Method for pulsed magnet field generation (versions)

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method is intended to be used in electric engineering and electronics, for instance, in devices for high-power short current pulses generation. The method includes installation of hollow cylinder made of metal with low electrical conductivity in solenoid cavity, creation of initial magnet field by current transfer through solenoid winding, infusion of initial magnet field into cylinder chamber by diffusion technique, magnet field compression by cylinder walls moving along the chamber axis. In this case hollow cylinder is forced to rotate around its axis at the moment of magnet field compression, or hollow cylinder is made of flat or tube stock material by rotary drawing method (rolling-off) and drawing is performed in one or several stages while stock is rotated in one direction, or hollow cylinder is made of flat or tube stock material by rotary drawing method (rolling-off) in one or several stages and cylinder stock material is rotated in direction coinciding with direction of cylinder rotation at the moment of magnet field compression.

EFFECT: pulsed magnet field properties improvement by suppression of instability of cylinder inner surface shape during its squeesing.

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The invention relates to techniques for obtaining high magnetic fields. The method can be used to generate pulsed magnetic fields using explosive magnetic generators, for example, in the device for producing a strong, short current pulse.

A known method of generating a pulsed magnetic field, which consists in the introduction into the internal cavity is made of conductive material of the cylinder initial magnetic field and the subsequent rapid axisymmetric compression cylinder. The initial magnetic field is generated by means of a solenoid, the coil of which is located outside the cylinder concentric with him, served the discharge current from the high voltage capacitor. Subsequent rapid axisymmetric compression cylinder dimensions of the internal cavity is reduced, and the inductance of the magnetic field increases in dozens of times. The compression cylinder is the pressure of the products of detonation of an explosive charge (CC)around the specified cylinder, or pressure of the magnetic field created by the solenoid in the cavity which contains the specified cylinder (see A.D. Sakharov, Ludew R.Z., Smirnov, E.N., Pluses SCI, Pavlovsky A.I., V.K. Chernyshev, Feoktistova E.A., Zharinov H., Sysin Y.A. Magnetic cumulation, " DOKL. - t, No. 1, 1965. - P.65; Sakharov A.D. explosive magnetic generator is // Uspekhi Fizicheskikh nauk. - t 4, 1966. - 725-734 C.).

Introduction the initial magnetic field in the internal volume of the cylinder is made in several different ways, the use of which is determined by the design and material of the cylinder. For example, the known method of introducing the initial magnetic field in the inner cavity of the cylinder, is made of metal having high electrical conductivity, such as copper or brass. The method consists in creating in the cylinder wall through the cracks. Gap gap closed conductive loop formed by the walls of the cylinder, provides fast penetration created by the solenoid magnetic field in the inner cavity of the cylinder (see, for example, Gcnoral. Super-high pulsed magnetic fields. - M.: Mir, 1972. - s). To prevent electrical breakdown of the gap is filled with insulating material, for example PTFE. The solenoid creates a primary magnetic field, can be located on the outer surface of the cylinder and on the outer surface surrounding the cylinder of the explosive charge in the explosion is in the compression cylinder.

This method has the disadvantage caused by the presence in the wall of the cylinder through the cracks. End-to-end gap is heterogeneity, which is under compression cylinder leads to the development of instability of the surface shape of its inner strips is I. This instability increases the energy loss of the initial magnetic field reduces the characteristics of the generated pulsed magnetic fields, and also destroys placed in the inner cavity of the generator sensors and samples of materials whose properties under the influence of strong magnetic fields are investigated. It is known (see, for example, Gasparov. Explosive magnetohydrodynamics. The tutorial. - Novosibirsk: NSU, 1982. - p.66), which is specified through the slit in the inner volume of the cylinder can sbrasyvatsya placed in the specified slot insulating material or occur breakthrough products of detonation of the explosive charge. It also reduces the characteristics of the generated pulsed magnetic fields.

To reduce the instability values form the surface of the cylinder, resulting from the presence of the gap, this gap is performed under a small angle to a generatrix of the cylinder. It improves the conditions of closing of the walls of the slits in the process of compression of the cylinder, however, the breakthrough capabilities of detonation products and penetration into the internal cavity of the cylinder of the material of the insulator are removed at the same time not completely. The heterogeneity of the cylinder walls, leading to the development at this point in the instability of the surface shape, when changing the orientation of the slit is also not eliminated completely.

