Short-length logging method and working member of machine meant for method realisation
FIELD: agricultural industry.
SUBSTANCE: short-length logging method includes cutting of tree branches in a bottom-upward direction, and then cutting of assortments from top downwards along the trunk to its bottom log by means of a claw-like felling unit of a felling-and-bunching machine. When cutting the assortments, the claw-like felling unit stop is put on the tree end surface, and then the claw-like felling unit is lowered down thus measuring the assortment length; after that the trunk is grasped and assortment is cut down. Then short-length logging cycle is repeated till the claw-like felling unit reaches the ground, and at the end of the cycle a non-sized bottom log is cut down. Working member of short-length logging machine consists of a claw-like felling unit of felling-and-bunching machine with a column. At the column top there installed is a cover with a hole wherein arranged is a movable column with a locking device installed on its lower end. Locking device is located inside the column so that it can move up to the cover. On the upper end of movable column there provided are two pairs of holes meant for attaching a detachable stop for example with bolts. On the sides of movable column there are two marks made in 300 mm for measuring the length of a log per one meter.
EFFECT: improving the output of useful assortments when preparing dimension assortments in a growing or mature birch forest.
5 cl, 10 dwg
The invention relates to the harvesting of wood from trees in ripe birch, and aspen forests and other mixed stands, and processing trees and harvesting the timber handled by existing types of domestic felling-bunching machines, equipped with replaceable compact pick-cutting devices modular fabrication with specified maximum weight and load capacity installed at the end of the manipulator with a large departure (flight of the working body not less than 12.5 m horizontally and 18 m in the vertical plane).
There is a method of procurement assortments manipulator machine using typical gripping-cutting device (see the book: Anisimov S.E., Misurkin PM Multilink manipulators. - Yoshkar-Ola: Marstu, 2003. - 76 C.). This method includes steps: first, cut kroon part and put (or reset) in one pack on the back of the trench, and then cut the logs consistently on the principle of "top-down" from the apical part of the standing trunk to his butt.
The disadvantage of multi-processing is. that way is difficult when processing a single tree, and it is not possible to increase the yield of valuable assortments.
There is also known a method of processing trees and harvesting the timber Feller-PA is etorousa machine (U.S. Pat. 2250599 Russian Federation, IPC7A01G 23/02, 23/08, 213/081, 23/083, the authors Misurkin M., Anisimov S.E., Besides IGOR Vladimirov, A.A., Ivanova NS (RF)), including the removal of the kroon part of a growing tree and leaving the trunk for a few months for the natural drying of wood, and then cutting the timber down the barrel to his butt gripping-cutting device felling-bunching machine.
The disadvantage is that the serial sectioning of assortments from the vertex part of the standing trunk to his butt out only three types of unmeasured assortments (apical, mid and butt logs). If this is not taken into account the need for valuable assortments of different sizes with tolerances in length. Off-gauge metal is not allowed to receive further dimensional cut-to-length with high precision, as this will lead to large losses of wood. Therefore, the prototype is only applicable to the low quality of the stands. And in maturing and Mature birch economically provide a hierarchy of types of assortments decrementing values.
The technical result is an increase in the yield of valuable assortments, such as plywood ridge when the workpiece dimensional assortment in maturing or Mature birch.
This technical result is achieved in that the method of harvesting the timber and working op the Academy of Sciences of the machine for its implementation, includes first cutting of the branches of the tree from the bottom up, and then cutting the timber down the barrel to his butt gripping-cutting device felling-bunching machine, characterized in that the gripping-cutting device is induced on the barrel with the laying of its emphasis on the end of the stem, then it goes down with dimension of length, after the measurement is captured by the barrel and cut the line, then the procurement cycle assortments again to a lowering of the working body on the ground, at the end of the cycle is cut butt unmeasured assortment.
Emphasis is placed on the end of the stem, and it stays on it when moving the gripping-cutting device down, the measurement length is happening until it engages the stop.
