Composite fire protection (versions)
FIELD: security facilities.
SUBSTANCE: according to the first version the proposed sandwich fire protective structure based on composite plates can be fixed on the surface of the facility being protected and comprises low-density basalt-fibrous material layer, adhesive interlayer and heat-resistant protective-decorative plate which are sequentially adjacent to the above surface. Thicknesses and materials of the structure layers are chosen so that to provide for evaporation of water containing in the outer layer and adhesive interlayer, diffusion of the produced water vapour into the inner basalt-fibrous layer and under further heating evaporation of moisture condensed on the fibres surface, in case of fire attack or non-stationary heating of the structure outer layer surface. According to the second version the proposed sandwich fire protective structure can be fixed on the surface of the facility being protected with an air gap. The adhesive interlayer is made from heat-expanding material which is characterised by sooting when heated. Thicknesses and materials of the structure layers in this version are chosen so that to provide for precipitation of carbon particles on the inner layer fibres surface resulting from cracking of hydrocarbons which are included into the composition of the products of thermal decomposition of the adhesive interlayer organic or polymer part and for formation of an additional layer of foam coke resulting from thermal decomposition and swelling of the adhesive interlayer containing thermally expanding graphite, in case of fire attack or non-stationary heating of the structure outer layer surface . Fire protective structure layers are made with the consideration of physical effects appearing under heating and leading to the alteration of the adjacent layers composition; this fact allows blocking of radiant-convection heat flow coming from the flame to the surface of the facility being protected.
EFFECT: increasing up to the specified level fire resistance ratings of supporting and enveloping building structures primarily in high-rise buildings.
6 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to flame-retardant fire-fighting tools and can be used to improve to the required level of fire resistance of load-bearing and enclosing structures, primarily in high-rise buildings.
To building structures and modern engineering communications of buildings and structures increased requirements for fire-resistance - ability to maintain its load-bearing capacity at the fire activity within a specified period of time necessary to take measures to evacuate people, active against the spread of fire and its liquidation.
For example, according to MGSN 4.19-05 "Multifunctional high-rise buildings and complexes" construction and design of tall buildings should have a fire-resistance rating not less than 4 hours.
Under fire influence on the construction design of tall buildings may their destruction (loss of resistance), accompanied by a progressive destruction of the entire building (even if fire exposure only design within one of the rooms or floors). As a consequence, the loss of fire resistance of structures of high-rise buildings in case of fire leads to much more serious consequences compared to conventional buildings.
To improve the actual limits of the flame retardant is building structures to the required level is used for fire protection.
For fire protection of building structures and components utilities have the following requirements:
a) low mass;
b) the minimum price;
in) manufacturability and Assembly on site;
d) resistance to external impacts during installation and operation (random shocks, fluctuations of temperature and humidity of the atmosphere and the like);
d) the absence of toxic emissions during operation, and also bacterial, allergic and endocrine actions of people;
(e) a sufficient warranty period;
g) replacement or repair depending on operating conditions;
C) adequate protective and decorative qualities.
The first of these basic requirements in the case of high-rise buildings, for obvious reasons, becomes the determining factor.
As the closest accepted collapsible protective structure and method of storage tanks with flammable substances (application RU # 2004134118, publ. 10.05.2006).
Collapsible fire-resistant construction for storage tanks with flammable substances contains supporting frame, heat-resistant heat insulating layer and a protective and decorative coating. This supporting frame consists of longitudinal and circular elements and is connected by cables connected to the pole rings. Ter is astoni heat insulating layer is made in the form attached to the frame flat mats, manufactured by sewing technology. It consists of an outer woven layer, on one surface of which, facing the fire effect, caused by a layer of intumescent material, and the intermediate heat-resistant layer.
A characteristic feature of this known method is that in a constructive composite fireproofing there is a gap between the outer protective cladding and internal heat-resistant insulating layer. In fire conditions, this gap is filled foamcoke intumescent coating applied to the surface of the heat-resistant insulating layer. The outer cladding protects the foamcoke, which is the ideal high-temperature thermal insulator from fading and shedding during prolonged fire exposure. Due to the combination of properties of the individual layers of this composition can significantly increase its effectiveness.
However, this collapsible fire-resistant design is not intended for use in buildings, due to the obvious complexity of manufacture and complexity of installation on site, resulting in increased cost, especially when large areas of the protected surface, typical of modern high-rise buildings, underground structures and mixed-use complexes.