Known designs of explosive magnetic generator is, in which the cylinder to increase the symmetry of the compression process and facilitate the introduction of the initial magnetic field in its internal cavity contains several filled with insulating material through cracks. In particular, it is known (A.S. No. 311582, MKI NN 7/04, from 05.02.1970. Explosive magnetic generator / Nepaldalitinfo, Heiwado, Wieloryb, Vierumaki // BI No. 32. - S)that the cylinder can be made from glued together insulated copper conductors along the generatrix of the cylinder in concentric layers. However, improving conditions of symmetry of the compression cylinder and the introduction of the initial magnetic field in its internal cavity, the specified technical solution does not preclude penetration into the internal cavity of the cylinder material, the insulating side surface conductors.

There are also known methods of introducing the initial magnetic field in the inner cavity of the cylinder, no through cracks. So, you know the manufacture of the cylinder of metal having a low electrical conductivity, for example of mild steel or stainless steel. The introduction of the magnetic field in the cavity of the cylinder when it is performed by diffusion created by the solenoid primary magnetic field through the wall of the cylinder. In the case of low electric conductivity of the material of the cylinder in the absence of e is on the wall of the through slit is not an insurmountable obstacle to the diffusion of the magnetic field inside the cavity (see, for example, Gcnoral. Super-high pulsed magnetic fields. - M.: Mir, 1972. - S). However, at the final stage of the compression cylinder made of this metal, when the intensity of the magnetic field increases, the loss of magnetic flux due to the reverse (from the cylinder bore into the surrounding space) diffusion will reach significant values. This impairs the characteristics of the generated pulsed magnetic fields.

To reduce the final stage of the compression energy loss compressible magnetic field (due to reverse diffusion) surface of the cavity in the cylinder is covered with a thin thickness of about ten microns, the layer of metal with high electrical conductivity, such as copper layer. Due to its small thickness at the initial stage of operation of the generator, this layer has almost no barriers to the implementation process of the initial magnetic field in the internal volume of the cylinder. At the final stage of the compression cylinder, the thickness of this layer increases in a few dozen times. A layer of such thickness, having a high electrical conductivity, are able to prevent back diffusion of the magnetic field of the cavity. This reduces the energy losses of the magnetic field at the final stage of compression and improves the characteristics of the generated pulsed magnetic fields.

It is also known manufacturer is elendra of non-conducting material, for example, a semiconductor, which at the time of its explosive compression goes into the conducting state in the shock-wave loading (see A.S. No. 762706, MKI NN 7/04, from 30.11.1978. Magnetic flux compression generator // Ehibition, Ngukoobas, Amirabadi). However, the known material properties of semiconductors have low shock wave strength, which leads to the destruction of the cylinder in the process of shock-wave loading (in wave discharge behind the shock wave). This breaks the symmetry of the compression captured a conductive layer of a magnetic field and reduces the characteristics of the generated pulsed magnetic fields.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the claimed solution is a way of introducing the initial magnetic field in the inner cavity of the cylinder, no through cracks, diffusion created by the solenoid primary magnetic field through the wall of the cylinder, is made of metal having a low electrical conductivity, for example of mild steel or stainless steel. (Gcnoral. Super-high pulsed magnetic fields. - M.: Mir, 1972. - S.)

This solution is chosen as the prototype.

The characteristics of the prototype, in common with the claimed method:

- placing a hollow cylinder made of a metal having a low electrical the second conductivity, in the inner cavity of the solenoid;

creating the initial magnetic field by passing current through the coil of the solenoid;

- introduction into the internal cavity of the cylinder initial magnetic field diffusion;

the compression of the magnetic field moving in the direction of the axis of the cavity walls of the cylinder.

The specified prototype has the disadvantage of reducing characteristics of the pulse generator ultrastrong magnetic fields.

The disadvantage of the prototype method is caused by the implementation during the compression of the magnetic field phenomena catastrophic growth of small perturbations of the surface of the inner cavity of the cylinder is known from magnetic hydrodynamics as a phenomenon of instability Rayleigh-Taylor. In the present case, this phenomenon is, if the wavelength of the initial perturbation of the form shell λcompressing the magnetic field, will be condition

where ρ - the density of the material of the cylinder, g - overload deceleration experienced by the material of the cylinder at the moment of interaction with the magnetic field with intensity N- strength of the magnetic pressure per unit surface area conductive material, ϕ- the angle between the vectors of the magnetic field and the wave of an initial perturbation of the surface shape of the cavity of the cylinder.

In case the, if the magnetic field vector is directed along the axis of the cylinder, and the perturbation is oriented in a direction across the axis (case implemented in this version of the method of generating a pulsed magnetic field), the value of the cosine is zero, and the smallest perturbation (disturbance with any arbitrarily small wavelength) become unstable.

Growing instability limits the compression ratio of the initial magnetic field destroys loaded pulsed magnetic field samples investigated materials or sensors that determine the magnitude of the magnetic field (see, for example, Gcnoral. Super-high pulsed magnetic fields. - M.: Mir, 1972. - S). As a result of rapid development of perturbations in the internal cavity of the cylinder, where the compression is generated superstrong magnetic field, in the form of small droplets and jets injected portion of the material of the cylinder.