Measurement of birch or aspen assortment to business trunks perform on the length of the valuable timber, such as plywood ridge length of 1.3 or 1.6 m, and the length of these two sizes perform as required for domestic shelling machines, wood hills, and on the trunks with the other plots measuring wood ridge perform in a length of one meter, and the other of the shafts is prepared only wood assortments.
When processing of the barrel with a thin apical part is additionally measured with the aid of grippers gripping-cutting device, the diameter of the barrel near the place cf the marks, if the diameter is less than 16 cm, length measurement range perform up to one meter.
On the top of the rack cover will be fitted with a hole, which houses a movable stand with a clamp at its lower end, and the lock is located inside the rack can move to cover, on the upper end of the movable rack is made of two pairs of holes for fastening, such as bolts, split lock, and on the sides of the movable rack two labels applied through 300 mm for measuring the length of a wood-burning range in one meter.
The essence of the method lies in the fact that when harvesting wood gripping-cutting device Feller-buncher to go from standing trunk of business (quality) trees consistently top-down dimensional cut down the logs and trunks with with other sites in addition to measuring the timber cut down wood ranges in length in one or the other (less than the length of the valuable timber, plywood ridge 1.3 or 1.6 m) meter.
The essence is that the working body fit with emphasis on the end of the stem that acts as a rigid support for the work of the authority and even the pointing device when sawing the barrel across to procure the assortment with the exact length. Therefore, the length measurement sawn off assortment comes to a complete lifting of the movable rack inside a hundred is key to the hold-down clamp to the stand cover and this increases the accuracy of the measurement length. Moreover, high measurement accuracy is ensured regardless of the sharp fluctuations of the manipulator and the hydraulic system of the machine, and the operator only has to lower the gripping-cutting device until the full length of the cut away assortment, that is, until full contact retainer movable rack rack with cover.
The essence of the design authority felling-bunching machine is that the gripping-cutting device is designed modularly with existing machine type PL-19C and movable stand, made from afar with prominent labels and stop laying the tool on the end of the stem, performs useful essential technical features measuring different lengths valuable or wood assortment. Movable stand with labels and adjustable stop gripping-cutting devices allow harvest dimensional and non-standard cut-to-length from a single trunk.
However, depending on the position of the stop on the movable rack provides for the possibility of harvesting of valuable assortments in the form of plywood ridge two sizes of 1.3 or 1.6 m in Addition, adjusting labels travel of the movable rack, you can cut logs with a length of about 1 m For one machine can produce a set of gripping-cutting organs for harvesting wood and other lengths, and length up to 6.5 m
ovesna technical solution is the existing felling-bunching machine is equipped with modular gripping-cutting device with mobile stand and extreme position about the end of the stem, which also marks, and emphasis about the end of the stem is made removable and interchangeable hole on the upper end of the movable rack. The focus is fixed with plug connection and therefore it is possible to apply a set of movable racks and removable stops for laying the tool on the end of the stem.
The positive effect is that the use of a gripping-cutting device with mobile stand and extreme position allows you to gain valuable assortments of the same length, equal to the move mobile rack 1.3 m or 1.6 m with low tolerance. For example, when the workpiece plywood ridge precision cutting is such that the error length is less than the tolerance according to GOST 2...5 see, This allows to increase the output of valuable assortments and reduce wood loss when harvesting wood from trees of different product quality.
The positive effect is also that the proposed method and the working body for its implementation allow selective felling given to foresters trees in the forest care. At the same time the leave on the growing trees are not damaged due to the fact that the logs are processed directly on the trunk.
On ogically effect is also that this same machine with replaceable standard capture-cutting device, equipped with a delimbing head, first perform the cutting of the lower boughs and branches of a growing tree, and then cut kroon part of the tree, leaving the stem end at the top. After processing all led to the felling of trees on the machine change the gripping-cutting device on the proposed working body, which make the assortment of different length in the form of plywood ridge with the exact length and firewood is approximate length with vertically arranged shafts.
The combination of functional and structural distinguishing features has a significant novelty and has a positive effect, and ease of implementation in forest enterprises.
In the scientific and patent literature materials prejudicial to the novelty of technical solutions was not found.
