Hydro electric power station
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction of hydro electric power stations in areas with intensive water flow. Hydro electric station contains open distribution device, synchronous horizontal capsular hydro - turbinal generators placed into the intensive water flow, platform - foundation, vertical guiding - stands, pulling - and - running mechanism and process platform. Synchronous generators are joined , at least, into two vertical areal favus - capsular systems and are hung - up in pairs and moving over and/or under the water surface by means of pulling - and - running - mechanism towards the guiding stands. Lower ends of the guiding stands are fixed on the platform - foundation arranged on the bottom of the intensive water flow. Areal favus - capsular systems of synchronous generators are set moving in the guiding stands connected with the bottom by anchor - cable braces. Open distribution device is set on the guiding stands above the water surface. Such a construction of hydro electric power station decreases labor intensity of its building - up, of its maintenance and repair, and ensures continuous and steady regimen of its operation.
EFFECT: decreased labor intensity of construction, maintenance and repair works, providing continuous and steady operation of hydro electric power station.
The invention relates to a hydroelectric power plants (HPP), which converts the mechanical energy of water flow into electrical energy through hydraulic turbines, resulting in a rotation of the electric synchronous generators.
Known hydropower that converts the mechanical energy of water flow, accumulated by a Weir installed across the river. The energy of the accumulated water under pressure, determined by the level of the dam, is sent to the turbine, the rotating shaft of the synchronous generators, which provide at its output power to the required voltage. This hydroelectric power plant requires for its functioning complete large amount of excavation and construction works [Hydroelectric station. Edited by Gubin FF M.: Energy, 1980].
The disadvantage of this HPP is a large amount of construction and earthworks and the inability to pass water transport in both directions, and the resulting reservoir occupies a large area with a large coastline, requiring expensive care and maintenance.
Also known tidal hydroelectric power plant (TPP) [Hydropower plant (hydroelectric power plants, pumping stations and pumped storage plant). Edited by Oxalic DS. Leningrad, Energoatomizdat, 1981. P.40-41], which converts the energy of sea tidal and flows into electrical energy. Existing PES (1985) - in the estuary rrans in France and lip acid to the Barents sea in the Russian Federation.
PES contains outdoor switchgear, shipping gateway, the building of PES with synchronous generators bulb hydro turbine, an earthen dam, a separate abutment on the remaining part of the reef, spillway dam.
The construction of all these parts is very labor intensive, and the work of the PES due to the periodicity of the tides is intermittent, the power of such PES are of small size.
The objective of the invention is to reduce the complexity of the construction of hydroelectric power stations, ensuring continuity and unlimited increase in electrical power.
This task is achieved by the fact that hydroelectric power plant, comprising an open switchgear, generators, synchronous horizontal bulb turbine placed in the intensive flow of water entered the platform-base, a vertical rack-rails, lifting mechanism and the open distribution system, as specified synchronous generators combined in at least two vertical areal cell-capsule system and suspended in pairs and movable with tripping mechanism to the rack-rails above and below the water surface, the lower ends of these article is EC-guides mounted on the platform-base at the bottom of intensive water flow, areal cell-capsule system synchronous generators are installed movably in the guide associated with the bottom of the anchor-rope fastenings above the water surface on the guides installed outdoor switchgear. Such hydropower plants can be set arbitrarily many in the length, width, depth, which can be integrated into a power grid.
In the drawing given cross-section of the proposed hydroelectric.
Hydroelectric contains at least two installed on top of each other or next to each other in series and (or) parallel (horizontally and vertically) areal system 1, 2 capsule hydrogenerators [see, for example, GOST 5.219-72. The synchronous generator horizontal bulb turbine type SGK-538/160-70]. These capsule system of generators of flexible cables or chains 3, 4 are driven tripping mechanism 5 mounted on the top of the main bearing 6, its lower end driven through the base 7 in the setup hydroelectric power plants with intensive water flow. System capsule hydrogenerators movably installed between the support 6 and the supporting legs 8, 9. The main and auxiliary supports are provided with rods 10 with anchor fasteners 11 to the bottom of the reservoir on both sides of hydroelectric power plants On the water surface at the required height to the supports 6, 8, 9 fixed loading platform 12 with the necessary technological equipment open distribution device 13 for the normal functioning and maintenance of hydroelectric power.
Hydroelectric power plant operates as follows.
Select the place of installation of the hydroelectric power plants with intensive water flow. It may be a river, ocean or sea current. For example, ocean Gulf stream has a flow of more than 20 water flow of all the rivers of the globe, the flow velocity of the water flow up to 6-10 km/h, which is quite enough for normal work capsule hydrogenerators that allows you to create hydroelectric almost unlimited power.