Known technical the information and communications technology (US 4351870 from 28.09.1982), which discloses a protective panel having both decorative and structural function, which according to this invention can be used to protect high-rise buildings. This well-known fire-retardant construction consists of several superimposed on each of the layers and has a large amplitude relationship of tensile strength to weight due to the use of light insulating layers.
However, the drawback of this solution is the lack of fire resistance time due to the fact that it is not provided with a long standing impact of physically changing material properties of the layers and mutual influence to strengthen the resilience of the structure.
Thus, the main technical objective of the proposed invention, as is also achievable technical result is the implementation of layers of fire-retardant construction to meet emerging during heating of the physical effects that lead to changes in the composition of adjacent layers, which allows you to block radial convective heat flux coming from the flame to the surface of the protected object.
According to the first embodiment of the proposed invention the specified technical result is achieved in layered fire-resistant design based on composite plates made with the who what and is very useful for fixing on the surface of the protected object and sequentially containing adjacent to the surface layer of low-density basaltfibrous material, adhesive layer and a heat-resistant protective-decorative plate, and the thickness and materials of the layer structure is selected from the condition that when the fire activity or unsteady heating of the surface of its outer layer was the evaporation of water contained in the material of the outer layer and the glue layer, diffusion of water vapor formed in the inner basaltfibrous layer and upon further heating of the evaporation is condensed on the surface of the fibers of moisture.
Preferably as an adhesive layer composition used mineral-based, for example, a modified silicate glue Conlit Glue manufactured by Rockwool.
In addition, preferably, as a heat-resistant protective-decorative plates used heat-resistant fire-resistant plate on the basis of cement filled with vermiculite or perlite, and the addition of hardening of chopped basalt fiber, for example a plate Promatect.
According to the second variant of the proposed invention the technical result is achieved in layered fire-resistant design based on composite plates made with the possibility of fixing on the surface of the protected object with the formation of an air layer and sequentially containing a layer of low-density basaltfibrous material, the adhesive layer of the Ter is rasshirjajusheesja material, having the property of soot formation during heating, and heat-resistant protective-decorative plate, and the thickness and materials of the layer structure is selected from the condition that when the fire activity or unsteady heating of the surface of its outer layer was the deposition of carbon particles on the surface of the fibers of the inner layer in the cracking of hydrocarbons contained in the composition of the products of thermal decomposition of organic or polymer portion of the adhesive layer and the formation of an additional layer of foam coke due to thermal decomposition and expansion of the adhesive layer containing a heat expanding graphite.
Preferably as an adhesive layer used in the composition for organic (polymer) based, for example, contains thermal expanded graphite (TWG).
In addition, this embodiment can also be used stove Promatect.
The proposed variants of the invention are United by a common idea, which consists in the use of allocated binder layer during the heating of the material penetrating into the adjacent layer of low-density basaltfibrous material, to improve the flame retardant abilities of the layer and the construction as a whole.
Below the proposed solution is disclosed in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which figure 1 and 2A, 2B shows a scheme is s structural performance of these two variants of fireproof construction.
Figure 1 shows the first embodiment of the proposed invention, according to which the laminated fire resistant design based on prefabricated composite plates made with the possibility of fixing on the surface of the protected object 1 (the element of the building structure or utilities), includes adjacent to the surface of the low-density layer 2 cheap basaltfibrous (mineral wool) material, adhesive layer 3 mineral-based and heat-resistant protective-decorative plate 4. Mount laminated fire resistant design to protect the object is carried out by mechanical fastening elements 5.
In the first embodiment of the fire resistant design (figure 1) under the fire effect on the surface of its outer layer and unsteady heating of the evaporation of water contained in the material of this layer, and (more) in the glue layer. Water vapor diffuses into the inner basaltfibrous layer composite fire protection and condenses on the surface of the fibers. Upon further heating of the fire protection condensed moisture evaporates. The consequence of these physical processes is a significant reduction of the heating of the composite fire protection: on a curve of the temperature of the protected design the AI the time formed the so-called shelf (section constant temperature).
Figure 2 shows the second embodiment of the proposed invention, according to which the laminated fire resistant design made on the basis of prefabricated composite plates, Figa shown the design to fire exposure, and Figb after fire exposure.