Figure 1 shows the scheme of harvesting the timber Feller-buncher type PL-19C, equipped with replaceable compact pick-cutting device with a movable stand and stop laying the tool on the end of the stem; figure 2 - diagram of the coupling of the tool on the end of the stem, for example, birch; figure 3 - cutting gripping-cutting device of the measuring range, for example plywood ridge, length 1.3 m; figure 4 - scheme of sawing phanerogamia about the butt; 5 is a diagram of processing small-diameter distal portion of the barrel; figure 6 - diagram of the processing of the barrel in the presence of curvature in the range; 7 - scheme stand (in section) with the lowered movable stand; Fig rack diagram with fully extended rolling stand; figure 9 is a view along arrow a in figure 3; figure 10 is a side view of the mobile rack with support for the laying of the working body at the end of the stem, placed in the upper position for the workpiece plywood ridge length 1.6 m
The method of harvesting the timber Feller-buncher includes the following steps :
Gripping-cutting device 1 with the stand 2 and the movable rack 3 on the upper part 4 which is fixed, for example, bolted emphasis 5, focuses on the upper part of the standing tree trunk. The operator then puts the emphasis on the end of the stem. Emphasis 5 gripping-cutting device rests on the upper end of the stem, performing a technical function tough and durable support. Next, the operator lowers the working body down and when this movable stand remains in place with the end of the stem and at the same time out of hours pick-cutting device. Together with the stand is lowered along the shaft of the saw mechanism 6. After full extension of the movable rack is included sawing mechanism and is made propyl 7, cutting off the measuring range, which is braceletsa on the ground or placed in a stack.
The cycle is then repeated, gripping-cutting device again focuses on a left end part of the barrel and gradually cyclically moves down a stationary barrel and similarly harvested the following assortment. So processed all standing trunk to a stump.
On voutnom section of the barrel, the operator lowers the working body to the mark 8 that allows you to cut timber in the form of wood logs with a length of about one meter.
The method of harvesting the timber Feller-buncher is implemented, for example, when the workpiece plywood logs and firewood from the trunks of birch and aspen, as follows.
Initially allocated to the felling of the trees treated with the removal of the crown and, twigs and branches and leaving standing trunks of birch trees. This applies to an existing device in the form of a removable gripping-cutting device with the delimbing head. For harvesting the timber on the rocker Feller-Bunchers machine mounts offer a working body.
Gripping-cutting device 1 is induced on birch trunk with the laying of a stop 5 at the end of the stem, then it goes down with the measurement of length using labels 8, after the measurement is captured by the barrel and cut the timber sawing mechanism 6, then the procurement cycle assortments again to a lowering of the working body n the earth, at the end of the cycle is cut butt unmeasured assortment.
The stop 5 is placed on the end of the stem, and it stays on it when moving the gripping-cutting device 1 downward, the measurement length is happening until it engages the stop.
Measurement of birch or aspen assortment to business trunks perform on the length of the valuable timber, such as plywood ridge length of 1.3 or 1.6 m, and the length of these two sizes perform as required for domestic shelling machines, wood hills, and on the trunks with the other plots measuring wood ridge perform in a length of one meter, and the other of the shafts is prepared only wood assortments.
When processing of the barrel with a thin apical part is additionally measured with the aid of grippers gripping-cutting device 1, the diameter of the trunk at the point of cutting 7, if the diameter is less than 16 cm, length measurement range perform up to one meter.
Each assortment, cut down from a standing trunk sequentially from the head of his butt gripping-cutting device 1 with the movable rack 3, which is applied to the label 8, and the stop 5, dropped on the ground. If necessary, the wood can be discharged to one side of the machine, while the precious metal to another. If the machine has a trailer, a valuable assortment fit in with the arm is down and by the gripping-cutting device.
Adjusting the position of the stop on the rolling rack, get the assortments length of 1.3 m or 1.6 m the Choice of length is determined by the consumer plywood ridge. Then, the resulting dimensional assortment evaluated for quality. High-quality assortments are selected veneer logs, and low-grade logs, firewood.
