length is L2=(1.1÷1.3)λand the relative dielectric constant of the material of the insert must be ε2=(0.8÷0.9)ε1where λ - the average wavelength of the operating range; L1- the distance from the open end of the waveguide to the dielectric insert; L2- the length of the dielectric insert; ε1that ε2- relative permittivity of the dielectric rod and the dielectric insert, respectively.

Important dimensions L1, L2and relative permittivity ε2in the above limits. When choosing these options, beyond these, there will be a clock skew of electromagnetic fields from the individual elements of the dielectric antenna and the specified technical result is achieved will not.

It is possible to manufacture the insert PTFE or Teflon, the relative permittivity of which is ε2=2, when used as a material of a core of polystyrene with a relative dielectric constant ε1=2.5.

Using the proposed dielectric antenna with insert, there is an increase in f the new velocity of the electromagnetic wave in the dielectric is inserted, which leads to preservation of the phasing of the electromagnetic fields radiated by the individual elements of the dielectric antenna, and thus to obtain and maintain tabular form in a wider frequency range than in the known technical solutions.

The invention is illustrated by drawings. 1 shows a longitudinal section of the proposed antenna. Figure 2 - graph of the average frequency fcpfrom the location of the insertion distance L1from the open end of the waveguide to the dielectric insert. Figure 3 is a plot of the band Δ insertion length L2. Figure 4-6 shows graphs of the pattern at different frequencies.

Dielectric antenna includes a circular waveguide 1 with a ribbed flange 2 located at the open end of the waveguide 1, the dielectric core 3 mounted coaxially inside the waveguide 1 and having a protruding cylindrical portion of the outside of the waveguide 1, the dielectric sleeve 4 that is located on the protruding part of the dielectric core 3. The protruding portion of the dielectric core 3 is further provided with a dielectric insert 5 of the same section as the rod 3, and it is installed at a distance of L1=(0.6÷0.7)λ (2) from the open end of the waveguide 1, its length is L2=(1.1÷1.3)λ (3)and consider the other dielectric material insert 5 is selected from the relation ε 2=(08÷0.9)ε1where λ - the average wavelength of the operating range of the dielectric antenna; L1- the distance from the open end of the waveguide 1 to the dielectric insert 5; L2- the length of the dielectric insert 5; ε1that ε2- relative permittivity of the material of the dielectric core 3 and the dielectric insert 5, respectively. The material of the insert is selected from known materials with a dielectric constant ε2=(08÷0.9)ε1.

Dielectric antenna operates as follows. Electromagnetic wave type H11in the circular waveguide 1 excites a surface wave NO11in the dielectric core 3, provided with a dielectric insert 5. Moreover, the phase velocity of the wave in the dielectric insert 5 more phase velocity of the wave in the dielectric core 3, since the phase velocity is determined by the formulawhere C is the speed of light in vacuum, ε and μ - the relative permittivity and magnetic permeability, respectively, and the rod 3 and box 5 are made of materials with different relative dielectric permittivities ε1and ε2.

Surface wave type NO11in the dielectric core 3 and box 5 excites surface volnoval dielectric sleeve 4 with smoothly decelerating, and then increasing the phase velocity. Joint radiation of surface waves in the dielectric core 3 and the dielectric insert 5, as well as of the dielectric sleeve 4 with different phase velocities leads to preservation of the phasing of the electromagnetic fields radiated by the individual elements of the dielectric antenna, and thus to obtain and maintain tabular form pattern in the frequency band up to 17%.

To calculate the working frequency band of the feed (in %) used the following relationship:where finand fn- upper and lower frequency, respectively, of the frequency range in which is formed tabular part of the main beamwidths with the unevenness of less than 1 dB, while finand fnpre-set.

The graphs shown in figure 2, 3, are used to select the location of the dielectric insert L1and insertion length L2based on the requirements of the working frequency band Δ and the average operating frequency fcpwhere fcp=c/λ, C is the speed of light in vacuum.

The invention is illustrated by examples.

Example 1. Pin 3 of the dielectric antenna is made of polystyrene with ε1=2.5, box 5 of the same diameter as the rod, made of PTFE ε2=0.8 ε1 =2. Of schedule 2 to the average frequency fcf=9.4 GHz, the distance from the open end of the waveguide 1 to the insert 5 is L1=0.64λ=0,02048 m, where λ=c/fcp=0.032 m Of schedule 3 for the insertion length L2=1.1λ=0,035 m, we obtain the band Δ=16%.

Example 2. Pin 3 of the dielectric antenna is made of polystyrene with ε1=2.5, box 5 of the same diameter as the rod, made of PTFE ε2=0.8 ε1=2. Of schedule 2 to the average frequency fcp=9.5 GTZ distance from the open end of the waveguide 1 to the insert 5 is L1=0.61 λ=0,019 m, where λ=c/fcp=0.0315 m Of schedule 3 for the insertion length L2=1.2λ=0,038 m, we obtain the band Δ=17%.

Example 3. Pin 3 of the dielectric antenna is made of polystyrene with ε1=2.5, box 5 of the same diameter as the rod, made of PTFE ε2=0.8 ε1=2. Of schedule 2 to the average frequency fcp=9.2 GHz, the distance from the open end of the waveguide 1 to the insert 5 is L1=0.7λ=0,0231 m, where λ=c/fcp=0.033 m Of schedule 3 for the insertion length L2=1.3λ=0,0416 m, we obtain the band Δ=14,5%.

For the maximum achievable bandwidth of 17% (example 2) figure 4-6 shows the radiation pattern at frequency fn=8.6 GTZ, fcp=9.4 GHz fin=10.2 GHz, respectively. On the charts-the solid curve is calculation, the dashed line is an experiment. The ordinate axis deferred amplitude in dB and the abscissa axis ϑ - the angle between the axis of the antenna and the direction of measurement of the electromagnetic field. As can be seen from the graphs, the pattern have a table-like shape of the main lobe, the unevenness of less than 1 dB in the frequency range of 17%. And the level of side lobes, not exceeding -10 dB.

As follows from the above examples, the proposed dielectric antenna allows the band up to 17% to provide a table-like unevenness of the main beamwidths not more than 1 dB. This gives the opportunity to use it for different purposes: as an independent antenna as the radiating element of the phased antenna array with a special table-like shape of the main lobe of the pattern, as irradiator mirror or lens antenna, as the antenna feed of the collimator.

The ability to operate the antenna in the frequency band up to 17% with table-like unevenness of the main beamwidths not more than 1 dB allows for the use of the dielectric antenna as feed mirror, lens antennas, as well as the irradiator of the collimator to increase the gain or the utilization of the surface in the broader Polo is e frequency when using a dielectric antenna as a separate antenna allows to obtain a uniform radiation of the electromagnetic field in the sector of angles up to 40° the main lobe of the radiation pattern.

Dielectric antenna containing a circular waveguide with a ribbed flange located at the open end of the round waveguide, dielectric rod mounted coaxially inside the waveguide and protruding beyond the circular waveguide, and a dielectric sleeve located on the protruding part of the dielectric core, wherein the protruding portion of the dielectric rod is provided with a dielectric insert of the same cross-section as the rod, and it is installed at a distance of L1=(0,6÷0,7)λ from the open end of the circular waveguide, its length is L2=(1,1÷1, 3)λwhere λ - the average wavelength of the operating band of the antenna, and the relative permittivity ε2 insert the selected material from the relation ε2=(0,8-0,9)ε1 ε1 is the relative permittivity of the dielectric material of the rod.



 

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