Method of foundation bed construction by horizontal reinforcing with precast concrete components

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to foundation construction technologies, and particularly, to reinforcing technology used for compressible foundation sections of detached or slab-shaped foundations in building and structures being erected under severe engineering and geological and hydro-geological conditions. Method of foundation bottom construction by horizontal reinforcing with precast concrete components includes foundation pit mining and installation of horizontal stiff lengthy elements such as crossties. As soon as the foundation pit is developed to the designed depth and is bladed, the foundation pit bottom is leveled and filled with sand or crushed stone generating underlying layer with the designed thickness being no less than 0.05 m. Then this layer is leveled and compacted. After that, foundation axes and longitudinal axes of crossties are broken down regarding foundation axes and against the established construction layout depending on the foundation type of the structure being built. The crossties are laid down above the underlying layer in such a way to produce crosstie distribution element in the compressible section in accordance with the designed construction layout of longitudinal crosstie axes with regard to foundation axes. The crossties are installed so that their beds coincide with the level of underlying layer of foundation pit. In addition, crossties are installed butt to each other so that total length of each crosstie exceeds the distance between the external shapes of the utmost foundation edges of the building. The crossties are laid parallel to each other at the design distance so that the area of crosstie distributing element overlaps foundations area completely. Then, inter-crosstie space is filled with sand and buffer layer is laid from above to the level of foundation bed installation with sand, crushed stone from solid rocks or crushed stone from ferrous metallurgy wastes. The buffer layer thickness must not be less than 1/3 of crosstie width or cross section diameter. Maximum size of crushed stones must not exceed 1/5 of crosstie width or cross section diameter. The foundation pit is mined to the design depth, which is equal to sum of future foundation bed depth, buffer layer thickness, crosstie cross section height or diameter and underlying layer thickness.

EFFECT: improvement of soft ground foundations bearing capacity and reduction of material consumption.

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The invention relates to a Foundation, in particular to the technology of reinforcement compressible zone base of free-standing slab and foundations of buildings and structures erected within a complex engineering-geological and hydrogeological conditions.

There is a method of strengthening the Foundation (1), including the development of the pit and the device horizontally long hard elements (sleepers). This method can only be used to strengthen the Foundation of emergency or reconstructed buildings.

Proposed technical solution allows the use of horizontally placed teams hard long elements (ties) in the new building, erected in complex engineering-geological and hydrogeological conditions.

This is achieved in that in the method of Foundation structures with horizontal reinforcement, including the development of the pit, the device horizontally teams hard long elements (sleepers), according to the invention after the development of the pit design depth and its layout the bottom of the pit level and produce the dumping of sand or gravel settlement of the underlying layer thickness, but not less than 0.05 m, with its subsequent alignment and seal, and then produce Azbuka axes of the base and depending on the type of Foundation on the underlying layer is produced by laying the sleepers, thus forming a tie dispenser in the compressible area of the Foundation, in accordance with the project design layout longitudinal axes of the rails relative to the axis of the Foundation so that the soles of the sleepers were located at the level of the underlying layer of the bottom of the pit, with their installation make ends butt each other so that the total length of each of the sleepers exceed the distance between the outer contours of the sole at the foundations of the constructed facilities. Joints sleepers, if necessary, reinforce and manalicious concrete class B15 and above. Sleepers are placed parallel to each other and the calculated distance from each other so that the area of the tie dispenser completely cover the area of foundations, construction of structures in General, then make the filling space between the laid sleepers, and then laid on top of the sleepers occiput buffer layer to the level of laying the foundational footings constructed buildings from sand and gravel from the solid rock or crushed slag ferrous metallurgy, having a stable structure against all kinds of decay (silicate, manganese, iron, and others). The thickness of the buffer layer should not be less than 1/3 of the width or diameter of the cross-section sleepers, and the maximum particle size of gravel is not due is to exceed 1/5 of the width or diameter of the cross-section sleepers. The Assembly sleepers made from commercially produced specially manufactured precast concrete elements of rectangular cross-section, and also rejected for the direct assignment of deviations of the geometrical sizes of prismatic piles, beams, pipes, poles up to 12 m, with hollow pipe before laying filled with concrete. The development of the pit to produce a design depth equal to the sum of the depth of foundational footings, thickness of the buffer layer, height, diameter or cross-section sleepers, the thickness of the underlying layer.

Implementation of the present invention, namely the installation of the tie dispenser of horizontal rigid extended elements (sleepers), allows 2.7-4.5 times to reduce material costs for installation of foundations for foundations constructed buildings and much 2-3 times, to increase the bearing capacity of weak soil foundations, and also gives the opportunity to reduce and redistribute the tension in plan and depth of the compressible area of the Foundation construction of structures and, consequently, enables the use of weak soils for the construction of any structures.

The method is illustrated by the drawings, where Fig. 1 shows the scheme of realization of this method, Fig. 2 - section b-B of Fig. 3 is a structural diagram of the location of the sleepers in terms of tape fundamental is that, in Fig. 4 shows a cross-sectional sleepers, located at the level of the bottom of the pit.