When processing small-diameter shafts with gripping-cutting device that is equipped with rolling stand 3, which is within 30 cm marks 8 for Otmar length wood assortment, gathering assortments length of about 1 m, while the diameter of the trunk is not equal to or greater than the desired diameter, allowing you to harvest valuable dimensional assortment in the form of plywood ridge.
When processing of the barrel with the curvature of the gripping-cutting device 1 is cut the line length of about 1 m, measured by the label 8 on the movable rack 3.
If during the processing of the barrel length of the butt range of less than 1.3 or 1.6 m, the gripping-cutting device 1 is lowered to the ground and the butt is cut off-gauge assortment of different lengths (or wood-burning range of one meter length and stump less than 30 cm).
The working body of the machine in the form of a gripping-cutting device 1 to carry out the proposed method of procurement assortments contains a fixed rack 2 and the movable rack 3 with the top frequent the Yu 4.
On the upper part with screw connection fixed focus 5 G-shaped. In the bottom of the rack narashima installed sawing mechanism 6 that allows you to perform cutting in the plane of the slit 7.
Laterally movable drains marks 8, for example a paint in the form of transverse strips on the number of measured lengths of valuable assortments so that these marks were visible from the operator's cab. This label can also be equipped with latches, for example in the form of a springy balls to temporarily hold the lowering movement of the working body down the shaft.
On the top of the rack is installed, the cover 9 with a hole in which is placed a movable rack 3 with the retainer 10 at its lower end, and the lock is located inside the rack can move to cover, on the upper end of the movable rack is made of two pairs of holes 11 for fastening, such as bolts 12, split lock 5, and on the sides of the movable rack caused two marks 8 through 300 mm for measuring the length of a wood-burning range in one meter.
The working body of the machine for implementing the method of harvesting the timber works as follows.
After laying on the end of the stem emphasis 5 lower edge rests on the end face, and thus still holds the movable rack 3. As the lowering of the gripping-cutting body 1 down the trunk fix the top 10 rises up within 2 hours to stop the movement of the lid 9. In this case, the measured valuable assortment length of 1.3 or 1.6 m with high accuracy. Changing the length of the valuable assortment is the permutation lock 5 on the upper part 4 of the movable rack 3 by means of bolts 12 inserted into the holes 11.
After the contact retainer 10 with the cover 9 is included cutting mechanism 6 and saw off a valuable assortment on the kerf 7. This process can be automated by using the end of a hydraulic or other sensors.
When otmane length wood ridge at one meter, the operator lowers the working body to the mark 8, and then includes cutting mechanism 6 to perform the cutting 7.
The proposed method allows to increase the output securities korotkomernyh assortments in the form of plywood ridges and reduce the loss of wood in the harvesting dimensional valuable assortments and non-standard assortments in the form of a wood-burning ranges. The method can be applied in maturing or ripe birch, as well as when harvesting thinning and flow logging in mixed birch-spruce or other types of birch.
1. The method of harvesting wood, including the cutting of the branches of the tree from the bottom up, and then cutting the timber down the barrel to his butt gripping-cutting device felling-bunching machine, characterized in that after cutting wood gripping-cutting device is avodat on the barrel with the laying of its emphasis on the end of the stem, down gripping-cutting device with a measuring length, after measuring the length grab the barrel and cut the line, then the procurement cycle assortments repeat before lowering the gripping-cutting device on the ground, at the end of the cycle cut off the butt of unmeasured assortment.
2. Method blanks assortments according to claim 1, characterized in that the emphasis is placed on the end of the stem and leave it at motion capture-cutting device down, the measurement length is carried out until the commit lock.
3. Method blanks assortments according to claim 1, characterized in that the measurement of birch or aspen assortment to business trunks perform on the length of the valuable timber, such as plywood ridge, length 1.3 or 1.6 m, and the length of these two sizes perform as required for domestic shelling machines, wood hills, and on the trunks with the other plots measuring wood ridge perform in a length of one meter, and the other of the shafts is prepared only wood assortments.
4. Method blanks assortments according to claim 2, characterized in that the processing of the barrel with a thin apical part is additionally measured with the aid of grippers gripping-cutting device, the diameter of the barrel near the site of the cut, if the diameter is less than 16 cm, length measurement range do is up to one meter.