According to this variant laminated fire resistant design, made with the possibility of fixing on the surface of the protected object (element of the building structure or utilities) with the formation of an air layer and sequentially containing the low-density layer 2 cheap basaltfibrous (mineral wool) material, adhesive layer 3 of thermal expanding material having the property of soot formation during heating, and heat-resistant protective-decorative plate 4. Mount laminated fire resistant design to protect the object is also carried out by mechanical fastening elements 5.
When working composite fire protection according to the second variant (see figa) see the following favorable physical effects:
- deposition of carbon particles (soot) on the surface of the fibers of the inner layer in the cracking of hydrocarbons contained in the composition of the products cat is from decomposition of organic (polymer) part of the adhesive layer;
- formation of an additional layer of foam coke due to thermal decomposition and expansion of the adhesive layer containing thermal expanded graphite TWG.
The first of these physical effects leads to an increase in absorption capacity of the internal basaltfibrous layer composite fire protection and, accordingly, to decrease its thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures.
The formation of a layer of foam coke (the second physical effect) accompanied by an increase in the total thickness of fireproof construction (figb), which leads to significant improvements in insulating ability of the composition, as foamcoke has sufficient heat resistance and low thermal conductivity at high temperatures.
When this outer heat-resistant layer composite fire protection material on a mineral basis, prevents burnout and mechanical destruction of foam coke under the action of turbulent pulsations of flame.
It should be noted that in the case of a large duration of fire exposure (up to 4 hours) at a standard temperature regime of the surface fire retardant structures exposed to high temperatures (up to 1100°). This requires material subsurface layer of raised temperature resistance. However, applying for external protect the IDT decorative layer of heat-resistant steels in the case of objects of the type in question for obvious reasons, it is impractical.
Most of the above requirements satisfy the heat-resistant fire-resistant plate on the basis of special cement filled with vermiculite or perlite, and the addition of hardening of chopped basalt fiber, for example plate type Promatect. They have sufficient heat resistance, i.e. they remain stable and original shape when heated to temperatures typical of conditions developed fire resistant to atmosphere during normal operation and have a satisfactory protective and decorative qualities.
However, plates of this type are relatively expensive and have a high density. In addition, at high temperatures the material conducts heat radiation, which is the cause of the increased thermal conductivity and leads to the necessity of increasing the thickness of the fire protection of these plates with a large duration of fire exposure (increased requirements for the fire resistance of protected structures). Therefore, the use of plates of this type becomes impractical for fire protection of structures, which have increased requirements for fire resistance (up to 4 hours), and especially when there are constraints on the mass of structures (for example, in the case of high-rise buildings).
Obtaining fire protection minimum weight and cost in these conditions is possible if and the use of layered compositions, the outer layer which is heat-resistant plate type Promatect and domestic - low density and relatively cheap basaltfibrous plate, for example plate PNTB, Rockwool Conlit, Paroc, etc. with good insulating ability in the temperature range from 20 to 700°With (at temperatures higher than 700°With plates of this type begin to experience significant shrinkage, which dramatically reduces their fire ability).
For connection of the plates of the outer and inner layer, it is expedient to use two types of adhesive or binder layers:
a) the composition of mineral-based type of modified silicate glue Conlit Glue - for the first variant of the design;
b) compounds of organic (polymer) base containing thermal expanded (thermal expanding) graphite TWG - for the second variant of the design.
Experimental studies have shown that with proper selection of the thickness of these adhesive layers in the process of this fire resistant design appear additional physical effects that improve its fire-retardant capability.
Mount composite fire protection is carried out by means of standard fasteners, exhaust in relation to the fire protection plates type Promatect (protected structure mechanically attached plate Promatect, a database is levocarnitine plate of the inner layer are connected with them adhesive layer). In the case of the composition of the second version of its mechanical attachment to the structure shall be given the opportunity of free slippage of the plates of the inner layer by fastening elements in the process of expansion of the adhesive layer. Mount composite fire protection to the protected structure in this case is made with a gap that is filled with fire retardant material in the process of construction.
Thus, the implementation of the described physical effects leads to a significant increase of the flame retardant abilities of composite fire protection. Calculations showed that the total thickness of the composite fire protection is smaller than the thickness of a single layer of flame retardant material, made of plates of type Promatect or basaltfibrous plates.
The decrease in the composition of the fire protection thickness of the outer layer of a relatively expensive material of higher density can significantly reduce its cost and weight compared to the fire resistance of the plates, only one of this type.