The method is as follows.

First, develop the pit (1) design depth (H), is equal to the sum of the depth (H1), laying the foundational footings, thickness (h) of the buffer layer height (a) cross-section sleepers, the thickness of the underlying layer (s). Then produce a layout of the bottom of the pit. The bottom of the pit (1) align and produce the dumping of sand or gravel underlying layer (2) with the required estimated thickness (C) and its subsequent alignment and sealing. If the thickness of the underlying layer does not exceed 0.15 m, the seal does not produce. Thickness (s) of the underlying layer (2) shall be not less than 0.05 m When calculating the thickness (s) of the underlying layer (2) take into account the value of reducing the thickness of the layer during its seal. The underlying layer (2) is intended to align the bottom of the pit (1) under the device sleepers (3) and ensure uniform compression of the base under the bottom of the sleepers. Then produce a breakdown of the axes of the Foundation being built structures and the breakdown according to structural diagram (Fig. 3) the longitudinal axes of the rails (3). Depending on the type of Foundation of the future construction and adopted a constructive way on the underlying layer (2) is produced by laying sleepers (3) so that the soles of the sleepers were located at around (4) overlay the corresponding layer of the bottom of the pit (1). The installation of sleepers produced by the butt ends to each other so that the total length (L) of each of the sleepers (3) exceed the distance (E) between the outer dimensions of the foundations of the constructed facilities. Sleepers (3) are placed parallel to each other and on the estimated distance (b) from each other so that the area (SW) formed thus tie dispenser (5) completely cover the area (Sf) foundations of the constructed facilities. Then initially producing backfill sand between treating space, and then laid on top of the sleepers occiput buffer layer (6) to the point (7) of laying the foundational footings (8) construction of buildings of sand and gravel from the solid rock. Use of crushed slag ferrous metallurgy, having a stable structure against all kinds of decay (silicate, manganese, iron, and others). The thickness (h) of the buffer layer (6) must not be less than 1/3 width (d) diameter or cross-sectional sleepers (3), and the maximum particle size of the crushed stone shall not exceed 1/5 of the width (d) diameter or cross-sectional sleepers (3). A buffer layer (6) seal, as in the case of the use of crushed stone produced rasklinivanie sand. Increasing or decreasing the thickness (h) of the buffer layer (6) leads to a corresponding change conditions and the degree of loading sleepers (3) length of the e, increase or decrease the carrying capacity tie dispenser (5). The Assembly sleepers (3) is produced from commercially available specially made of precast concrete elements of rectangular cross-section, and also rejected for the direct assignment of deviations of the geometrical sizes of prismatic piles, beams, pipes, poles up to 12 m, with hollow pipe before laying filled with concrete (9). Joints (10) sleepers (3) reinforce and manalicious concrete class B15 and above with the use of formwork.

Sources of information

1. Patent Of Russia №2229562, CL. E02D 27/08, 2002.

1. The method of Foundation structures with horizontal reinforcement precast concrete elements, including development of the pit, the device horizontally long hard elements - sleepers, characterized in that after the development of the pit design depth and its layout, the bottom of the pit level and produce the dumping of sand or gravel settlement of the underlying layer thickness, but not less than 0.05 m, with its subsequent alignment and seal, and then produce a breakdown of the axes of the base and the longitudinal axes of the rails relative to the axis of the Foundation according to structural diagram depending on the type of Foundation being built structures on the underlying layer producing the laying of sleepers, thus forming a tie dispenser in the compressible area of the Foundation, in accordance with the project design of the longitudinal axes of the rails relative to the axis of the Foundation so that the soles of the sleepers were located at the level of the underlying layer of the bottom of the pit, with their installation make ends butt each other so that the total length of each of the sleepers exceed the distance between the outer contours of the sole of extreme bases of construction of constructions, besides, the sleepers are placed parallel to each other and the calculated distance from each other so that the area of the tie dispenser completely cover the area of foundations of buildings under construction, then perform backfill sand midasplus space and on top of the laid sleepers occiput buffer layer to the level of laying the foundational footings constructed buildings from sand and gravel from the solid rock or crushed slag ferrous metallurgy, the thickness of the buffer layer should not be less than 1/3 of the width or diameter of the cross-section sleepers, and the maximum particle size of the crushed stone shall not exceed 1/5 of the width or diameter of the cross-section sleepers, in addition, the development of the pit to produce a design depth equal to the sum of the depth of the sole Foundation of the future construction, the thickness of the buffer the CSOs layer, height diameter or cross-section sleepers, the thickness of the underlying layer.

2. The method of Foundation structures with horizontal reinforcement precast concrete elements according to claim 1, characterized in that the Assembly sleepers made from specially manufactured precast concrete elements of rectangular cross-section, commercially available, and also rejected for the direct assignment of deviations of the geometrical sizes of prismatic piles, beams, hollow pipes, poles, length up to 12 m, with hollow pipe posts before laying filled with concrete.



 

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