5. The working body of the machine for harvesting assortments containing gripping-cutting device felling-bunching machine with stand, characterized in that on the upper part of the stand cover will be fitted with a hole, which houses a movable stand with a clamp at its lower end, and the lock is located inside the rack can move to cover, on the upper end of the movable rack made two pairs of fixing holes, for example, bolts, split lock, and on the sides of the movable rack two labels applied through 300 mm for measuring the length of a wood-burning range in one meter.
FIELD: agriculture; forestry.
SUBSTANCE: process of felling areas exploitation being suggested includes the following activities: dividing the felling area into swaths, timber felling, knotting, timber bucking and assortment removal to the handling site with the help of a haulage vehicle in the form of a platform with two cargo cradles. Within the swaths there are runways to be visually marked out in the form of linear stretches free of growing trees and wide enough for a platform equipped with a hoist to pass through, the runways directions sequentially alternating (right/left of the previous tract) and positioned at an acute angle related to the perpendicular to the wood transport road. The loose end of the hoist cable is attached to a support located next to the runway on the extension of the linear stretch of the runway for the platform to be drawn towards the end of the linear stretch of the runway stopping at the operating locations for assortment collection. Haulage of the assortment loaded onto the platform to the handling site is done by way of shifting the hoist cable loose end between the supports located towards the site.
EFFECT: arrangement of runways for haulage vehicles without having to additionally fell trees that are in the way and for timber haulage without damaging the soil cover.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process for utilization of forest residues immediately at production sites in commercial wood harvesting.
SUBSTANCE: method involves extracting stumps and roots of felled trees from ground; crosscutting stumps into parts; collecting crosscut stumps, roots, branches and tops of felled trees and grinding the above; sorting out ground mass and separating particles having sizes of at least 10 mm from main mass; drying main mass to moisture content of 8-10% and pressing to melting temperature of wood resin for forming wood briquettes with the use of its resin; directing part of ground mass separated from main mass for dry distillation in order to obtain distillation products; utilizing thermal energy generated during dry distillation process for drying of main ground mass before pressing process, and directing gas into internal combustion engines for driving of forest residue regeneration complex units.
EFFECT: provision for complete forest residue processing cycle allowing wide range of useful products to be manufactured for various branches of industry, full clearing of cuttings from forest residues, and preparing of soil for forest restoration.
SUBSTANCE: method involves successively performing cutting, felling, tree bunching operations in cutting area during advancement of machines along swath skidding roads, and planting forest crops; working out cutting area by successively performing the following steps of process circuit using cutting-delimbing-bucking-bunching machine moving along skidding road: successively cutting trees within skidding road width; moving each tree by distance sufficient for horizontal placement of tree in spacing without disturbing trees kept in rows and spacing and, while pulling cut tree with its head, delimbing it in skidding road; bucking successively delimbed trunk part into lengths and laying-bunching lengths near skidding road in spacing; after cutting of all trees for one pass of machine in skidding road, collecting and transporting lengths by means of forwarder to wood loading point to thereby set free spaces for processing of other trees cut in swath strips and bunching of lengths; at subsequent working stroke of machine, successively cutting and shortening cut trees at one side of skidding road wherein maximum access to trees in rows is provided, with direction of skidding road relative to direction of row being taken into account; after collecting and transporting by means of forwarder of stocked lengths to wood loading point, performing third working stroke of machine along skidding road in direction opposite to previous stroke, wherein maximum access to trees from other side of skidding road is provided without necessity for wide turnings of machine tools; providing procedures similar to previous circuit and terminating process by carrying stocked lengths to wood loading point; upon termination of cutting procedures at forest generation alternation stage, creating forest crops on the basis of line-row process by arranging forest crop rows along-parallel to skidding roads through cleaning of strips, tilling of soil and planting of seedlings, each of skidding roads being used as spacing; newly providing skidding roads intersecting forest crop rows at an angle thereto, and closing forest growing cycle.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in realization of various forest growing procedures.
FIELD: log processing and conversion.