It is important to emphasize that the optimal ratio between the thicknesses of the layers of the proposed composite fire protection determined by numerical calculations using a mathematical model, proposed by the applicant the patent RU No. 2284202, the content of which is completely included here as a reference. Only in the case of receiving the above-mentioned optimum ratio can be meet in the beginning of the description requirements for fire protection of building structures in their totality, it is possible with the use of a mathematical model according to this patent. Disclosed therein is in the formation of a cover securable layered composite fire protection and the determination of its optimal composition and structure due to the adequate nature of mathematical modeling of processes of heat and mass transfer occurring in the fire protection and the protected object under fire influence of different intensity and duration.
Thus, the ratio between the thicknesses of the proposed fire resistant design for the first option: δ:δ1:δ2and for the second option: δ1:δ2:δ3can be obtained by optimization calculation. In the case of the second variant, the thickness of δ outdoor expensive layer Promatect preferably selected in the range of 8-10 mm
The proposed design of composite fire protection allows you to organize industrial production of composite fire-resistant plates at the factory. Moreover, this means of fire protection can be manufactured industrially in the form of plates, prigodnyh for easy mounting on the protected structures using standard fasteners. This reduces the complexity of installation of fire protection on the object in comparison with the known solutions.
1. Laminated fire resistant design based on composite plates made with the possibility of fixing on the surface of the protected object and sequentially containing adjacent to the surface layer of low-density basaltfibrous material, adhesive layer and a heat-resistant protective-decorative plate, and the thickness and materials of the layer structure is selected from the condition that when the fire activity or unsteady heating of the surface of its outer layer was the evaporation of water contained in the material of the outer layer and the glue layer, diffusion of water vapor formed in the inner basaltfibrous layer and upon further heating of the evaporation is condensed on the surface of the fibers of moisture.
2. Fire resistant construction according to claim 1, in which the adhesive layer used in the composition of the mineral-based, for example, a modified silicate glue Conlit Glue.
3. Fire resistant construction according to claim 1, in which the heat-resistant protective-decorative plates used heat-resistant fire-resistant plate on the basis of cement filled with vermiculite or perlite, and the addition of hardening of chopped basalt fiber, for example a plate Promatect.
4. Laminated fire resistant design based on composite plates made with the possibility of fixing on the surface of the protected object with the formation of an air layer and sequentially containing a layer of low-density basaltfibrous material, the adhesive layer of thermal expanding material having the property of soot formation during heating, and heat-resistant protective-decorative plate, and the thickness and materials of the layer structure is selected from the condition that when the fire activity or unsteady heating of the surface of its outer layer was the deposition of carbon particles on the surface of the fibers of the inner layer in the cracking of hydrocarbons contained in the composition of the products of thermal decomposition of organic or polymer portion of the adhesive layer, and the formation of the additional layer foam coke due to thermal decomposition and expansion of the adhesive layer containing a heat expanding graphite.
5. Fire resistant construction according to claim 4, in which the adhesive layer used in the composition for organic (polymer), for example containing thermal expanded graphite (TWG).
6. Fire resistant construction according to claim 4, in which the heat-resistant protective-decorative plates used heat-resistant fire-resistant plate on the basis of cement is filled with vermiculite or perlite, and the addition of hardening of chopped basalt fiber, for example stove Promatect.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to heat-insulating constructions. Heat-insulating block element consists of internal air-proof shell made from flexible material, and external air-permeable shell that protects internal shell from damage. External element shell has areas where it is firmly connected with internal shell as well as areas wherein there is no firm connection of external and internal shells. External shell is made, fully or partially, from air-permeable material at the location of latter areas; total external surface of internal shell equals or exceeds total internal surface of external shell. Internal cavity of air-proof shell is filled with gas and/or heat-insulating material capable of reversible deformation. Method of manufacturing heat-insulating enclosure from heat-insulating block elements is described.
EFFECT: reducing material consumption, improving enclosure heat-insulating characteristics, and providing possibility to produce heat-insulating enclosure of any configuration.