The selected site is first installed base 7, is pressed into the bottom bearing-pile 6, are mounted the supporting rails 8, 9, is then made secure fastening to the bottom using a cable linkage anchors 10, 11 poles piles 6, 8, 9, built a technological platform 12, is set tripping mechanism 5 with cables-chains 3, 4, which in turn are fixed capsule generators of series 1 and 2. Set the necessary technological equipment open distribution device 13. To hydroelectric power is supplied cable or overhead power lines. Going by the wiring diagram of Hydra the generators and their alternate start when diving hydrogenerators 2 to the desired depth. When this synchronous generators 1 tripping mechanism 5 rise to the surface above the water level and performs the necessary periodic maintenance operations and their treatment. The latter is very important when installing a hydroelectric power plant in warm ocean waters
This implementation of hydropower has minimal complexity due to the lack of earthworks during the construction of dams and hydroelectric power due to the inclusion of an unlimited number of generators can be arbitrarily large, forming areal cell-modular system, the construction of a number of hydroelectric power station on the depth, length and (or) in several rows and simultaneously ensures a continuous (uniform) mode of operation.
When the dimensions of, for example, capsule hydrogenerator (diameter of 6.1 m length 15 m, the mass of 166 tons, the capacity is 19.9 MVA), you can create a capsule system 10×10=100 generators with dimensions of 100×100 m power of 2.0 MW, which is comparable with the most powerful hydroelectric power plants in the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk HPP - 6 GW, the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station is 6.5 GW). The construction of such proposed constructions HPP much cheaper and many times less costly than the construction of traditional hydroelectric dams on the rivers. The construction will be minimal, not comparable with years of traditional construction of a dam stations. At last the m data, the construction of a dam across the Yangtze river (China) at a cost of 25 billion US dollars. For the same amount it is possible to build more than a dozen proposed, in the case of construction on ocean currents, ocean HPP (ASPP).
Two sets of cassette generators 1, 2 is required for periodic maintenance, repair and periodic cleaning, especially when set in the warm currents of the oceans.
The construction of HPPs on the proposed design scheme does not require the construction of swimming pools, dams, buildings, hydro and does not require performing any excavation, which further reduces the time of their construction and during the construction requires minimum user input.
Hydroelectric power plant, comprising an open switchgear, generators, synchronous horizontal bulb turbine placed in the intensive flow of water, characterized in that the hydroelectric introduced platform-base, a vertical rack-rails, lifting mechanism and technology platform, and these synchronous generators are combined, at least two vertical areal cell-capsule system and suspended in pairs and is movable above and/or below the water surface using a tripping mechanism to the rack-rails, the lower ends of these rack-rails mounted on the platform-base installed on the bottom intenzivnog the water flow, areal cell-capsule system synchronous generators are installed movably in the guide associated with the bottom of the anchor-rope fastenings, and above the water surface on the guides installed outdoor switchgear.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic unit of borehole hydraulic power plant includes hydraulic turbine that is connected to electric generator, which are installed in borehole, electric cable that connects electric generator on the surface with electric converter. Hydraulic turbine is turbodrill, electric generator is electric drill, which are unitised and connected by means of common casing with slots. To bottom part of casing fixing unit is connected, which includes bottom-hole thrust block, fixing unit levers and thrust levers, the sliding elements of which are installed with the possibility of movement along bottom-hole thrust block cone, thus affecting fixing element levers, causing their divergence to borehole walls. Hydraulic unit is equipped with unloading device, for instance, jack that is connected with top end of boring column.
EFFECT: operable device for power generation by borehole hydraulic power plant and avoidance of expenses for development of borehole hydraulic unit.
FIELD: conversion of wind or water flow kinetic energy into electricity.
SUBSTANCE: proposed propeller that can be used as component part of small power installations, toys, entertainment means, educational rigs for schools and collages has shaft-mounted bushing with vanes and is provided with electrical energy generation facility in the form of sealed hollow housing with end and side walls accommodating fixed inductive ring and movable permanent-magnet component. Electrical energy generating facility can be disposed on bushing at vane opposing end, between opposite vanes, between bushing and vane, or within vane.
EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed complex sea power station is designed for producing energy using renewable sources. Station consists of deep water intake unit, energy complex, hydrogen sulfide removal bath, electrolysis bath, photolyzer, hydrogen receiver and fuel chemical element station. Moreover, it includes thermocoupled battery placed in bath for hydrogen sulfide removal to obtain primary electric energy owing to difference in temperatures of deep water and water heated in bath; power unit including diesel generators operating on hydrogen formed in photolyzer and electrolysis bath, galvanoelectric station using sea water as electrolyte and gas holder for accumulating received hydrogen and keeping it in reservoir arranged in underwater part; output electric energy and monitoring unit and unit to control operation of all systems of complex sea power station, signaling and communication for self-contained operation, and unit to stabilized complex sea power station in right sea.
EFFECT: provision of supply of consumers and reliable operation in rough sea.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is designed for generating electric energy using natural energy enclosed in high pressure formation. Proposed method includes placing of turbine in well to which high-pressure agent is delivered, and electric generator with cable. Turbine is installed in encased well between showing high-pressure formation and intake low-pressure formation. Turbine is connected by pipes with electric energy generator. Flow of agent from high-pressure formation into low-pressure formation and to surface is provided. Regulation of agent flow into annulus and tube space is provided by distributing valve arranged in lower part of assembly of turbogenerator and hole between housing of turbine and pipe connecting tube space with annulus.
EFFECT: provision of effective generation of electric energy using energy contained in high-pressure formations.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: construction; power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of pumped storage includes localisation of underground pumped storage, for example identification of depth and volume of water formations or natural or commercial underground pressure-tight vessels, underground vessel pumping with water by pressure well due to either pressure created while free-flow water running in well, or when water is pumped. The hydraulic power well, which is also a water conduit, is drilled to water drain for example to culvert or water removal or absorption area. Hydraulic power well is selected so that it could cross or link with underground hydraulic storage vessel above water drain. Water level in hydraulic power well is to be above water drain, for example culvert roof or water removal or absorption area. Hydraulic power well is drilled so that it could accommodate hydraulic power set below water level or provide for hydraulic power set installing in culvert with connection to well outlet. Electrical cable or pipeline for selected energy resource transporting is installed in hydraulic power well from hydraulic power set to energy consumer. Surface water may be used for storage. Surface water is occurred during freshet periods due to, for example pressure well connection with surface ponds. This connection of hydraulic storage vessel with water drain area may be terminated in the required periods using, for example extractable packer, installed in hydraulic power well below the point of underground hydraulic storage connection.
EFFECT: potential of using water from underground hydraulic storage to generate energy resources, thermal or electrical energy.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydropower engineering and can be used to support work of borehole hydropower plants, in particular, thermo water-supply wells and borehole hydroelectric stations. The method includes drilling a well until the zone of loss is reached; connecting a well with a surface reservoir providing the possibility of water control or/and with water-bearing intervals drilled by well, in its upper part, and with the zone of loss, in its lower part; installing either a hydropower plant or an imitator of its resistance, which corresponds to the typical operation of a hydropower plant, in the lower part of a well. For dynamic behavior of a well, the height of dynamic level in a well Hdl (m) is defined; the height of pressure level Hdp is calculated according to the following formula: Hdp (m) =Lhpp-Hdl, where Lhpp is the distance between the mouth of a well and the location of a hydropower plant inside a well, m. Thereafter, spinner survey of the area spread from the dynamic level to the location of a hydropower plant is carried out. The hydraulic horsepower of a flux in the place of a hydropower plant installation Nh is calculated according to the following formula: Nh=p·q·Hdp·Qhpp, where Nh is hydraulic horsepower of water flux inside a well in the place of a hydropower plant installation, W; Qhpp is water loss in the place of a hydropower plant installation, m3/s (from a diagram of spinner survey); p is water density, kg/m3; q is acceleration of gravity, m/s2.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of defining hydraulic horsepower of a flux inside a well under different mining hydro geological technical conditions; possibility to forecast and prove methods for improving formation of hydropower fluxes inside energy producing wells.
3 cl, 5 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: construction, water engineering.