SUBSTANCE: method involves clamping tree; cutting-off lateral branches and crown; performing barking and horizontal cutting of standing trees, with cutting procedure being performed simultaneously with barking and grinding procedures by drawing through grinding device beginning from tree butt-end and upward; bunching mixture resulted from grinding procedure; notching barked tree in butt-end zone at four sides so as to form base of square section corresponding in size to bar product section; removing notched segments from four sides of tree by performing vertical motion of saws; thereafter separating resultant bar from butt-end; dividing into cuts of predetermined length parameters and individually bunching resulted logs according to designation and sizes. Before or after manufacturing of logs, extracting stumps and grinding or removing from tree growing zone. Method allows ecological situation in wood processing zone to be improved by converting part of waste wood into saw wood and construction or fuel materials, and felled forest to be recovered.
EFFECT: reduced wood losses and waste, improved quality of sawn timber, increased versatility of wood logging procedure, reduced consumption of power and time for wood processing and reclamation by combining a number of procedures and using small-sized maneuverable technique.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: logging industry, in particular, processes for executing of cutting area work.
SUBSTANCE: method involves hauling incompletely bucked tree lengths by means of knuckle boom of forwarder, with axial alignment of buckle boom and axis of incompletely bucked tree length during hauling process being provided by displacing buckle boom base lengthwise of loading platform of forwarder.
EFFECT: simplified accessibility of harvested wood under canopy layer during executing of partial cuttings, and improved retention of young growth.
FIELD: lumbering industry, in particular, processes for amelioration of forest fund areas.
SUBSTANCE: method for amelioration of forest fund areas in compartment involves performing forestry-based, forestry cultivation, forestry amelioration practices; reconstructing young growth; providing swath and main logways; dividing compartment in diagonal lines into zones of fixation of united sub-compartments to compartment lines; laying swath logways perpendicular to compartment lines; forming main logways in the form of ellipses whose larger and smaller axes correspond in sizes to larger and smaller sides of compartment and with centers in compartment corners.
EFFECT: reduced damage to natural environment during logging of tree or tree length bundles, reduced labor intensity for wood logging from forest fund area.
FIELD: logging industry, in particular, processes for felling of forest stock.
SUBSTANCE: method involves felling forest stock on timber compartment restricted by compartment lines; providing main skid roads perpendicular to one another with intersection point at the center of compartment, with plots formed upon dividing of compartment by main skid roads into parts being rectangular. Joint sub-compartment attraction zones adjoining to main skid roads are formed as rectangular triangle defined by main skid roads and process corridor laid in parallel with straight line connecting leading points of main skid roads. Attraction zones adjoining to compartment lines are shaped as quadrangle defined by compartment line, main skid ride plot adjoining to said compartment line, process corridor and diagonal line of compartment. Swath roads of attraction zones adjoining to main skid roads are laid in parallel with process corridor, and swath roads of attraction zones adjoining to compartment boundary are laid perpendicular to nearby compartment lines.
EFFECT: reduced average distance for logging from compartment and, consequently, reduced labor costs associated with timber logging.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, execution of cutting works.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing cuttings into swaths with logways; felling trees on swaths using front-type felling-bunching machine and bunching trees onto workbench; laying out rounded plots at both sides of each swath logway, said rounded plots beginning on swath logway having radius equal to width of strip processed on felling-bunching machine, and center of each rounded plot being arranged in end point of rounded plot of adjacent swath logway which is curved with the same radius and center in end point of said rounded plot; felling workbench with apex oriented in direction opposite to tree logging direction, at an angle to swath logway; felling trees felled by felling-bunching machine during operation on rounded plots of swath logway so that tree apexes are laid onto logway and their butt parts are laid onto workbench.
EFFECT: increased width of swaths and reduced adverse effect of logging machines upon soil mantle.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining, on the basis of description of crop, belonging of plot of specific crop to bilberry, mountain cranberry, long-moss or bog moss group of forest types and its age; determining basic wood increment of forest crop by sampling wood and bark using coring instrument and measuring diameters of 15-20 randomly selected trees; measuring thickness of their bark and thickness of wood samples consisting of 3-10 rings; calculating average thickness of annular rings for each tree; determining Q which is criterion for necessity of carrying out forestry practice from formula: Q =4ZA/(D-2B), where Z is annular radial growth (basic growth), mm; A is age of forest crop; D is diameter of trunk, mm; B is thickness of bark, mm. In case Q<1 and relative density is >07, cleaning cutting is provided, and in case there is no necessity in cleaning cutting of forest crop, soil is fertilized when forest crop belongs to bilberry or mountain cranberry group of forest types. In case forest belongs to long-moss or bog moss group of forest type, soil is drained and fertilized.
EFFECT: increased precision in determining the necessity of ameliorative practice and cleaning cuttings for crop forest, and reduced costs.
6 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: forest industry, in particular, performing of cutting area works.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing cutting into plots, each of said plots being divided into swaths-triangles whose apex is defined by spar; laying swath logway in the mid portion of swath; dividing swaths into strips extending in parallel with swath logway; felling trees on strips; attaching trees or tree lengths felled onto strips adjoining to logway to working cable of rope unit; moving trees or tree lengths to spar and uncoupling from working cable; felling trees from strips remote from logway onto butt parts of trees or tree lengths felled onto strips adjoining to and positioned close to logway so that their axes coincide to maximum extent with one another; securing butt parts of trees or three lengths felled onto strips adjoining to and positioned close to logway with apex parts of trees or tree lengths felled onto strips remote from logway and using as guiding and supporting members during movement onto logway of number of trees or tree lengths secured with one another, with first of said trees or tree lengths felled onto strip adjoining logway being coupled to working cable of rope unit.
EFFECT: increased width of swath, reduced area for logways, reduced hazard to environmental nature during logging of wood, reduced number of movements performed by cable during forest operation, and increased efficiency of logging technique.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, keeping of plants with closed root system during cold periods of year, for example, plants grown in containers or seedlings.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing containers 5 with plants 4 at place 1 above heating main 2; providing covering 4 above containers 5; filling space between covering wall 3 and containers 5 with bulk material 6 with increased moisture capacity (for example, peat or compost); moistening material 6 and mellowing top layer 7 of said material. During heating season, part of heat is transferred from heating main 2 to ground surface. Moistened peat layer 6 has increased moisture capacity to provide for effective heating of containers 5. Mellowed layer 7 eliminates moisture and heat transfer from layer 6. Moisture stock in layer 6 provides optimal soil moisture in containers to be maintained. When necessary, layer 6 is periodically moistened and layer 7 is mellowed. Covering 3 and layers 6 and 7 of peat reduce heat losses from heating main 2 during the entire heating season. Upon completion of cold period, containers 5 with plants 4 are moved to territory to be landscaped.
EFFECT: reliable storage of plants, reduced costs for earth excavation works and heating of storage, provision for keeping soil moisture capacity in containers within optimal range, and reduced heat losses at heating mains.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, logging equipment.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has winch with at least two drums for pulling and return cables, respectively, said cables defining closed contour extending through main guiding pulley system. Logging single-axle wheeled cart and choking equipment are positioned between pulling and return cables. Wheeled cart has load-bearing shield pivotally mounted on cart and system of auxiliary guiding pulleys for pulling cable. Boom-type frame is mounted on wheel axle of cart. Levers are mounted on frame first boom oriented to main guiding pulleys of pulling cable for restricted pivoting in longitudinal-vertical plane. Load-bearing shield fixed on lever free ends is oriented toward frame second boom, in particular, to choking equipment zone. Stop is positioned on outer surface of shield in shield and lever junction zone. One of auxiliary guiding pulleys of pulling cable is mounted on stop through vertical poles, while other auxiliary guiding pulleys are mounted on frame boom oriented to main guiding pulleys for pulling cable. Main guiding pulley system is provided with auxiliary cable centering pulleys for centering of cable relative to axis of related drum. Centering pulleys are positioned on winch base, forward of system of main guiding pulleys defining closed cable contour for moving carts.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, ecological monitoring of territories with young plants and underbrush, in particular, evaluation of ecological consequences of environment pollution.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing penetration into wood of young tree and vegetative parts thereof or young branches and tree roots by means of spring-loaded rod with flat end surface by repeatedly applying permanent force thereto; upon each action in the form of strike, measuring increase in depth of penetration of rod; judging properties of woody plant by number of strikes sufficient for penetration of rod to predetermined depth. Tests are performed during growing period and properties of woody plant are evaluated on the basis of set of measurements taken in the course of season growing and development of woody plant. Method may be used for process monitoring in the course of growth and development of forest plantations.