13 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electrogenerating masonry unit contains an obverse layer, concrete building layers and a heat-insulation layer located between them. The masonry unit has the box-shaped case from a monolithic concrete layer and a heat-insulation layer in the form of the porous core placed in the box-shaped case and closed by an obverse layer with terminal screws, executed in the form of two goffered punched plates from an electro wire material and planar solid-state electrolytic diaphragm located between them, made of a material, for example: "Nafion" or MF-4SK with the deposits of electrodes - the anode and the cathode located on opposite sides of the diaphragm. Two channel apertures located on the largest possible distance from each other are brought from the surface to the diaphragm through the body of the case and a porous core with fixed tubes for possibility of leading and assignment of fuel gas.
EFFECT: improvement of an operating ability of a masonry unit.
6 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building brick for building wall erection includes inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 which have reinforced structure and are located at some distance from each other. Clearance 40 between building bricks is filled with cement. Outer wall 20 consists of decorative plaster board. Foamed polymeric material 30 fills the space between inner wall 10 and outer wall; at that, inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 are pieced by foamed polymeric material 30. Protrusion 31 is created in foamed polymeric material 30 and stands out of inner wall 10 and outer wall 20. Clearance 40 between building bricks in front of and behind relative to protrusion 31, at that, inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 are embedded into foamed polymeric material 30 at some depth, and embedment of parts 11 and 21 results in adhesion strength increase.
EFFECT: increase of brick adiabatic and soundproof characteristics.
FIELD: construction, superstructures.
SUBSTANCE: principle applies to construction, in particular to production of face tiles and blocks and can be used in the preparation of wall blocks with face tiles from natural rock, or wood panels and also ceramic tiles. The technical result is to ensure the functional capability of blocks during cost reduction of its preparation. Firstly, flat decorative elements (FDE) are prepared, which can be done in the form of one or more tiles of natural rock or in the form of one or more wood panels, and also a combination of these. FDE may consists of number of fragments of each, and side surfaces of FDE are preliminary polished and are fitted one to the other and then placed in the frame, tightly tuck together and inundated with a liquid building mixture. One or more ready FDE is placed in a shaped tray and concrete is poured and the tray is put on a vibration press and vibrated to complete compaction of the concrete and then the ready block is dried under natural conditions. A formwork for a ready construction block is then prepared. Construction blocks can also be prepared from foam concrete, in which the foam concrete layer is placed in a vertical plane from the internal side of the block. In this case the foam concrete layers are made in the form of separate inserts or layer of foam concrete is made by pouring foam concrete into a tray frame using parting metallic plate, which is removed after the tray has been filled up by concrete and foam concrete. For the preparation of flat decorative elements, a moulding box with clamps is used. For the strengthening of the attachment of flat decorative elements to the surface of the construction block, a number of ways are used to preliminary work on rear surfaces of the flat decorative elements. To widen the nomenclature of construction blocks, blocks can be made in form of half-blocks, corner blocks or double sided polished blocks. For work convenience, blocks are prepared with an opening at the top with an undercut for proper handling and hand grip.
EFFECT: ensuring functional capability of a block and reduction of its production cost.
14 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: fixed constructions.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum concrete block comprises dense concrete outer envelop and more porous core. The outer envelop of the block has a gas-tight surface. The core of the vacuum concrete block has a gas-tight envelop. The core is connected from its centre with the outer envelop surface by means of a tube which is hermetically connected with the core envelop and the outer envelop surface having a locking device for closing in the tube hole, and capable of connecting to a vacuum pump. The method of making a vacuum structural block is defined.
EFFECT: enhancement of heat-insulating properties.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: gypsum compositions and gypsum plates made from such compositions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition contains hardened gypsum, binding matrix made from hardened and calcined gypsum, water and modifying material containing mixture of organic poly- phosphonium compound or mixture of organic poly-phosphonium compounds in the amount of 0.01-3% of calcined gypsum and borate in the amount of 0.1-2% of mass of calcined gypsum containing ulexite, colemanite or mixture of ulexite and colemanite or modifying material containing poly-carboxyl compound or mixture of poly-carboxyl compounds in the amount of 0.01-4.99% of mass of calcined gypsum and poly-phosphate compound or mixture of poly-phosphate compounds in the amount of 0.004-2% of mass of calcined gypsum.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
24 cl, 5 tbl
FIELD: construction material production, particularly for low building construction, or civil and industrial object erection, namely to construct residential houses, cottages and other buildings.
SUBSTANCE: three-layered construction block has decorative layer of A thickness, load-bearing layer having C thickness and heat-insulation layer having B thickness and arranged between decorative and load-bearing layers. All block layers are connected with each other by means of polymeric rods having hooks at rod ends and provided with ribs. The ribs extend for the full rod lengths and have rhomb cross-sections. The ribs adjoin rod in areas having maximal thicknesses and are inclined at different angles one to another. The construction block is made as truncated tetrahedral pyramid arranged so that pyramid base in the greatest outer face of load-bearing layer. Pyramid walls are at 1-2° angle to pyramid base. Layer thicknesses are related as A:B:C=1:1.8:3.2. One longitudinal end face of load-bearing layer is parallel to opposite one.
EFFECT: improved building appearance, room heat-insulation and soundproofing, simplified block structure, increased masonry strength and decreased construction costs.
FIELD: building material production, particularly adapted for low building erection and for civil and industrial structure construction.
SUBSTANCE: multilayered construction unit comprises decorative layer of A thickness, bearing layer of C thickness and heat-insulation layer arranged in-between. Heat-insulation layer is made of expanded polystyrene having B thickness. Said layers are connected with each other by means of polymeric rods having sharpened and engaging ends. The sharpened ends are located from the side touching decorative ends. The engaging rod ends are inserted in bearing layer. Polymeric rods include disc-shaped or crossed ribs. Building block is made as prism having trapezoid bases made as block ends. One of parallel prism sides has lesser area and is formed as outer decorative block layer side. Another parallel prism side having greater area is outer side of bearing block layer. Two non-parallel prism sides have equal areas and are created as upper and lower block bases. Said sides are inclined at angle of not more than 1° to outer side of bearing layer. Layer thicknesses are related as A:B:C=1:2.4:2.6. Laminated construction block production method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: improved building appearance, heat insulation and soundproofing, simplified structure, increased masonry strength and decreased construction costs.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly two-layer facing panels used for decorative civil and industrial building facing.
SUBSTANCE: facing building member comprises concrete monolithic body having facing layer of regular or irregular shape. Both layers are formed of semi-dry materials. Fine filler used for constructional layer is quartz sand and keramzite sand with gradation factor of 1.1-2.8. Coarse filler is milled keramzite gravel having particle dimensions of 5-10 mm. Facing layer includes Portland cement M500. said components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): constructional layer in semidry state: Portland cement 20-35, keramzite sand 5-37, quartz sand - 0-37, milled keramzite gravel - 5-45, remainder is water; facing layer in semidry state: Portland cement 15-30, sand 60-75, remainder is water. The second building member variant is also disclosed.
EFFECT: improved constructional and decorative properties, extended range of building members application due to creation of two building member variants, increased quality and service characteristics.
4 cl, 11 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly to product reinforced concrete articles, for instance floor slabs or framing structure panels for industrial and civil buildings, preferably for high-story ones.
SUBSTANCE: method for article production by serial layer pouring in retained form involves pouring the first fine concrete layer; leveling the mix in horizontal plane to provide the first layer surface flushing with the first bead of retained form; laying the first layer longitudinal reinforcement bars on the first bead; pouring heat-insulation layer of light-weight concrete in plane parallel to that of the first layer; leveling heat-insulation layer in horizontal plane so that heat-insulation layer surface is flush with the second retained form bead; laying the second layer longitudinal reinforcement bars on the second bead; pouring the second fine concrete layer on heat-insulation layer; leveling the mix in horizontal plane so that it is flush with retained form edge; performing simultaneous vibroforming of all layers and leaving the layers as they are for mix setting. During mix pouring retained form is put in rigid surface casing. To provide total concrete body air-tightness after mix leveling in horizontal plane and to provide mix flushing with upper retained form edge terminal retained form layer is laid in retained form. Form joints are sealed, for instance by welding, adhering, edge turning or any another well-known method.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation properties, increased article service life and reliability.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: glass wafer is used with surface area of more than 30 cm2. Set of coatings is created on wafer surface, at that set of coatings includes at least one dielectric film and at least one metallic layer. Wafer is kept in vacuumised chamber. Atmosphere is maintained that contains gas selected from group that consists of inertial gas, nitrogen, oxygen and their mixtures. Elongated cathode target is sprayed, at that it contains from 1 to 99 wt % of titanium and from 1 to 99 wt % of aluminium for application of titanium- and aluminium-containing protective coating on metallic layer for protection of metallic layer against oxidation or further heating of coated wafer.