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to hydrotechnical and hydraulic power construction. The facility contains a hydraulic unit attached to a flexible blanket, a flexible apron, and the bed using channel anchors, and a water-retaining shell attached to the hydraulic unit using a rigid mounting assembly, and to the onshore anchoring supports with a cable system. In the first version, the cable system is equipped with additional longitudinal and transversal cables for the shaping of the water-retaining shell providing the calculated vertical compression of the flow and minimum head loss. In the second version, flexible plates are installed at the approach to the hydraulic unit for the provision of gradual lateral compression of the flow; the plates are secured to the rigid mounting assembly, bed slopes, and the flexible apron using anchors with tighteners providing pretensioning of the longitudinal cables. For the water-retaining shell stability and elimination of its vibrations, the facility is equipped with transversal stiffeners following the contour of the calculated cross section of the water-retaining shell and attached, along the perimeter, to the bed anchors with stay cables, the water-retaining shell from the headwater side, and the hydraulic unit using the rigid mounting assembly; and longitudinal stiffeners attached to the flexible plates, longitudinal cables, transversal stiffeners, and the water-retaining shell using flexible connections. In the third version, with small spans and stable bank slopes, the cable system is equipped with additional longitudinal cables for the shaping of the water-retaining shell providing the calculated vertical compression of the flow and minimum head loss. In the fourth version, for better stability of the structure, better tension of the longitudinal cables, and quick construction, extendable arms are installed along the upper and lower edges of the water-retaining shell; the arm ends are connected to the flexible plates. In the fifth version, the water-retaining shell consists of flexible strips or shapes attached to an elastic web from two sides, through which longitudinal cables pass for giving the shell a fantail shape; the flexible strips are installed at an angle to the flow to ensure the calculated shape of the water-retaining shell. In the sixth version, the water-retaining shell is designed as a closed fillable shell taking the calculated shape when filled with water or other filler through filling devices, and is secured with one longitudinal cable passing along its top. For fish protection, some versions have fish passes in the water-retaining shell, while the other versions have fishways at the hydraulic unit edges. For the protection of the hydraulic unit and the additional attachment of the cable system, a protection screen is installed.
EFFECT: construction of temporary water utilisation system for local power supply, irrigation, water supply, fish farming, and fire protection.
6 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly intake structures to take water for economic needs.
SUBSTANCE: front-entrance river water intake comprises spillway dam and water intake with two or more parallel setting chambers and transversal water-accumulation gutter having bottom located over water surface during setting chamber flushing. Width of side setting chamber in plane view in stream direction gradually increases in accordance with the equation y=(2h/S2 ch)(x2/2), where h is assumed expansion in the end of side setting chamber, Sch -s length of side setting chamber. Side walls of transversal water-accumulation gutter may rotate about fixed axis by means of driving mechanism.
EFFECT: possibility to increase water cleaning efficiency due to transversal water-accumulation gutter wall rotation and possibility of water taking from upper, clean, layers inside setting chambers.
FIELD: water-power plants, layout, construction or equipment, methods of, or apparatus for, making same.
SUBSTANCE: water-power plant comprises hydraulic turbine installed at turbine pipeline outlet and provided with generator, receiving chamber, shutoff fittings and compression station communicated with receiving chamber through air channel comprising check valve. Turbine pipeline is connected with storage facility. Air channel is located over hydraulic turbine. One level sensor is arranged in receiving chamber, another one is installed in storage facility. Plant body is made as vertical cylindrical shell and cylinder installed in the shell and spaced apart therefrom. Cylindrical shell and cylinder define composite channel, which connects receiving chamber with storage facility. Upper cylinder part is bent through 90° for liquid discharge into storage facility. Upper cylinder end has two orifices, namely air bleeding one and filling orifice for storage facility filling. Magnets are arranged along end perimeter and along perimeter of upper part of inner cylindrical chamber side. Upper storage facility part is located inside upper cylinder part. Lower storage facility part is funnel-shaped and is connected with turbine pipeline in center thereof. Upper part of turbine pipeline passes in vertical cylindrical body for shutoff fitting receiving. Receiving chamber body is made as funnel expanding downwards and having edges connected with lower cylinder part. Upper funnel part is oval and receives turbine pipeline outlet, hydraulic turbine and generator. Turbine blades have magnets. The shutoff fitting is cap installed inside vertical cylindrical shell having liquid circulation orifices in lower part thereof. The cap is connected to electric drive rod. The liquid is ferrofluid.
EFFECT: decreased liquid volume used to generate electric power.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures for electric power generation and shore protection against storm.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system comprises load-bearing reinforced concrete structure shaped as support cellular boom and floating means made as landing-stage provided with generator and turbines installed on the landing-stage. Support cellular boom and floating means are connected with each other by means of guiding structure of composite material placed in metal case formed as ramp. Landing-stage is shaped as three-dimensional structure of composite material, namely as triangular or polyhedral prism, which defines closed space with opened cavities communicated with each other and used as pneumatic generators. The landing-stage is connected to guiding ramp by means of hinges spaced apart in vertical direction and creating rigidity triangle. The ramp is fastened to load-bearing structure by means of rigid tie. Generator turbines are communicated with opened landing-stage cavity through inlet and outlet air ducts. Boom cells are hollow and adapted to be filled with water ballast. The cells are supported and unsupported and connected with each other by means of reinforced concrete panel.