EFFECT: simplified testing of wood of woody plant during growing period under field conditions.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: wood-working industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring variations of pulse loading of the conical head during its penetration into the wood in radial direction. The wood quality can be judged by relative force pulse duration.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, tree felling and logging equipment.
SUBSTANCE: harvesting machine has self-propelled chassis carrying sawing mechanism, mechanism for pushing tree from stump, gripping-and-feeding device and bunking device. Gripping-and-feeding device is positioned over the entire width of frame front part of harvesting machine of inclined longitudinal chain conveyor equipped with spring-loaded sickle-shaped grips movable along guides curved in vertical plane. Centering rollers provided with projections and helical thread are mounted on poles of bunking device, said poles being controlled by means of hydraulic cylinders. Bunking device is mounted on pole trailer. Upper ends of paired grips are interconnected by means of cables to provide for embracing of tree with looped cable and of clamp with grips during falling of tree onto conveyor.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of harvesting machine.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: forest industry, in particular, methods for preparing forest areas for cleaning felling.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating permanent technological network based on process corridors and loading stations system, where swath pockets adjoin main pockets along arc or circle equal to radius of turning of logging unit loaded with wood, with the exception of blunt angles exceeding 120 deg.
EFFECT: reduced technogenic effect upon forest environment and increased efficiency of logging and subsequent operations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting light stocking and bunching bundles; skidding said bundles onto floating base by means of cable, with bush cutter continuously moving and upper pulley being mounted on bush cutter and winch being positioned on floating base. Cutting and bunching procedures are provided while floating base continuously moves.
EFFECT: improved quality of cleaning of basin beds, increased efficiency and reduced expenses for performing such works.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, processing of individual trees, may be used for cleaning cutting in average aged and ripening stand.
SUBSTANCE: method involves processing tree by initially cutting branches from the bottom to the top of tree over trunk up to crown part; upon removal of crown part, leaving trunk for several months to provide for natural drying of tree trunk. Method allows versatility of felling-bunching machine with gripping-and-cutting boom to be increased and operational capabilities of machine to be widened owing to adaptation to different kinds of tree and stand care processes. It means that single machine may be used for tree clear or selection felling processes, as well as for caring of crown of individual trees. Method may be effectively used for caring of trees in parks, gardens and preservation plots by means of existing felling-bundling machines furnished with small-sized gripping-cutting booms having maximal predetermined weight and load capacity.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and wider operational capabilities.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, clearing of green felled area for forest crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing felled area into strips to be cleared and spaces between strips not to be subjected to clearing; gathering felling residue by means of brush rake movable on cleared strips and shifting felling residue onto spaces between strips by alternatively turning to the right and to the left to thereby form felling residue piles; after clearing strips on the entire felling area, burning felling residue; grubbing out stumps from cleared strips by means of grubber-collector, which moves grubbed stumps to felling residue burnt piles; leaving the latter for decaying.
EFFECT: reduced sizes of felling residue piles and increased area of spaces between strips for natural regeneration stands.
FIELD: timber industry and may be used at through sequence certification of wood from growing trees to half-finished products in conditions of timber industry, logging, woodworking and also in engineering ecology and ecological wood-control at ecological valuation of territories.
SUBSTANCE: for testing they make with the help of a bore samples of cylindrical form of larger diameter then the largest transverse size of standard samples of rectangle form which are prepared from cylindrical samples and with the length of o less then the length of standard samples.
EFFECT: simplifies process of strengthening testing of wood with using cylindrical samples.
6 cl, 8 dwg