The task, which directed the present invention is to improve characteristics of the pulsed magnetic field generated by the rapid compression of a solid cylinder with the introduction of its cavity the initial magnetic field is achieved by the suppression conditions for the development of instabilities forms the inner surface of the cylinder, arising in the process of compression.

Required technical re the query result is achieved by in contrast to the known method, comprising: placing in the inner cavity of the solenoid hollow cylinder made of a metal having a low electrical conductivity; the creation of the initial magnetic field by passing current through the coil of the solenoid; the introduction into the internal cavity of the cylinder initial magnetic field diffusion; the compression of the magnetic field moving in the direction of the axis of the cavity walls of the cylinder, in the present method:

- option 1 the hollow cylinder at the time of compression of the magnetic field result in rotation around its axis;

- option 2 is a hollow cylinder made of a flat or tubular workpiece rotational drawing (rolling), performed in one or more stages at a constant direction of rotation of the workpiece;

- option 3 hollow cylinder made of a flat or tubular workpiece rotational drawing (rolling), performed in one or several stages in the direction of rotation of the workpiece coincides with the direction of rotation of the cylinder at the time of compression of the magnetic field.

Analogues with a collection of characteristics similar to the proposed technical solutions are not found, therefore it can be considered that the claimed invention are new and have sufficient inventive step.

Each of these is substantial signs required and their combination is sufficient to achieve the novelty of quality new verhaftet not inherent characteristics of their disunity.

The essence of the proposed technical solution is illustrated in the drawing, which shows the effect on the initial perturbation form of the internal surface of the cylinder forces arising from the rotation of the cylinder. Items 1-6 on the specified drawing: 1 - cylinder; 2 - the axis of the cylinder; 3 - the initial heterogeneity of the shape of the inner surface of the cylinder (the ledge); 4 - direction as a result of compression; 5 - the movement direction of the rotation; 6 - direction caused by the rotation of the cylinder of the centrifugal force, preventing the growth of the amplitude of the disturbance.

Suggested method uses a phenomenon of rotation of the cylinder of the centrifugal force, the value of which increases with decreasing distance to the axis of rotation. In this regard, the material caught in the area of local perturbations of the surface shape of the cavity of the cylinder (ledge, oriented in the direction of the axis), will operate a centrifugal force greater than that acting on the rest, undisturbed part of the cylinder That ensures elimination of growth disturbances of the surface shape of the cavity.

(By analogy with the condition of appearance of neustoichivost which when exposed to a magnetic pressure (formula 1)) will be unstable perturbations with wavelength, defined by the inequality:

wherethe magnitude of centrifugal force acting on the unit volume of the cylinder in the area of the inner surface of the cavity receiving the perturbation of the form, r0r - the initial and the current value of the distance to the axis of rotation, Ω0- the initial speed of rotation of the cylinder around its axis.

From the formula (2) shows that when the radius r tends to zero when the compression cylinder and the growth of perturbations of the form, regardless of the value of the angle of ϕ between the vectors of the magnetic field and the wave of an initial perturbation of the surface shape of the cavity of the cylinder, become resistant to perturbations with any wavelength λ. Therefore, the condition for the suppression of the phenomenon of instability Rayleigh-Taylor is implemented.

The rotation of the cylinder around its axis at the time of compression can be created by forced rotation of the entire generator pulsed magnetic field or cylinder separately.

If, for constructional reasons, to enforce rotation of the cylinder at the moment of compression, it is impossible to create a rotation of the material of the cylinder at the time of compression can be achieved by use of the phenomenon of rotation of the sidewall material being compressed by the explosion cylinder, made by rotational extrusion (rolling).

Manufacturer cyl is echoes by rotational extrusion (rolling) leads to the creation of the material cylinder preferential orientation of the surfaces of grains (texture), while providing an explosive compression cylinder occurs, rotation of the inner surface of the cylinder in the direction coinciding with the direction of rotation of the workpiece during rolling (see, for example, patent RF №2180723, MKI F42B 1/036, B21D 22/14, from 05.10.2000. A method of manufacturing an axisymmetric facing cumulative charge // Eijnatten, Aesculetin, Vaselin).

The value of the initial speed, arising in connection with the manufacture of the cylinder by the method of flattening depends on the degree of deformation of the wall of the workpiece during rolling and can amount to several tens of rotations per second (see, for example, the article "Control of a rotational component of flow of the material facing the shaped charge made by the method of rolling" / Vaamanan, Web, Aesculetin, Vaselin // Hydrodynamics of high energy density. - Novosibirsk. Publishing house of the Institute of hydrodynamics of them. SB SB RAS. 2004. - S-519). The resulting centrifugal force, as well as the forced rotation of the cylinder, will be able to prevent the development of instability forms the inner surface of the hollow cylinder

Each of the methods described above to bring the cylinder into a state of rotation can be applied independently from each other. However, regardless of the direction of rotation of the workpiece in the manufacture of cylinder rolling or upravleniyafederaljnogo rotation of the cylinder during its compression emerging heterogeneity type of Rayleigh-Taylor will be suppressed.

Subject to certain conditions, you can share the use of these methods give the cylinder the state of rotation around its own axis.

The condition is that the direction of rotation of the workpiece cylinder at the time of rolling should coincide with the direction of rotation of the cylinder at the moment of compression. In this case, the material located near the inner surface, you will get extra speed in the direction of the forced rotation of the cylinder. This will provide an increase in the rotation speed of the internal surface of the cylinder. And, therefore, will increase the magnitude of the centrifugal force, impeding the development of instabilities of the surface shape of the cavity of the cylinder type Rayleigh-Taylor at the time of compression of the magnetic field, rather than improve the characteristics of the generated pulsed magnetic fields.

If the direction of the spins, forced or created in connection with the manufacture of the cylinder by the method of rolling, will be opposite to each other, may decrease the rotation speed up to almost complete compensation in one direction of rotation of the other. The total speed of the material of the cylinder about its axis will tend to zero, and the effect of stabilizing the shape of the inner surface of the cavity will not be implemented.

Use before agemy methods will provide suppression of instabilities forms the inner surface of the cylinder, improve the performance of the generated pulsed magnetic field, will protect from premature destruction in the vicinity of the axis of the investigated samples or sensors that measure characteristics of the magnetic field at the time of compression of the cylinder.

1. The method of generating a pulsed magnetic field, including accommodation in the inner cavity of the solenoid hollow cylinder made of metal having low electrical conductivity, the creation of the initial magnetic field by passing current through the coil of the solenoid, the introduction into the internal cavity of the cylinder initial magnetic field diffusion, the compression of the magnetic field moving in the direction of the axis of the cavity walls of the cylinder, characterized in that the hollow cylinder at the time of compression of the magnetic field of force is put into rotation around its axis.

2. The method of generating a pulsed magnetic field, including accommodation in the inner cavity of the solenoid hollow cylinder made of a metal having a low electrical conductivity, the creation of the initial magnetic field by passing current through the coil of the solenoid, the introduction into the internal cavity of the cylinder initial magnetic field diffusion, the compression of the magnetic field moving in the direction of the axis of the cavity walls of the cylinder, characterized in that the hollow cylinder made of a flat is or tubular workpiece rotational drawing (rolling), moreover, the extraction is performed in one or more stages at a constant direction of rotation of the workpiece.

3. The method of generating a pulsed magnetic field, including accommodation in the inner cavity of the solenoid hollow cylinder made of a metal having a low electrical conductivity, the creation of the initial magnetic field by passing current through the coil of the solenoid, the introduction into the internal cavity of the cylinder initial magnetic field diffusion, the compression of the magnetic field moving in the direction of the axis of the cavity walls of the cylinder, characterized in that the hollow cylinder is made of flat or tubular workpiece rotational drawing (rolling) in one or several stages, with the workpiece cylinder rotate in the direction coinciding with the direction of rotation of the cylinder at the time of compression of the magnetic field.



 

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FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, of equipment for transformation of heat energy, including that of the Sun, to electric energy.

SUBSTANCE: electric generator contains stator with stator winding and rotor positioned therein, made in form of piston; stator is provided with two vessels filled with gas, connected hermetically to each other via a hollow cylinder, which is made of material with high magnetic penetrability and having two limiters on the ends of cylinder, and piston is positioned inside aforementioned cylinder, made of magnetic-hard material and provided with piston rings, while stator winding is wound on cylinder and its ends are connected to load clamps.

EFFECT: provision of high efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: technology for transformation of chemical energy of explosive substance to electromagnetic energy.

SUBSTANCE: autonomous magnetic cumulative generator consists of spiral conductor, current-conductive liner with a charge of substance and initiation system, magnetic stream compression hollow, load and a system of permanent magnets, containing at least one magnet, positioned above spiral conductor with magnetization of parallel surface of spiral conductor, system of permanent magnets contains an additional magnet, positioned above spiral conductor on the side of load with magnetization of perpendicular surface of spiral conductor, while force lines of magnetic field of a system of magnets and in the compression hollow form a closed contour.

EFFECT: decreased dissipation flows beyond limits of magnetic flow compression contour and, as a result, increased starting energy in compression contour of magnetic cumulative generator.

1 cl, 7 dwg

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