EFFECT: coating possesses high corrosion resistance; low surface resistance and preset optical properties.
11 cl, 20 dwg, 10 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: bimetallic composition contains layer from material with effect of form memory and second layer from material with elastic properties. At that second layer is made of material, coefficient of volume expansion of which is less than the same coefficient of material with effect of form memory. Bimetallic element is made of specified composition.
EFFECT: increase of bimetal shape restoration extent at high deformation loads and exclusion of additional elastic counter-elements.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of substrate with layer of carbon-alloyed titania acting as photo-catalyst sensing visible light.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of heat treatment in order to provide temperature of surface of substrate having at least surface layer containing titanium, titanium alloy or titanium oxide in range 900 -1500°C. Heat treatment of substrate surface is realized by directing flame of burning gas including, mainly hydrocarbon directly on substrate surface or in atmosphere of gaseous combustion products of gas containing mainly hydrocarbon in order to form carbon-alloyed titania layer. Heat treatment of substrate surface may be realized in gaseous atmosphere containing mainly hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon with air or hydrocarbon with oxygen.
EFFECT: possibility for producing substrate with layer of carbon-alloyed titania characterized by increased useful time period, high hardness, resistance against scratching, improved wear resistance, chemical stability and thermal stability.
20 cl, 2 tbl, 9 dwg, 16 ex
FIELD: special-destination materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides multifunctional material with carbon-alloyed titanium oxide layer exhibiting activity of photocatalyst responding to visible light. Material has at least one surface layer including carbon-alloyed titanium oxide layer wherein carbon forms Ti-C bonds. From this material, visible light-responding photocatalyst can be prepared.
EFFECT: achieved excellent durability, high hardness, and resistance to abrasion, wear, chemicals, and heat.
19 cl, 9 dwg, 2 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods of formation of the micropatterns on the polymeric film surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: invention is pertaining to the field of production of the polymeric films with the micropattern on their surfaces, which may be used, for example, in the capacity of the reflecting components, the components for the optoelectronic devices and the information display systems. The technical problem of this invention consists in simplification of the method of formation of the micropattern on the polymeric films surfaces. The indicated result is attained due to the fact, that at formation of the micropattern on the polymeric films surfaces by action on the film containing at least on one of its sides the coating made out of the substance more rigid, than the polymer of the film. In the capacity of the film use the biaxially oriented film, and the action includes sequential fixation of the film dimension at least in one arbitrarily selected direction and the annealing of the fixed film in the temperature interval from the temperature of its biaxial orientation up to the polymeric film melting point. The method also provides, that after annealing conduct removal of the coating from the film surface.
EFFECT: invention ensures simplification of the method of formation of the micropattern on the polymeric films surfaces.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: insert comprises two metallic members that have different coefficients of thermal expansion, are provided with projections, and are welded. The projections of one of the members are made of a continuous grid of intersecting strips. The projections of the other member are the cells of the grid. The section of the projections is shaped into a trapezium. A thin metallic layer can be mounted over the contact surface.
EFFECT: enhanced strength.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technology for making labels.
SUBSTANCE: label consists of lower, middle and upper layers, adjacent to one another and limited by given contour. Lower layer of label, formed of magnetic vinyl, is connected to middle layer of label positioned above it, made of sheet material with a pattern applied to its external surface, on top of which upper layer of label is applied in form of transparent liquid two-component polymer. The label is conditioned during the polymerization process. Connection of middle and lower layers of label is realized due to engagement of upper surface of magnetic vinyl with adhesive cover applied on lower side of middle layer. Along the given contour of non-concave shape connected lower and middle layers of label are cut out, after that given dose of liquid two-component polymer is applied onto surface of label, positioned on flat horizontal ferromagnetic base.
EFFECT: preservation of label plane from deformation during polymerization and production of greater height of upper layer lens.