EFFECT: possibility of wave usage for electric power generation along with shore protection, possibility to use the system as artificial island, for instance for seaside recreation and entertainment.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydroelectric power station is designed for power generation using energy of flow spring or river. Proposed hydroelectric power station includes diversion dam, diversion cone, head, conduit, action turbine, current generator with drive. Diversion cone is made only in horizontal plane, input of bottom spillway and input of diversion cone are arranged in one plane and heat room is installed over them on top of dam, whose wall pointed to side of water storage is arranged before dam, and its lower edge is deepened to value of freezing of water storage. Action turbine is made in form of disk with volute buckets. Each nozzle of head conduit is made in for, of cone connected with gate of head conduit trough intermediate link of conduit. Additional dc generator is used as braking system to stabilize speed of action turbine. Shaft of said generator is coupled with shaft of main generator, and current from three-phase circuit of main generator is supplied to field winding of additional generator through diode bridge. Moreover, rheostat is used in field winding control circuit of main generator controlled by centrifugal pusher, for instance, of Watt system whose shaft is also coupled with shaft of main generator.
EFFECT: increased power output and provision of constant frequency of current.
FIELD: hydroenergetics, particularly water-power plants, namely pumped-storage plants, which generate power in on-peak period.
SUBSTANCE: pumped-storage station comprises upper and lower accumulation pools connected with each other by means of pressure waterway, hydroelectric generators and supplementary equipment. Upper accumulation pool is arranged in completed breakage heading of upper horizon adjoining shaft or in waste dump formed on ground surface during deposit development. Lower accumulation pool is located in completed breakage heading of lower horizon adjoining the shaft. Each accumulation pool located in completed breakage heading is made as breakage headings communicated with each other through cross headings passing through barrier pillars in upper and lower parts thereof. The breakage headings are separated from active mines with water-tight partitions and connected with atmosphere through inclined cross-headings extending from the shaft. Hydroelectric generators are installed in headings made at shaft bottom in lower horizon. Pressure waterway is arranged in shaft.
EFFECT: decreased costs for pumped-storage plant erection.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for automatic cleaning of water exploited from opened water pools of rubbish and filamentous alga.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises cylindrical drum with perforated shell. The cylindrical drum is linked to inlet pipe of pump and is arranged in water intake chamber so that the drum may be rotated by drive. The device also has rubbish removal means made as spring-loaded cutter. The cutter has blade cooperating with the shell. The device also has rubbish removal means and perforated flushing pipeline. The cylindrical drum with perforated shell is partly submersed in water intake chamber and arranged on inlet pipe across water flow so that the drum may rotate around the inlet pipe by means of drive operated by control unit of the device. Perforated drum shell is provided with concave non-perforated surface, which defines rubbish removal tray installed along longitudinal axis of filter. Perforated flushing pipeline arranged in the drum has jet-forming flutes, which create flushing water cone from inner side of perforated shell in front of cutter, which is located on perforated shell part not submersed in water intake chamber. Perforated flushing pipeline is hydraulically communicated with pressure pipeline by means of hydraulic line arranged in inlet pipe. The hydraulic line passes into the inlet pipe on ground surface and projects from the inlet pipeline inside cylindrical drum chamber. Washing-out perforated pipeline with jet-forming flutes is arranged on outer side of cylindrical drum. The jet-forming flutes of the washing-out pipeline create flushing stream to wash away rubbish from rubbish removal tray. Flushing and washing-out pipelines are provided with pipeline operation control sensors. Flushing pipeline sensor is linked to water level sensor, which determines water level in water intake chamber and in cylindrical drum and operates cylindrical drum drive through control unit. Washing-out pipeline sensor is connected to position sensor of cylindrical drum through the control unit. The position sensor is made as magnetically operated sealed switch installed in inlet pipe and cooperating with magnet secured to rubbish removal tray end facing inlet pipe. The inlet pipe is provided with water intake bell. Time relay is included in magnetically operated sealed switch and control unit circuit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced costs of water cleaning.
FIELD: hydraulic and hydraulic power building, particularly to erect water-retaining structure, for instance to erect small-scale emergency mobile hydraulic power plants, which use flow kinematic energy.
SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron in water stream channel, wherein the flexible apron comprises flexible upstream apron and flexible downstream apron; fastening apron to water stream channel bed by anchors; connecting water-discharge means provided with hydroelectric generating set installed in water-discharge means to flexible downstream apron; securing water-retaining shell along with rope system fastened to anchor supports to water-discharge means, wherein water-retaining shell is attached to anchors by flexible stay system.
EFFECT: increased reliability of protection against emergency situations, reduced costs and labor inputs for structure erection.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg