Method of protection of excavator from influence of hydraulic hammer and device to this effect

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions pertain to construction, namely, to hydraulic hammers hung on to construction excavators. Method of protection of the excavator from the influence of hydraulic hammer blowing mass of the hammer pin over the wedge of the hydraulic hammer according to which oscillation damping of the working equipment from the mass action of the hammer pin during its idle run is performed through main hydraulic cylinders of lead control. Oscillation damping of the working equipment is performed both through the main hydraulic cylinder and through a balancing pneumatic - hydraulic cylinder. Whereat balancing pneumatic - hydraulic cylinder is made with constant gas pressure characteristic, and head ends of main hydraulic cylinders of lead control are connected with hydropneumatic accumulator with variable characteristic of gas pressure in its air bladder.

EFFECT: facilitation of hydraulic hammer operation.

2 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction, namely, hammers hinged on the construction excavators 2...6 dimensional groups with a mass firing pin 60...1000 kg

There is a method of protection excavator from impact of the hammer, including operation impact firing pin to wedge the breaker, the operation of the impact mass is brisk on the working equipment at idle, in which the operation of the damping of vibrations transmitted to the excavator, perform basic hydraulic cylinders control arrow Por [Construction machinery and equipment: a Handbook. - M.: Higher school, 1991, - 456 S.].

The disadvantage of this method is that the main hydraulic cylinders control the boom of modern excavators have high rigidity and consequently in desktop hardware excited high-frequency oscillations that are close or coincide with the frequency of forced oscillations striker breaker, leading to a significant increase in load in the working equipment and reduce the longevity of the excavator.

The development of modern hydraulic occurs in the direction of increasing operating pressures, resulting in increased rigidity of the power cylinders, which is in contradiction with the operation of the damping when the requirement is the stiffness coefficient damping devices provide is their low-frequency vibrations of the operating equipment.

In this invention to facilitate the operation of the hydraulic hammer is used theory of vibration isolation of machines in the suspension breaker for excavator.

The invention in part of this method is the creation of a protection method excavator from the impacts of a hammer, carrying out impact weight firing pin on the wedge of a hammer, according to which shall be implemented by the main hydraulic cylinders control the boom damping of the oscillation of the working equipment from the effects of the mass of the striker when it is idle, the task of the method is solved due to the fact that the damping of work equipment perform as the main hydraulic cylinders control the boom and balanced pneumohydraulic, while balancing pneumohydraulic performed with a constant characteristic of the gas pressure, and the piston cavity of the main hydraulic cylinders control the boom reported with a hydropneumatic accumulator with a variable gas pressure in its pneumatic chamber.

The invention in part of the device is to reduce the stiffness of the main cylinders by connecting structural elements.

The invention in part of the device consists in that the protection device excavator containing operating equipment and the main cylinders of the control shaft, the Cam is ielem working fluid, from impact of the hammer, including a hammer and a wedge according to the invention the device is further provided with balanced pneumohydraulic, piston chamber which is connected with a gas cylinder and rod - distributor of the working fluid when the piston cavity of the main hydraulic cylinders control the arrow associated with the dispenser of the working fluid is connected to a hydropneumatic accumulator with a throttle and a check valve.

The task in the part of the device removed due to the fact that in the known device, containing an excavator working equipment, hydraulic hammers, hammer, wedge, main hydraulic cylinders boom and balancing pneumohydraulic, the distributor of the working fluid according to the invention in a piston cavity of the main hydraulic cylinders connected to a hydropneumatic accumulator with a throttle and a check valve.

The essence of the invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a wheeled excavator with protection from impacts breaker; figure 2 - is a tracked excavator with a protection system of the excavator from the impacts of the hammer; figure 3 shows the conditional is a diagram of the method and device protection excavator from the impacts of the hammer with two main hydraulic cylinders boom and balanced pneumohydraulic; figure 4 is a conditional is a diagram of the of the procedure and device protection excavator from the impacts of the hammer with one main hydraulic cylinder boom and balanced pneumohydraulic; figure 5 shows the dependence of the dynamic factor working equipment on the ratio of the frequency of forced oscillations of a hammer and natural oscillations of the operating equipment.

The protection device of the excavator from the impacts of the hammer contains excavator 1, the working equipment 2, the hammer 3, head 4, the wedge 5, main hydraulic cylinders 6, balancing pneumohydraulic 7, gas cylinder 8, the hydropneumatic accumulator 9, the check valve 10, the orifice 11, the working fluid dispenser 12 (Fig 3, 4), supply lines 13, 14, pump 15, the tank 16.

The essence of the proposed method lies in the fact that the mass m1striker breaker performs a reciprocating motion in the housing of the hammer 3 with a frequency of nbeats=400...500 beats/min impact rate hydraulic hammer is

,

where fp- blow frequency, Hz.

Cyclic frequency disturbance breaker

ωslave=2πfp.

We make the assumption that fluctuations in the firing pin in the body of the hammer perpetrated by a harmonic law

xp=A(xp)sinpt,

where A(x) is the amplitude of the relative movement is brisk in the body of the hammer; p - cyclic frequency of the perturbing impact of a hammer.

Inertia firing pin

where A(N) is an amplitude of the and inertial disturbance breaker; m1- the mass of the striker.

The inertial force H is disturbing influence of the vibrating system consisting of an oscillating mass Boyko m1and the masses of working equipment m2which has a resilient connection with the excavator 1 through the main cylinder 6, having a stiffness coefficient C.

However pneumohydraulic 7 completely balances the force of gravity working equipment and breaker gas pressure in a gas cylinder 8. And thanks to the adequate size of the gas cylinder 8, the piston is moved in pneumohydraulic 7 takes place at almost constant pressure pgas=const. This means that balancing pneumohydraulic 7 has a stiffness coefficient of zero.

On analytical models (3, 4) and in the subsequent calculations m2is the reduced mass of the working equipment with the center bring on the hammer; - the coefficient for the main cylinders with center bring on the hammer.

In the cast of the parameters of the dynamic system rotational movement of the work equipment (see figure 1, 2) is reduced to the equivalent translational motion of mechanical systems (3, 4). Portable oscillating movement of the working equipment described by the differential equation of forced oscillations

From equation (2) cyclic natural frequency of oscillation of the working equipment is equal to

The amplitude of the accelerations breaker A(h) in equation (2) is determined based on the formula (1) by the expression

From the differential equation (2) determines the amplitude of forced vibrations of work equipment

The reaction force transmitted to the excavator from operating equipment for the elastic system is determined by Hooke's law

The amplitude of the impact force on the excavator with regard to formulas (5) and (6) equal to

The dynamic factor in the inertial excitation of oscillations in the formula (7) tends to a limit as.

In figure 5 we plot the function by the formula (8), which shows that the real case for ratiosat point a the impact of Nxon the excavator with a hydraulic hammer is characterized by the value of the dynamic factor.

Due to the complete balancing of the gravity of the working equipment pneumohydraulic 7 force main 6 cylinders when working definition which is only the size of the contact breaker to the bottom and appear to be minimal. As a consequence, the stiffness coefficient with the main cylinders in the formula (7) has the minimum value.

The amplitude of the harmonic force transmitted to the excavator, is reduced in accordance with the formula for the coefficient of transmission power

When

from (9) we obtain the coefficient.

This means that the disturbance of a hammer, passed on the excavator, is reduced by 8 times.

Condition (10) taking into account formula (3) allows to determine given the stiffness coefficient of the main hydraulic cylinders boom

.

The main parameter in the calculation is the coefficient of rigidity of the vibrating system, the optimal value which is provided by the hydropneumatic accumulator 9, provided with a check valve 10 and the throttle 11.

The essence of the remedy excavator from impact of the hammer is that as the elastic element is introduced into the hydraulic system uses a hydropneumatic accumulator of small size, in which the appearance of dynamic kick from breaker pressure in the main hydraulic cylinders increases, and when it exceeds the pressure in the hydropneumatic accumulator, part of the working fluid from the piston cavities of the main cylinder through the check valve 10 is reset to a hydropneumatic accumulator 9, the pressure in the hydropneumatic accumulator and piston cavities of the main cylinders increases with lower intensity compared to the pressure in the absence of the hydropneumatic accumulator.

After completion of the dynamic impact phase begins unloading the damping element, in this period the liquid received in the hydropneumatic accumulator through the orifice 11, the piston returns to the main cavity of the cylinders.

The variable characteristic of the gas pressure in the hydropneumatic accumulator is provided a limited amount of gas and the small size of the hydropneumatic accumulator.

The protection device of the excavator from the impacts of the hammer operates as follows. The workflow of a hammer can occur when the cylinders 6 of the control shaft creates a reaction force on the wedge Rx>0, is sufficient to start operation of the hydraulic hammer.

To install the wedge breaker in the set point of the face you can use any or sequentially all the valves and cylinders work equipment excavator. Due to the fact that the force of gravity working equipment with hydraulic hammer is balanced by the gas pressure on the piston, the force on the wedge may be zero Rx=0.

To get started, the spool valve 9 include up and serves the working fluid from the GI is of ronsos 15 in the rod end of the hydraulic cylinders 6 (Fig 3). When this hammer is lowered and the wedge 5 create a reaction force Rxfrom a face. At the same time turn the breaker and put in the point of slaughter consecutive strikes, which perform useful work of destruction of the material.

The essence of the principle of vibration protection is that due to the balancing forces of gravity working equipment load on the main cylinders is practically absent, and the required stiffness of the mechanical system is provided by a hydropneumatic accumulator 9, provided with a check valve 10 and the throttle 11.

The protection system is presented in figure 4, differs from the system shown in figure 3, the fact that in figure 4 the main cylinder 6 and balancing pneumohydraulic 7 installed symmetrically about the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the working equipment and the maximum contiguous relative to each other. This maximizes simplify the design of the protection system. The protection system is presented on figure 4, are similar to those described for figure 3.

1. The way to protect the excavator from the impacts of a hammer, carrying out impact weight firing pin on the wedge of a hammer, according to which the exercise by the main hydraulic cylinders control the arrow, the damping of the working equipment from the effects of mass firing pin p and his no-load characterized in that the damping of work equipment perform as the main hydraulic cylinders control the boom and balanced pneumohydraulic, while balancing pneumohydraulic performed with a constant characteristic of the gas pressure, and the piston cavity of the main hydraulic cylinders control the boom reported with a hydropneumatic accumulator with a variable gas pressure in its pneumatic chamber.

2. The protection device excavator containing operating equipment and the main cylinders of the control shaft, the distributor of the working fluid from the impacts of hydraulic hammer including a hammer and wedge, characterized in that it is provided with a balanced pneumohydraulic, piston chamber which is connected with a gas cylinder and rod - distributor of the working fluid when the piston cavity of the main hydraulic cylinders control the arrow associated with the dispenser of the working fluid is connected to a hydropneumatic accumulator with a throttle and a check valve.



 

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