FIELD: construction, particularly building materials, namely landscaping articles, for instance figured paving stones and so on.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying rigid concrete mix in form to create main layer; performing vibration compacting thereof; placing rigid concrete mix over main layer to create decorative face layer; carrying out final vibration compacting thereof and curing the obtained article. Main layer consists of the following concrete mix (% by weight): cement - 13.1-13.2, gravel with 3-10 mm particle dimensions - 39.6-39.9, sand - 43.4-43.7, remainder is water. Prior compaction is carried out with 120-250 g/cm2 pressure for 0.5-5.0 c. Decorative face layer is created of rigid concrete mix including the following components (% by weight): cement 18.2-18.6, quartz or dolomite flour - 1.1-2.9, decorative filler - 71.0-75.8, remainder is water. The decorative filler is mixture including sand, serpentinite, decorative granite and marble having 0.9-7 mm particle dimensions or mixture including sand, amphibolite, serpentinite and marble having 0.9-7 mm particle dimensions or mixture comprising sand, amphibolite, granite and marble having 0.9-7 mm particle dimensions. Final compaction is performed under specific pressure of 110-140 g/cm2 for 3.0-12.0 c. After that the article is placed in curing chamber. Decorative face layer of hardened article is subjected to grit blasting or sand blasting. Double-layered building article produced by above method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: enhanced appearance of face article surface, improved natural stone simulation, increased strength and service life, improved stability to surface damage and salt precipitation, decreased water sorption, increased wear and frost resistance, decreased material consumption and costs due to minimized pigment usage.
14 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: metallurgy industry; methods of production of the superhard coatings.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of the superhard coatings. The product surface is pretreated in the vacuum chamber with the accelerated ions of argon with the energy up to 1000 eV and at the gas pressure of argon (2-6)·102 Pa. Then on the treated surface apply the underlayer on the basis of the metal selected from the group: titanium, chromium and zirconium. The underlayer is applied by means of the electric arc evaporator with separation of the plasma torrent by the magnetic field. Then apply the composite layer (metal-carbon) by the same method, as the previous layer. The diamond-like film is applied by means of the carbonic plasma generator at the pulse current of 3-5 kA at the discharge duration of 0.2-0.5 msec and the pause duration of no less than 10 msec. The diamond-like film is applied by the electric arc vacuum spraying of the graphitic cathode from the cathode spot generating the carbonic plasma at the pulse current of 3-5 кА, at the discharge duration of 0.2-0.5 msec and the pause duration of no less than 10 msec. Then form the protective underlayer of the matched atomic-molecular flows of carbon and the element from the group containing aluminum, titanium, silicon and zirconium, with the change of the mass % share from 0 up to 8; then apply the metallic layer. The technical result of the invention is development of the technology -of production of the superhard carbon-metal coating with the preset properties. At that the lower layer should have the high adhesion with the substrate material, the medium layer should have the high hardness, the increased -wear-resistance and the upper layer should have the good thermal conductivity and thermal stability.
EFFECT: the invention ensures development of the technology -of production of the superhard carbon-metal coating with the preset properties, its lower layer should have the high adhesion with the substrate material, the medium layer should have the high hardness, the increased -wear-resistance and the upper layer should have the good thermal conductivity and thermal stability.
6 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: manufacture of sound-absorbing materials for reduction of noise inside confined space; aviation and automobile industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed laminated sound-insulating material includes layer made from non-woven needle-piercing material impregnated with binder and layer of cellular structure. Layer of non-woven material is made from organic or carbon fibers. Aqueous dispersion on base of vinylidene chloride copolymer is used as binder. Layer of cellular structure is made in form of honeycomb panel on base of glass or aramide fabric impregnated with phenol formaldehyde resin. Proposed sound-absorbing material has high sound absorption coefficient within frequency range from 250 to 2000 Hz.
EFFECT: increased sound absorption coefficient.
5 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, fire-prevention protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns devices for prevention of fire or fire restraint, namely to fire-resistant curtains. The fire barrier (version 1) includes a cloth consisting of, at least, one layer of fire-resistant material, executed in the form of a curtain, lateral guide rails, mechanisms of compacting, a weighting compound fixed in the bottom part of a cloth and, at least, two supports, placed in the top part of guide rails. The fire barrier (version 2) includes two cloths, consisting of, at least, one layer of the fire-resistant material, executed in the form of a curtain, lateral guide rails, compacting mechanisms, weighting compounds fixed in the bottom part of cloths, at least, two supports, placed in the top part referring, and, at least, one stabiliser of backlash between cloth. The fire barrier (version 3) includes, at least, two cloths, consisting of, at least, one layer of the fire-resistant material, executed in the form of a curtain, lateral guide rails, compacting mechanisms, weighting compounds fixed in the bottom part of cloths, at least, two supports, and guide rails placed in the top part.
EFFECT: creation of effective fire barrier.
25 cl, 15 dwg